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THE CHRONICLE 
OF NOVGOROD 

lo 1 6- 1 471 



THE CHRONICLE 
OF NOVGOROD 

1016-1471 



TRANSLATED FROM THE RUSSIAN 
B Y 

ROBERT MICHELL 

A N D 

NEVILL FORBES, Ph.D. 

Reader in Russian in the University of Oxford 
WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY 

C. RAYMOND BEAZLEY, D.Litt, 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham 
AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE TEXT BY 

A. A. SHAKHMATOV 

Professor in the University of St. Petersburg 

CAMDEN THIRD SERIES 
VOL. XXV 



LONDON 
OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY 

6 £f 7 SOUTH SQUARE 

gray's inn, W.C. 

I914 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 





PAGE 


General Introduction (and Notes to Introduction) 


. vii-xxxvi 


Account of the Text 


xxxvii-xli 


Lists of Titles, Technical terms, etc. . 


xlii-xliii 


The Chronicle 


. 1-220 


Appendix 


221 


Note on the Bibliography 


. 223-4 


Index 


225-37 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

I. THE REPUBLIC OF NOVGOROD 

" Lord Novgorod the Great," Gospodin Velikii Novgorod, as it once 
called itself, is the starting-point of Russian history. It is also 
without a rival among the Russian city-states of the Middle Ages. 
Kiev and Moscow are greater in political importance, especially in 
the earliest and latest mediaeval times — before the Second Crusade 
and after the fall of Constantinople — but no Russian town of any 
age has the same individuality and self-sufficiency, the same sturdy 
republican independence, activity, and success. 

Who can stand against God and the Great Novgorod ? — Kto protiv 
Boga i Velikago Novgoroda ? — was the famous proverbial expression 
of this self-sufficiency and success. 

From the beginning of the Crusading Age to the fall of the 
Byzantine Empire Novgorod is unique among Russian cities, not 
only for its population, its commerce, and its citizen army (assuring 
it almost complete freedom from external domination even in the 
Mongol Age), but also as controlling an empire, or sphere of influence, 
extending over the far North from Lapland to the Urals and the Ob. 
The modern provinces of Novgorod, Olonets, and Archangel, with 
portions of Vologda, Perm, and Tobolsk, represent this empire.^ 

The great Novgorod of the Middle Ages, the quiet, decayed cathe- 
dral town of to-day, lies on both sides of the deep and broad Vol- 
khov, on its way from Lake Ilmen to Ladoga and the Baltic. Here 
we are about one hundred miles south-east of St. Petersburg. 

As in the Middle Ages, the Side or Quarter of St. Sophia still lies 
on the left of the Volkhov, the Commercial Side on the right. The 
eleventh-century cathedral of the Holy Wisdom, " Saint Sophia," 
is still one of the historical monuments of Russia, while the walls of 
the KremHn of Novgorod show how slender was the fourteenth- 
century Russian skill in fortification. ^ 

But the mighty turbulent Republic is no more. The modern 
town, of some 26,000 people, has little more than a tenth, perhaps, 
of its old numbers, when to Ghillibert de Lannoy, coming from the 
Low Countries in 1413, it appeared " of prodigious greatness. "^ 
The Hanseatic Market is a memory. The ancient earthern ramparts 
are in ruins, and of their stone towers only one, The White, still 
stands on the south of the city. Quite as ruinous is the Tower of 
Yaroslav, overlooking that Court of Yaroslav, which was once the 



viii THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

favourite meeting-place of the popular assemblies. The great bell 
which summoned the citizens to these assemblies, or to riot, hangs 
there no longer. More than from Florence or from Ghent has the 
old Hfe departed, which made Novgorod a Slavonic counterpart of 
the city-states of Italy or of Flanders.* 

Novgorod, in the days of its power, is in name an elective Princi- 
pality, in fact something like a democratic Republic. The Veche, or 
General Assembly of the citizens, is the ultimate and irresistible 
authority, though its ordinary activities are of course limited by 
other forces, ecclesiastical, commercial, aristocratic, and princely. 

(i) The power of these Electoral Knyazes or Princes rests mainly on 
their own personality, and their capacity of maintaining popularity 
and organizing support. In modern language, Novgorod is largely 
governed by the party system. While the Prince can command a 
majority, or at least avoid open defeat, he is secure, except against 
surprise : as soon as his party is the weaker, the result is inevitable. 
In the language of the Chronicle, they " show him the way out." 

From the earliest times the citizens are noted for their " free 
spirit." At the beginning of Russian history we have their tradi- 
tional revolt against the very Rurik they had just called in to found 
the new Slav-Scandinavian people of Rus — " Our Land is great, 
but there is no Order or Justice in it; come and . . . rule over us." 
A century later, Svyatoslav proposes to govern Novgorod by ordi- 
nary officials, but the city insists on a son of the Grand Prince. 
" We know how to find another Knyaz." The menace is heeded 
(964-72). 

Yaroslav the Lawgiver (1016-54), one of the real statesmen of 
' Russian history, fully recognizes the power and value of Novgorod. 
Above all his other favours, tradition singles out the Charters or 
Privileges granted by him to the city — a Russian parallel to the 
" Good Laws of Edward the Confessor," or the German Town 
Charters of Charles the Great. ^ 

As the old Russian Federation, under the Grand Princes of Kiev, 
falls to pieces in the twelfth century, Novgorod republicanism de- 
velops. The sovereignty is treated as purely elective, and depo- 
sition becomes well-nigh parallel to election. A prince installed one 
year may be " shown out " the next. 

Thus in 1136 (taking examples only from the time of Stephen 
and Henry II of England) the men of Novgorod seize and imprison 
Prince Vsyevolod in the Archbishop's palace " with his wife and 
children, and his mother-in-law," and finally expel him. 



INTRODUCTION ix 

The next prince reigns less than a year ; his successor is driven out 
after "twenty-one months." In 1141 the city "sat without a 
prince " nine months, and the man next chosen is put in the Arch- 
bishop's Palace and " let go " after a few weeks. 

Again in 1154 Novgorod turns out its prince, and " fetches in " 
another, who soon goes to reign at Kiev, leaving his son David in 
his place. David is " shown the road " before the close of this same 
year (1154). 

In 1157 David's successor, despite the support of the Commercial 
Quarter, has to fly under cover of night. The prince next appointed 
(in 1158) is shown the way to Ladoga in 1160 — only to be restored, 
" with his full liberty," after " a year less than a week," when his 
rival and supplanter is " fetched away." And in this way examples 
might be tenfold multiplied.' 

There is another side to the picture. In the changeful line of 
Novgorod princes, we meet sometimes with men who rule. Yaro- 
slav the Lawgiver, in the eleventh century, is such a sovereign; 
Alexander Nevsky, in the thirteenth, is another. From 1240, 
when he gains his " eponymous " triumph upon the Neva, till his 
death in 1263, Alexander dominates Novgorod. He even makes 
the Republic diplomatic. After the intoxicating victories of the 
Neva over the Swedes (1240), and of Lake Chudskoe over the Ger- 
man Knights (1242), it was hard to submit to the Mongol tax- 
gatherer (as in 1259). But Alexander realizes that to defy the 
Horde is to complete the desolation of Russia. The hero of Nov- 
gorod at last persuades her of the humiliating truth. He rides out 
with the Mongol emissaries, whom he had guarded day and night 
from mob violence, and under his protection " the accursed ones " 
go " through the streets, writing down the houses of the Christians." 
To save the Russian remnant, Alexander journeys repeatedly to the 
Western Tartar army (or Golden Horde) upon the Volga — once 
at least to the Great Khan in Mongolia (1246-50). Death overtakes 
him on his way home from the Golden Horde in 1263. The news 
reaches Novgorod as the Eucharist is finishing; turning to the people. 
Archbishop Cyril tells the disaster — " The sun of the Russian land 
has set, my children." " Grant, Merciful Lord," exclaims the 
Chronicler, " that he may see Thy Face in the age to come, for he 
has laboured for Novgorod, and for the whole Russian land."' 

Yet even this hero of the North, fresh from the victory of the 
Neva, has for a time to leave Novgorod, " with his mother and his 
wife . . . having quarrelled " with the citizens. Better thoughts 



X THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

come with reflection. At the beginning of the next year Alex- 
ander is recalled (1241).^ 

As time goes on, and Eastern and Western Christendom see the 
growth of more powerful monarchical states, the Novgorod princedom 
further declines, and at last we find the citizens doubting only whether 
to become frankly Muscovite or disloyally Polish (1471).* 

(ii) The crisis of 1471, ended by the victory of Moscow, brings into 
relief the second person in the temporal polity of the Republic — in 
" the accursed " Posadnitsa Martha, wife of the Posadnik, Gover- 
nor, or Burgomaster Simon Boretsky. This remarkable woman, a 
Russian parallel to Elizabeth of England, Catherine de Medici, and 
the rest of the brilliant female offspring of the Classical Renaissance, 
almost succeeds in detaching Novgorod from Russia and the 
Eastern Church, and is therefore not greatly flattered by the 
Chronicle of the city, in a last section thoroughly pervaded by 
Muscovite influence. The hatred of her opponents shows the 
influence which one Posadnik at least is able to exercise. But 
usually the Posadniks, like the princes, are creatures of the popular 
will. They are set up and cast down almost as frequently, and their 
fate is harder. Deposed princes are " shown the road," but deposed 
or unpopular governors are often killed. Thus in 1134, 1146, 1156, 
1161, 1171. 1172, 1175, 1189, 1205, 1219, we hear, within one cen- 
tury only, of Posadniks expelled or restored; in 1167 and 1209 of 
Posadniks executed or proscribed.^" 

The Posadnik riots of 1209 give us a vivid picture of the city in 
uproar. " The men of Novgorod held a Veche over Posadnik 
Dmitri and his brethren . . . And they went to plunder their courts 
[houses] and set fire to . . . [them], seizing their effects, and seUing 
their villages and servants . . . taking of their treasures a countless 
quantity." Later Dmitri is brought in dead, and Novgorod would 
have thrown the body from the bridge, " but the archbishop forbade." 
" And they kissed the Cross that they would not keep Dmitri's 
children " in the city.^^ 

Strong governors perhaps appear more often than strong princes. 
And such governors play a leading part in home and foreign politics, 
asinll35, 1214, 1215, 1264.12 

At times, as in 1218, the Novgorod Democracy keeps a Posadnik 
in office, in defiance of the Prince. " He is blameless, and we will 
not give in to this." Yet next year the fickle monster may displace 
its favourite, only to replace him the same winter.'* 



INTRODUCTION xi 

(iii) As everywhere in Old Russia, the Church in Novgorod is of the 
first importance. Vast as is the sphere of the Latin Church in 
Western history, the Greek Church in Russia is only less pro- 
minent because of the absence of Papalism, of religious war, and 
(in comparison) of ecclesiastical encroachment. 

As early as 1034 Nestor mentions one of the Vladykas or 
Archbishops, whose succession is so carefully recorded, and in 1045 
the historic Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom, the Hagia Sophia or 
Sophiisky Sobor of Novgorod, is built by Yaroslav the Lawgiver and 
his son Vladimir.^* 

St. Sophia becomes the symbol of the freedom, prosperity, and 
power of the city. " Where St. Sophia is, there is Novgorod," 
exclaims Prince Mstislav in 1215. " Come to your patrimony, to 
St. Sophia," the citizens beseech Prince Yaroslav. " With the aid 
of St. Sophia," Novgorod conquers in battle. Sooner than submit 
to the Mongol census (in 1259) the people resolve to " die honourably 
for St. Sophia." " I bow down to St. Sophia, and to the men of 
Novgorod," says Mstislav, when negotiating for his installation as 
prince (in 1210). " I make my greeting to St. Sophia . . . and to 
you: God grant I may lie by my father in St. Sophia " — is the fare- 
well of the same prince to Novgorod. ^-^ 

An accused Archbishop who has been exiled rights himself 
" through God and St. Sophia." " The Devil crushed by God and 
St. Sophia," is the Chronicler's exclamation, at the end of a riot, 
when " brethren come together . . . and kiss the Cross. "^^ 

T he Novg orod Chronicje, a work of ecclesiastics, abounds in refer- 
ences to churcfTfnatters. Almost every other year we read of the 
consecration or adornment of a church or monastery, " a refuge for 
Christians, a joy to Angels, and ruin to the Devil." Often it is St. 
Sophia itself, Novgorod's Westminster, which is repaired or beauti- 
fied, or which becomes the burial place of another prince.^' 

These ecclesiastical notes constantl}^ throw light upon political 
and social conditions. From some we learn of a Varangian or Scan- 
dinavian Church; from others, of a merchant's daughter becoming 
an abbess; from others, of the Archbishop's palace used as a prison 
for deposed princes or other great offenders; from others, again, of 
the Vladykas influence in heading embassies, stopping riots, recon- 
ciling parties, and allaying popular fury.^^ 

The Archbishops, usually chosen by the Prince and citizens — 



xii THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

but needing confirmation by the " Metropolitan of all Russia " at 
Kiev, Vladimir, or Moscow — ultimately depend on popular favour. 
Thus in 1211 Mitrofan is exiled, "bearing this gladly, Hke John 
Chrysostom," and after eight years is recalled by the same popular 
voice (1219). 19 

Monasticism, which began in the Eastern Church, and has always 
played so great a part in Russia, is strong at Novgorod. Many a 
time it is recorded how a Bishop, Igumen, prince, or rich man, 
founds a monastery — " a refuge for Christians and a delight to the 
faithful":-" like the "Bishop's Court," the Russian monasteries 
serve at times as guard-houses for prisoners of state. ^i 

As in the West, so in the East. The greatest soldiers and states- 
men may take refuge in the cloister. Alexander Nevsky himself, 
when he feels his mortal illness, is " shorn " as a monk (Nov. 14, 
1263). 

And abundant are the examples of prominent ecclesiastics of the 
Republic being " shorn into " (or " for ") the schema, " choosing 
to lead a life of silence. "^^ 

(iv) " Mediaeval society (many still believe) included only soldiers, 
churchmen, and peasants." Mediaeval Russia; and especially 
Novgorod, gives as much help against this superstition as any 
Westernland. 

The burgess, the responsible citizen, who possesses a stake in the 
Republic, and who deliberates, votes, and fights for its freedom and 
greatness, is constantly in evidence. 

But beyond the ordinary business and business man of the 
average prosperous mediaeval town, the merchant and his trade 
play an exceptional part in Novgorod. For here was one of the 
four capital factories of the Hanseatic League in non-German 
lands. 

Before, or during, the time of Frederic Barbarossa, foreign traders 
are noticed at Novgorod (1142); Bremen merchants appear 
in Livonia (1157); and direct commerce between Cologne and 
Russia is recorded (1165). The agreement concluded at the close 
of the Crusading Age (1269) between Novgorod, Liibeck, and Goth- 
land, shows that the Nemtsy had long possessed a regular com- 
mercial status on the Volkhov. And the famous Skra or code of the 
Nemetski factory here goes back to the early thirteenth century 
(1225).23 

Half the town is known, we have seen, as the Commercial Side.^^ 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

Here the foreign traders had their quarters, their guildhall, their 
church (of St. Peter), their shops, stores, and dwelling-houses. 
This Court of the Nemtsy, or Court of St. Peter, was built, like the 
Hansa settlements in Bergen and London, for defence as well as for 
trade, and was closed and guarded at night. At its head was a 
Council of Aldermen, with a President, the " (Chief) Alderman of St. 
Peter's Court." Common Rooms (very unlike those of Oxford) were 
maintained for all the Hanseatics, " summer and winter travellers " 
alike — both the privileged seafarers, and the landsmen who, as 
enjoying an easier life, had fewer privileges in the factory. The 
junior clerks and apprentices had plenty of freedom in the " chil- 
dren's room." 

The Nemtsy of St. Peter's Court had their own brewery, bees, 
and forests. Their organization was largely governed by the 
sound principles of keeping their good things to themselves, and 
guarding against fraud by their customers, as well as against the 
intrusion of non-Hanseatics into the Russian trade. -^ 

In the early days of this factory, the annual profits are stored 
at St. Mary's Church in Visby — another indication of Gothland 
influence. The original authors of the Skra are probably Gothland 
merchants, and the Novgorod " court of the Nemtsy " is perhaps 
at first a dependency of Visby. But in the fourteenth century 
the Gothland domination is first rivalled, then replaced, by that of 
Liibeck. Thus from 1346 the Hanseatic President in Novgorod is 
chosen, by representatives of the Hanse towns, from among Liibeck 
and Visby merchants.^^ 

The growth of Hanse trade in Russia, during the Mongol Age 
(1220-1460), is not only due to the business ability of the German 
merchants. It is aided by the disasters (and consequent dependence) 
of the Russian people at this time — by Tartar, Lithuanian, and 
especially Teutonic, conquest. 

Except in Flanders, no field of non-German trade gives so wide a 
Hanseatic picture, shows so many Hanse centres engaged in the local 
commerce. Merchants of Brunswick, Dortmund, Duisburg, Mag- 
deburg, Munster, and pettier towns appear in Russia, especially 
in Novgorod, often travelling by the dangerous overland routes. 
And even mediaeval Russians sometimes venture far overland in 
search of customers.^' 

The Annals of Novgorod abound in notices of trade. Already in 



xiv THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

the twelfth century (as in 1137, 1141-2, 1195) the mercantile interest 
makes itself felt in war and politics. ^^ 

Commercialism further develops in the thirteenth century, when 
we hear of extortions from merchants, in 1209; of merchants sent, 
with the Posadnik, to call in a new prince, in 1215; of merchants 
plundered by this new ruler in the same year; of gallant tradesmen 
(kettlemakers, clockmakers, silversmiths) killed in battle (in 1216, 
1234, and later years) ; and of terrible fires on the Commercial Side, 
with destruction of Varangian and Nemelski merchandise, in the 
Varangian church, or in Varangian Street (in 1217 or 1299).-^ 

In the fourteenth century commercial matters, and especially 

*^ interference with trade, are among the prominent causes of quarrel 

between Novgorod and Sweden, the Teutonic Order, and Moscow.^" 

Lastly, in the fifteenth century, foreign values and coined money 
are introduced into Novgorod traffic, and the old tokens super- 
seded. Thus in 1410 " the men of Novgorod began to trade in 
Nemetski artugs and Lithuanian groshes . . . doing away with skin- 
tokens," and in 1420 they " began to deal in silver coin," and sold 
the Nemtsy their artugs again. ^^ 

(v) Everyrank, po wer, and interest ia JJJovgorQd rests upoiLthe 
sovereign^eople. As no dynasty can establish itself permanently, 
still less any aristocracy of western type, the Republic preserves 
with peculiar purity the ancient democratic ideas and institutions. 
Down to the Muscovite conquest,.' the city is more powerful than 
any of its lords, officials, or classes. ^^ The great popular assembly, 
comparable to that of Athens in power, is supremely characteristic 
■^vof Novgorod among Russian states. The Veche invites a new 
prince, and arraigns, imprisons, or expels him when it pleases. ^^ It 
elects and deposes Posadniks and the lesser officers of state.^^ Within 
the limits of the sacred lot, and of Orthodox feehng, it elects, as it 
can depose, the Vladykas or Archbishops.^^ It decides peace and 
war, and punishes criminals. A bad character, or unpopular per- 
sonage, may be hurled from the Great Bridge — or otherwise put out 
of the way — at the conclusion of a Veche.^^ 

Like the Polish Diets, the Novgorod Veches nominally respect 
the primitive Slavonic principle of necessary unanimity. But 
there is no real liberum veto on the Volkhov. Minorities in Novgorod 
are bludgeoned, ducked, drowned, " put to the edge of the sword," 
or expelled from the city. Prince or Posadnik — or any respectable 



INTRODUCTION xv 

party among the nobles or commons — -can legally or practically 
summon the Veche, which usually meets either " at " (i.e. outside) 
St. Sophia, or in the Court of Yaroslav on the Commercial Side. 
Sometimes rival parties call rival Veches, which finish with a 
conference upon the Great Bridge, or with fighting.^'' Matters of 
religion and morality are an important part of the work of the 
Veche, which banned pagan superstitions, punished the black art, 
designated the favoured few from whom a new archbishop might 
be chosen, or deposed an unpopular prelate. ^^ 

II. THE EMPIRE OF NOVGOROD. 

On any general view of European history, there are few incidents 
more suggestive than the territorial expansion of Russia — the 
eastern vanguard of western civilization. However we may criticize 
the Russian people, it is certainly the pioneer and representative of 
Christendom in the north-east of Europe and in the north of Asia. 
And nowhere in the Old World has the dominion of the higher races 
been so widened as in the lands from the Black Sea to the White, 
and from the Baltic to the Sea of Japan, which have been gradually 
v" conquered and colonized by the Slavonic-Scandinavian Rus. 

The primitive Russian homeland did not include more than a 
fraction (mainly in the West-Central zone) of the present Russia-in- 
Europe. It was the political, mercantile, and adventuring ambition 
of Russian states, traders, and freebooters, which gave so noteworthy 
an extension to the Russian name. 

The first discovery of those two Siberias — European and Asiatic — ■ 
which lay north and north-east of the primitive Russians, as far as 
the Polar Ocean and Tobolsk province, was the work of Novgorod. 
Probably about the time of the First Crusade (1096), and certainly 
before the Second (1147), the Republic had already come into touch 
with the country just beyond the Ural Mountains. 

Long ere this, perhaps as early as the age of Cnut (1000-30), 
the Novgorod pioneers had penetrated to Lapland, the White Sea, 
and even the Urals. One of the North Ural passes most likely 
corresponds to those Iron Gates where the men of Novgorod suffered 
disaster in 1032 — " Few returned, but many perished there. "'^ 

In 1079 we have the earhest reference of the Novgorod Annals 
themselves to these distant regions: " They killed Prince Gleb 
beyond the Volok " (in the Northern Dvina country) " on the 30th of 
May."^o /) 



xvi THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD' 

The time of Henry I of England shows Novgorod communicating 
with the Asiatic lands beyond the dividing range. Speaking of a 
year which apparently answers to a.d. 1112, the Fundamental 
Chronicle, usually known as Nestor's, tells how one Guryata 
Rogovishch of Novgorod sent his servant to the Pechora, how the 
Pechora folk then paid tribute to Novgrad, and how from the 
Pechora the messenger went on to Yugra. We may doubt the 
Yugrian report of a mysterious people enclosed in lofty mountains 
by the sea, vainly struggling to break out, and accessible only by 
an opening through which they screeched their unknown lingo, 
thrust out an iron finger, and bartered furs for iron. But we need 
not doubt the historical statement which introduces this legend, 
or see in Nestor's Yugra anything very different from the Yugra 
of later time — the north-west corner of Asia, and especially the 
valley of the Lower Ob.*^ 

Now this Siberian connexion is not a passing incident, like the 
early Russian dominion on the Azov or in the Crimea, or the early 
Russian raids towards and beyond the Caucasus. On the contrary, 
it appears fairly persistent throughout the central and later Middle 
Ages ; when Novgorod is displaced by Moscow, the Muscovite power 
continues and develops the Russian overlordship in Yugra. 

A tribute-gathering expedition in 1169 shows Novgorod active 
in the Trans-Volok or Northern Dvina basin, and may have been 
concerned with pa5'ments as far as Asia; and the foundation of 
Vyatka in 1174 carries permanent Novgorod settlement far nearer 
to Siberia, along a more southerly track. But in 1187, on the eve of 
the Third Crusade, Yugra appears tragically ; both here and in lands 
west of Ural the natives rise and massacre their Russian masters or 
customers. The punitive expedition of 1193-4 ends in disaster. *2 

How and when intercourse with Asiatic Siberia is resumed we 
are not told; but this resumption possibly took place before the end 
of the Crusading Age, for in the agreement of 1264 between Novgorod 
and Prince Yaroslav, Yugra, like Perm and the Pechora, appears 
among the domains or " claims " of the Republic. ^^ Sixty years later, 
in 1323 and 1329, Novgorod complains of outrages on its citizens 
travelling to Yugra.** These outrages were often the work of Russian 
enemies (as at Ustyug) in the Northern Dvina basin, planted on the 
flank of the north-east trade-route from Novgorod, and a constant 
danger to its commerce. Again, the demand of Moscow, in 1332-3, 
for " tribute in silver " for the lands beyond the Kama — 
the first sign of coming Muscovite overlordship — probably has a 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

special reference to the rrmes Novgorod had long exploited in the 
Northern Ural.^* 

Lastly, in 1445, within a generation of the ruin of the Republic, 
we hear of a last vigorous effort to assert Novgorod rule in Yugra. 
Again the Chronicle tells of initial successes; then, as before, victory 
ends in ruinous defeat.'** 

In 1471 Moscow crushes Novgorod, and takes over the Novgoro- 
dian empire. But even before this, the founder of the Moscow Tsar- 
dom, Ivan the Great, on his way to the subjugation of Novgorod, 
begins the conquest of the Asiatic Siberia with which Novgorod had 
dealt so long.*' 

To the connexions between Novgorod and her less remote pro- 
vinces there are fuller references. We have noticed the death of 
Prince Gleb in 1079, the tribute-gathering expedition of 1169 
in the Trans- Volok, the foundation of Vyatka in 1174, and the 
Muscovite demand for " silver-payment " on the Trans-Kama lands 
in 1332-3. The Northern Dvina, the most valuable region 
beyond the Volok, appears more definitely in 1337, when Ivan Kalita 
attacks it to enforce his Trans-Kama silver "^laims, and is " brought 
to shame there "; in 1340, when Novgorod warriors raid Ustyug; 
in 1342, when rebel adventurers conquer all the Trans- Volok; in 
1355-9, when Ivan II of Moscow corresponds with the Dvina 
Governor and notables; in 1366, when Novgorodians " coming from 
the Dvina " are seized by Muscovite forces; and in 1393, when 
Moscow compels Novgorod to yield to the Metropolitan.'*^ 

Ivan Kalita had first turned Muscovite policy towards the Arctic 
Dvina; besides its wealth in furs and timber, he aimed at winning 
an outlet to the ocean. *^ Some seventy years later, his schemes are 
momentarily realized. In 1397 all the Dvina people are seduced 
from Novgorod, and " kiss the cross " to Moscow. The Grand 
Prince issues ordinances for his new subjects (in 1398-9), which 
are the earliest Muscovite laws known, and the first Russian laws 
preserved since Yaroslav (1016-54). ^o Yet in 1411, 1417, 1419, 
1445, we find Novgorod again in possession of most of Siberia-in- 
Europe.^* 

But finally the overmastering power of Moscow, which in 1452 
chases an enemy through the Dvina lands, and in 1458-9 conquers 
Vyatka, achieves under Ivan the Great the complete destruction 
of Novgorod power on the Dvina, as elsewhere (1471).^^ 

Later Russian progress in the Kama and Pechora regions is 

62 



xviii THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

specially connected with the Russian Church. About 1376 the monk 
Stephen, afterwards canonized as the apostle of Perm (" Stephan 
Permsky "), founds the earliest church in the Upper Kama. It was 
a venture of some risk, for a former missionary in this country had 
been flayed by the natives, " while they were yet but infants in the 
Faith. "^^ Yet before his death in 1396 Stephen had overthrown the 
local idolatry of the Golden Old Woman, stopped the sacrifice of 
reindeer, secured the triumph of Christianity, and founded Musco- 
vite influence in a region whence, two centuries later, Moscow over- 
runs the Siberian Khanate.^'* Under Stephen's successors the 
Russian Church took root in the Pechora country (1397-1445) — as it 
did on the White Sea during the same period, through the foundation 
of the greatest monastery of the Far North, in Solovetsky island 
(1429).^^ 

Last among these distant fields of early Novgorod expansion 
comes Lapland, the westernmost region of Siberia-in-Europe. 
Neglecting any alleged treaties of the tenth century, or other 
evidence of Novgorodian power here before 1264, we now find 
Kola included with Yugra, the Trans- Volok, and the Pechora, among 
lands of Novgorod influence.^* Again, the peace concluded between 
Novgorod and Sweden, in 1323, fixes the Varanger Fiord as the 
boundary between the two powers in Lapland. As elsewhere, 
religious influence accompanies mercantile and political control; 
like Stephen in the Kama, Ihya of Novgorod and Theodorite of 
Solovetsky appear as apostles of faith and culture to Kola and the 
Lapps. ^' 

We may here remember that the early Russian expansion in the 
North is led, not by an absolute monarch and his soldiers, but by a 
fickle, half-theocratic democracy, whose chief activity is commerce, 
and to whom the right of insurrection is sacred. We may also 
recall that the free life of Old Novgorod has left widely-scattered 
traces in North Russia. Thus the colony planted in the well-stocked 
and beautiful woodland of far-away Vyatka, in 1174 — though no 
longer governed by elected civil magistrates, sharing power, in 
Novgorod fashion, with Church dignitaries — yet still keeps much of 
the manners and customs, the domestic architecture, the head- 
dress, and even the dialect, of the mother-city. On the other hand, 
when autocratic Moscow displaces its liberty-loving rival, popular 
government has clearly been found wanting in Russia. If Novgorod 
had not fallen before Moscow, she would have submitted to Poland. 



INTRODUCTION xix 

Ivan the Great conquers her, in the name of Russia and Orthodoxy, 
to save her from treachery and Latinism. And Moscow certainly 
substitutes a clearer political reality for the vague and fluctuating 
dominion, often no more than a commercial monopoly, of the 
Novgorod merchants. 

Again, to understand this Russian expansion, the influence of 
rivers must not be overlooked. The history of Russia, like that of 
French America, is largely a river-history: her conquest is often a 
progress from end to end of a river-basin, from one river system to 
another. The slight elevation of the northern plains aids the 
inland navigator from Novgorod to Ural, from Ural to Pacific. 

Once more, if the Ural were not in some places, despite length and 
breadth, so insignificant a range, the Novgorod connexion with 
Asia might be cited as another disproof of the fallacy that mountain 
chains form an absolute barrier between states and races. 

Lastly, the empire of Novgorod is largely commercial; her dis- 
coveries and conquests are often the victories of a remarkable trade- 
expansion. The mercantile side of history has often been treated 
with contempt. But what form of man's energy has done more 
to bring about the discovery of the earth, to " clear the mind of 
cant," to break down the obstacles of ignorance, fear and prejudice 
which once hemmed in mankind and separated lands and races ? 

III. THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF NOVGOROD. 

The relations of Novgorod with its neighbours, its friends, and its 
enemies, form the last section of our subject. 

I. And first as to the chief RUSSIAN STATES. 

(a) Novgorod and Kiev. 

With Kiev, the so-called " Mother of Russian cities, "^^ the ac- 
knowledged head alike in pohtics and religion, during all the early 
centuries (c. 880-1169), the relations of Novgorod are naturally long 
and intimate. During most of this time the Grand Prince of Kiev 
nominates the Princes, and sometimes the Posadniks, of Novgorod, 
subject to the popular approval. And the Metropolitan of Kiev, 
with the same limitations, ratifies the episcopal elections. 

Oleg, as Prince at Kiev, and chief of the Varangians in Russia, 
is said to have imposed a regular yearly tribute on Novgorod, about 
881. His successor, Olga, " wisest of all persons," the pioneer of 
Christianity among the Rus, visits the city, from Kiev, in the next 



XX THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

century, and establishes " depots for commerce," and " tolls and 
dues" on some of its waterways (c. 947-950?). Olga's son, the 
Great Vladimir, becomes Prince of Novgorod in 970, before he 
reigns in Kiev.^^ 

Through much of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Novgorod 
Chronicle records events at Kiev (especially the succession of Kiev 
Princes and Metropohtans, or the embassies of Novgorod repre- 
sentatives) as matters affecting the metropohs of Russia, and 
interesting to all Russians. 6° The very name of Rus is long used to 
designate the Kiev region. ^^ 

Yet the downfall of Kiev in 1169, when the Russia of the Forests 
humbles the Russia of the Steppes,*'^ is unnoticed in the Novgorod 
Annals. Even the final calamity, the Mongol storm of 1240, is only 
mentioned indirectly. On the other hand, the lesser disasters of 
1203 and 1235, when heathen Kumans or Polovtsi, aided by traitor 
Russians, waste the city, are properly bemoaned by the Novgorod 
historian. ^^ 

{b) Novgorod and Moscow. 

The intercourse of Novgorod with Kiev begins with the beginnings 
of Russian history, and is only important in the pre-Tartar period, 
the period of Kievian greatness. But with Moscow the Northern 
Repubhc does not much concern itself before the fourteenth cen- 
tury, when the White Stone City claims the headship of the Russian 
principalities. It is in 1238, when Russian allies are vainly struggling 
to save Ryazan from the Mongols, and " the men of Moscow ran 
away," that we have the earliest notice of " Mother Moskva " in 
the Novgorod Chronicle. The fall of Moscow itself, a few weeks 
later, before the " lawless Ishmaelites " of Batu, is next recorded — 
but here, as in 1293, Moscow is merely named, in passing, as one 
of the less important victims — and after this we hear little of Mus- 
covite interest from the Novgorod Annals for almost a century 
(1238-1325).«4 

But at last, in 1325, we find the Archbishop of Novgorod visiting 
Moscow " for confirmation by the Metropolitan." For Ivan Kahta 
had just induced the Russian primate to move his Stol from 
Vladimir, and Moscow had definitely taken the place of Kiev as the 
Canterbury or the Mainz of Russian Christianity. 

In 1335, again, we find the Republic, despite " colonial " quarrels, 
recognizing the Knyaz of Moscow — this same " John of the 
Purse " — as Grand Prince, the secular head of the Russian people. 



INTRODUCTION ^xxi 

Ivan visits Novgorod and " has a friendly talk " ; Novgorod no-tables 
go to be honoured at Moscow. ^^ 

When the Moscow sovereign or Metropolitan visits the Tartar 
Court on any special occasion (as in 1336), or when anything un- 
common happens at Moscow — such as the fire of 1337, or the death 
of the Grand Prince in 1340 — it is duly recorded at Novgorod. ^^ 
Still more, when (as in 1332) the Muscovite begins to aggress upon 
Novgorod; and most of all (as in 1337) when history records the 
discomfiture of the aggressor, " regardless of the kissing of the 
Cross," who, by the " power of the Cross," is " brought to shame. "^^ 
In 1346 we first hear of the enthronement of the Moscow Grand 
Prince in Novgorod, as its Russian suzerain — though the Khan of 
the Golden Horde is still " Tsar," supreme even over Semeon the 
Proud, who after enthronement in Novgorod goes to " the Low 
Country on the Tsar's business." Yet Novgorod still struggles 
against Muscovite ascendency, appealing to the Tartar, on Semeon's 
death, to give the Grand Princedom to Vladimir-Suzdal once more 
(1353) ; and though the intrigue is now unsuccessful, it momentarily 
succeeds a few years later (1360).^^ 

But in 1366 the Muscovite — now the famous Dmitri of the Don — 
is again Suzerain Prince, and quarrelling vigorously with the 
Republic about a Volga raid of Novgorod adventurers who had 
plundered Moscow merchants. Peace is made in 1367; the 
lieutenant of Dmitri is installed in Novgorod; and Nov- 
gorod helps Moscow a^gainst the hated Tver (1375), and accepts her 
decision in a dispute about the Metropolitan chair (1376). 

On the other hand, Dmitri Donskoi confirms all the old rights of 
Novgorod in the year of his Tartar triumph at Kulikovo " in a 
clean field beyond the Don, on the birthday of the Mother of 
God," when, " preserved by God, he fought ... for the Orthodox 
Faith, and for all the Russian land " (Sat., Sept. 8, 1380). 

As the Tartar flood subsides, Moscow presses on Novgorod 
afresh, and in 1386 the Republic pays Dmitri a heavy fine 
(8,000 roubles) " for the guilt of the Volga men."^^ Towards 
the close of the fourteenth century we find Novgorod (in 1391) 
again struggling to free itself, if not from the political suzer- 
ainty, at least from the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, of Moscow. But 
before the end of 1393 (and this is prophetic) Novgorod yields, and 
concludes peace " on the old terms."'" 

More serious trouble follows from the reiterated Moscow aggres- 
sions in the colonial field, as in the Northern Dvina basin (1397 



xxii THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

1401, etc.). Diplomacy effecting nothing, the RepubHc makes 
vigorous reprisals, usually (till the fatal age of Ivan the Great) with 
fair success.'^ 

II. NOVGOROD AND THE SCANDINAVIANS. ^"^ 

The history of Novgorod and of Russia beging^wkh the Scandi- 
navian settlement which civilized, and in the hign^ sense created, 
both. And during the earlier centuries the Scandinavian con- 
nexion is naturall}^ close (c. 862-1060). 

Novgorod is often mentioned in early Scandinavian records as 
Holmgarih—" probably because it stood on a holm," or low flat 
river-bank, near where the Volkhov issues from Lake Ilmen."^ 

According to Nestor, Rurik settles first in Novgorod, when he 
enters Russia to rule the tribes that had invited the Rtis. " And the 
Russian Land, Novgorod, was called (i.e. called Rus) after these 
Varangians; they (i.e. the Rus) are the Novgorodians of Varangian 
descent; previously the Novgorodians were Slavs. "'^ 

The mastery of the Rus over the Slavs begins, therefore, with 
their settlement in Novgorod; but the great northern town soon 
ceases to be their capital. After some twenty years, Rurik's suc- 
cessor, Oleg, takes Kiev and makes it his capital, and even the name 
of Rus now vanishes from Novgorod, and is usually, for centuries, 
connected with Kiev. 

Yet, though abandoned by the sovereign clan of the Rus, Nov- 
gorod maintains its distinctive position. In reality it is the chief 
rival, and in commerce ultimately the superior, of Kiev among the 
early Russian states (880-1220). In Novgorod the Scandinavian 
element is stronger even than in Kiev — so strong indeed that Nestor 
considers it a Varangian town.'* Elsewhere we hear of the Varan- 
gian Church, of the Guildhall of the Gothlanders in twelfth-century 
Novgorod, and of other matters which prove the early prominence 
of Scandinavians, and especially of Swedes, in Novgorod traffic. 
But in the later Middle Ages the Scandinavians gradually give way 
to the Germans, and the Hansa comes to control Novgorod trade. 

From the eleventh century we find less evidence of Scandinavian 
intercourse, though Scandinavian blood and spirit continue to work 
at Novgorod. 

And when we next hear of Scandinavian influence, as in 1142, it is 
purely hostile. '^ Towards the close of the Crusading Age comes the 



INTRODUCTION xxiii 

decisive struggle of 1240, when, " through the power of St. Sophia 
and the prayers of the Mother of God," Svei and Northmen are 
routed by that prince of Novgorod, who, from this day, is known as 
" Alexander of the Neva " (July 15, 1240). '^^ 

After this Novgorod runs no serious danger from Scandinavia 
for another century, although at times there are rumours of wars. 
Thus in 1300 the Swedish attempts on the Neva are renewed: " The 
accursed came in strength, with ... a special master from the great 
Pap of Rim (Pope of Rome), and they founded a town at the mouth 
of the Okhta, in the Neva, and strengthened it indescribably . . . 
calling it Landskrona (The Crown of the Land). But by the power 
of St. Sophia . . . that fortress came to nothing," being captured by 
the Novgorod men in 1301." 

In the early fourteenth century, perhaps the greatest period of 
Novgorod power, the Scandinavian states secure the friendship of 
the Republic, at the cost of former ambitions. Thus, while Den- 
mark concludes a treaty in 1302, Sweden, in 1323, acquiesces in a 
Novgorod colony at the Neva estuary on Orekhov island, and signs 
an " everlasting peace," which is renewed in 1338.'^ 

But in 1348 Sweden becomes threatening once more: "The 
Sveiski King Magnush " invites Novgorod to send its " philosophers" 
to a congress to decide between Roman and Greek Christianity. 
" If your faith is pronounced better, then I will adopt yours; if 
mine, you will adopt ours." Otherwise there must be war. Novgorod 
refers the royal proselytizer to Constantinople, and dispatches an 
embassy to " discuss grievances," but in vain. " He had no 
grievance," Magnus explained, " but Novgorod must embrace 
his faith." Fighting accordingly begins, but Novgorod holds its own 
well, gaining the victory in several encounters.'^ 

The slight revivals of Swedish and Norwegian aggression in 
1395-6, in 1411, and in 1445 — in the Neva region, in Korelia, and in 
the Far North — meet with no remarkable success. ^•^ 

And, indeed, the whole subject of Novgorod's dealings with the 
Scandinavian peoples, after the thirteenth century, has no special 
importance. 

III. NOVGOROD AND THE MONGOL TARTARS. 

The case stands very differently with the next of Novgorod's 
neighbours and enemies, the " Mongols whom we call Tartars." 



xxiv THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Novgorod is the only Russian state, or cit3^ of importance, which 
escapes full subjugation by the Mongols of the thirteenth century. 
And even Novgorod, saved from siege and sack behind her marshes, 
in a summer of providential wetness, becomes the vassal of the 
Tartars. 

The great Asiatic irruption which alters the whole course of 
Russian history, and so sharply divides the life and polity of the 
Rus, before the age of Batu, from the life and pohty of the same 
people, after that age (Novgorod is the only noteworthy exception) 
breaks upon all Eastern Europe with the force of sudden terror. 
Novgorod is no exception here. " In the same year (1224), for our 
sins, unknown tribes came. No one knows accurately who they 
are . . ., what their language is, or race, or faith, but they called them 
Tatary (Tartars) . . . God alone knows . . . and very wise men who 
understand books, but we do not. . . ." The battle of the Kalka 
(1224) is vividly described in the Novgorod Annals, and the dramatic 
departure of the victors, for a season. " We know not whence they 
came, nor where they hid themselves again. God knows whence he 
fetched them against us, for our sins."^^ 

And when the Horde returns, after twelve years (1236), and these 
" accursed godless strangers," these " lawless Ishmaelites," swarm 
" like locusts " into the Russian land, " cutting down everyone like 
grass," the annalist traces their advance with mournful fidelity to 
within sixty miles of Novgorod. Moscow and many another 
Russian town, greater than the Moscow of those days, sees its men 
and women, its priests and monks, yield " their souls to the Lord " 
in a " bitter and a wretched death," but before the Heaven- 
protected Novgorod the Mongols pause. God, and the apostolic 
Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom, and the prayers of the Orthodox 
archbishop, of the faithful princes, of the venerable monks, guard 
the city. At the cross of Ignati, 100 versts away, the invader 
turns back south-eastwards, weary and disgusted with the vast 
morasses and incessant rains which confront and impede him. For 
all this summer it " stood with " wet.^^ 

But Novgorod, though saved for the moment, would soon have 
shared the fate of other Russian cities, if she had not averted the 
danger by prompt, ready, and undeviating submission. The princes 
and officials of the Republic now obey the " Tartar Tsar " in all 
things, visiting the Horde when summoned (as in 1247), doing hom- 
age, punctually paying tribute, admitting Mongol assessors and tax- 



INTRODUCTION xxv 

gatherers (as in 1257). The orders of Batu brook no evasion or 
delay; and the hero, Alexander Nevsky, statesman no less than 
warrior, is specially prominent in his obedience. ^^ 

Thus in 1259, after Lithuania had been devastated, ^^ when " the 
accursed raw-eating Tartars came, taking tribute for the accursed," 
the Republic, we have seen, bows to the statesmanship of its 
leader. Novgorod rages and trembles; the greater men " bid the 
lesser be counted for tribute "; the citizens gather in force — " they 
will lay their heads by St. Sophia " — but the city submits at last, 
without a blow.^» 

In 1315, after seventy 3'ears of peaceful, if hateful, vassalage, 
Novgorod is forced into momentary conflict with the Mongols, 
through the treacherous ambition of the rival Russian state of Tver. 
The Republic suffers a serious defeat, but repulses an attempt upon 
the city (1316). In the retreat the enemy lose their way among the 
lakes and swamps that protected Novgorod, and nearly perish of 
hunger, eating their horses and leather shields. Finally, an appeal 
to the Khan^of the Golden Horde ends the trouble. In 1327 " a 
mighty Tartar host took Tver . . . and wasted all the Rus land, 
Novgorod alone being spared " — on payment of a round sum.^^ 

As we have seen, the first victories of Moscow, under Dmitri 
Donskoi, over the Tartars, are exultantly recorded at Novgorod 
(1380). Nor is the Mongol recovery under Tokhtamysh forgotten, 
when Moscow is burned, and the hero Dmitri flies before the " god- 
less Tartars " (1382, etc.). And finally Novgorod catches a glimpse 
of the strange, enigmatic figure of Lame Timur, that champion of 
Islam, who by his overthrow of the Golden Horde prepares the way 
for the liberation of Russia and the expansion of Slavonic Christen- 
dom, just as by his defeat of thfi Ottomans he gives a last oppor- 
tunity to Christian Constantinople. Needless to say, no perception 
of the real benefits of the conqueror's levehing work is apparent in 
the Chronicle of the Republic. There is merely an account of the 
triumph of Tamerlane over the Lithuanians (1398-9) arising out of 
his earlier triumph over the Golden Horde. ^' 

IV. NOVGOROD AND THE LITHUANIANS. 

The Lithuanians, the last important pagan race of Europe, the 
" godless Litva " of the Novgorod annals, had something to do 
with the great Russian city of the North from early times,^^ but it is 
only after the Mongol conquest that they vitally concern Novgorod 
in particular, or Russia in general. 



xxvi THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

In 1258 the Tartars " took all Litva land and killed the people " — ■ 
it reads like the end of the Lithuanian danger — but we know what 
these great phrases mean to annalists of many countries. And here 
it is more than usually misleading. 

For in the fourteenth century the Litva first become a serious 
political power under their Grand Prince Gedimin the Conqueror, 
who in 1326 appears as mediating between Novgorod and the Ger- 
mans, and in 1331 as trying to appoint the bishop, as he had ap- 
pointed the prince, of Pskov, " without regard to Novgorod . . . 
being carried away with presumption. "^^ 

Gedimin and his successors do, in fact, succeed in tearing away 
from Russia all the west and south-west of Rus, with Kiev itself. 
And thus is enacted the first chapter of that injustice which by 
the Partition of Poland is gradually transformed into a fresh wrong 
still more grievous, now weighing upon the old oDoressor. 

Against this new power, both before and after the conversion of 
Yagieloand the Union with Poland (in 1386), Novgorod struggles 
incessantly, and not ingloriously. Pskov submits to the Litva in 
1342, but the Elder Sister of Pskov defies them. A fierce attack in 
1346 follows upon some plain language from Novgorod to Gedimin's 
successor — " Your Posadnik," complains Olgierd, " has barked at 
me; he called me a hound." It was a dangerous dog to bark at — • 
for Olgierd brings Lithuanian power to its zenith, penetrating (as 
in 1370) almost to Moscow, and for a time bringing back the Metro- 
politan of the Russian Church from Moscow to Kiev, now " in 
Litva " (1376).®° The abusive Posadnik is executed by his own 
fellow citizens at a Veche — (the Novgorod democracy treats its ser- 
vants rather like Carthage) — " for it is owing to you that our lands 
have been seized.®^ 

The death of Olgierd in 1377, and the consequent domestic 
troubles, are a real rehef to the Russia now pressed so hard between 
Tartars, Lithuanians, and Nenitsy. And the union of Poland and 
Lithuania in 1386 does not immediately increase the danger. For 
the federated state, though threatening the conquest of more and 
more Russian land, is at first chiefly occupied with the Tartars and 
the Teutonic Order — as in 1399, when Vitovt disastrously defies 
Timur, or in 1410, when Yagielo and Vitovt crush the German 
Knights at Tannenberg. 

With Vitovt, the last great Litva conqueror (1392-1430). ends the 
brief hope that Lithuanian conversion might profit the Eastern 



INTRODUCTION xxvii 

Church. " For Prince Vitovt," the Novgorod Annalist bemoans in 
1399, " had previously been a Christian . . . but he renounced the 
Orthodox Faith and adopted the PoHsh, and perverted the holy 
churches to service hateful to God. He thought," continues the 
Chronicler, " that he would conquer . . . the Rus land and Novgorod, 
but he thought not of the Lord's sa3dng, A thousand shall flee at the 
rebuke of one." After his ill-starred conflict with Timur, he con- 
cludes peace with Novgorod " on the old terms " (1400). 

Yet in the fifteenth centur}/ Lithuanian aggressions are again 
alarming. But for their preoccupation with the Nenitsy, the Litva 
might have attempted the conquest of all Russia. In 1404: Vitovt 
gains Smolensk; and in 1415 " by the sufferance of God," he re- 
organizes the Church in Little Russia, under a Latin Metropolitan. 
Again, in 1444, Vitovt's successor, Casimir, calls upon Novgorod 
to submit. The Republic " did not fall in with this," but the famine 
of 1445 aided his efforts; in their distress some of the Novgorod 
folk " fled to Litva," or " passed over to Latinism." More and 
more this is the danger at the end of the Middle Ages — leading to 
the conclusion, when Moscow destroys the Republic to keep it from 
" lapsing into Latinism."^^ 

\. NOVGOROD AND THE GERMANS. 

The relations of Novgorod with the Ncmtsy are among the 
latest in historical order, on the political side — though of respect- 
able antiquity on the mercantile. There is no clear reference 
in the Chronicle to the Teutons of the Continent, as opposed 
to the Scandinavians, before the time of the Third Crusade 
(1188). And, in the next century, the stirring events of 
1201 and the years following- — when the Knights of the Order of 
Christ, better known as the Brethren or Bearers of the Sivord, are 
called in as temporal helpers by Bishop Albert of Riga; when 
historic Riga is thus founded; and when the Riga Gulf lands and 
the country of the old heathen Prussians are conquered by these 
German Crusaders and by their colleagues of the Teutonic Order or 
Order of St. Mary — all pass unnoticed in the Novgorodskaya Lyetopis. 

But in 1231 the Novgorod Annals notice how " Nemtsy from 
beyond sea " succour the city with corn and flour, after a terrible 
famine, when " already near its end." And in 1237 the union of the 
two German Orders, under the Teutonic title, is apparently 



xxviii THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

recorded as a piece of good news. " In this year the Nemtsy came 
. . . from be3^ond sea to Riga, and all united here . . . the men of 
Pleskov sent aid . . . and they went against the godless Litva ..." 

But soon the Nemtsy appear among the most dreaded foes of 
Novgorod and Russia. In 1242 the Swedish victory of Alexander 
Nevsky is followed by Alexander's revenge upon the German Order 
on the ice of Lake Chudskoe — " lest they should boast, saying, we 
will humble the Slovan race under us — for is not Pskov taken, and 
are not its chiefs in prison? " (April 5, 1242). 

Much lost ground is thus recovered, and Novgorod is saved from 
German dominion, in politics if not in trade. But it is a salvation 
which has to be worked out again and again in the next two cen- 
turies. Thus in 1268 (after an agreement with the " bishops and 
godly nobles " of the Teutonic Order, in which these godly men, in 
the Russian view, purposed only deceit) the men of Novgorod fight 
a desperate drawn battle with " iron troops " of Nemtsy on the 
Kegola river, massed at one point in a " great wedge like a forest 
to look at. . . . It was as if the whole nation of Nemtsy had come 
together. "^^ 

Almost every decade of later Novgorod history gives us some 
notice of conflict, negotiation, treaty, or commerce with ilieNemtsy, 
mainly represented by the Teutonic Order and the Hanseatic 
League.®* But though lands and towns near or within the Novgorod 
frontiers are in German occupation throughout this period 
(c. 1200-1450) or great part of it ; though the whole Baltic coast, from 
Danzig to the Gulf of Finland, is at one time held by the Order; 
and though such near neighbours as Pskov fall at intervals into 
the German grasp — yet the German peril is kept at arm's length, 
and Novgorod is never beleaguered (far less taken) by the 
Knights, even if her trade passes in great measure under Hansa 
control. 

And from the German fear Novgorod is finally delivered by the 
union of Poland and Lithuania, and the triumph of the new Slav 
power over the Teutonic Order. The Novgorod Annals, which so 
constantly neglect decisive events of neighbouring history, do not 
forget the battle of Tannenberg, which marks the ebbing of the 
German Drang nach Osten, so active and of such consequence since 
the twelfth century — first apparent in the tenth. 

" This year (1410) on July 15th, King Yagailo and Prince Vitovt 
fought with the Prussian Nemtsy, in Prussia . . . and killed the 



INTRODUCTION xxix 

Master and the Marshal and the Commanders, and routed the 
whole Nemtsy army."^* 

Thus begins a Slavonic Revival which, under Polish or Russian 
leadership, lasts till the nineteenth century; and a Germanic depres- 
sion which continues till the rise of Brandenburg-Prussia under the 
Great Elector. 



NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION 

(^) The Novgorod empire has two chief parts: (1) the homeland 
of Novgorod settlement, including various tributary states, e.g. 
Ladoga; (2) the colonial and trade-dominion. This homeland had 
five traditional sub-divisions (the " Pyatini," or " Fifths ") : I. Vod- 
skaya, in the North; II. Shelonskaya, in the West; III. Derevskaya, 
in the South; IV. Obonezhskaya, in the North-East; V. Byezhet- 
skaya, in the East. A similar five-fold division is often assumed in 
(2) — the "Colonial Empire": I. The Trans-Volok or Zavoloche, 
including the lands between the White Lake {Beloe Ozero) and the 
Mezen, and comprising the Northern Dvina country; II. Ter, Tri or 
Tre, including Russian Lapland and extensive regions north of 
Lake Onega (e.g. Pomoria); III. Permia, the Upper Kama basin; 
IV. Pechora; V. Yugra. 

(2) " Mais est la ville fermee de meschans murs, fais de cloyes 
et terre, combien que les tours sont de pierre," says de Lannoy 
(Louvain ed., 1878, p. 33). 

(^) "... La grant Noegarde merveilleusement grant ville. . . ." 
Oeuvres de Ghill. de Lannoy, edited by Ch. Potvin and J. C. Houzeau, 
Louvain, 1878, p. 32. Lannoy's whole description of Novgorod 
(pp. 32-5 of this edition) is of capital importance. 

(*) An excellent general account of Old Novgorod is in Bestuzhev- 
Ryumin's History of Russia, St. Petersburg, 1872, vol. I, Ch. vi. 
Sections iii-v (German trans., Mitau, 1877, vol. I, pp. 230-74); see 
also Rambaud, Histoire de Russie (Paris, 1893), pp. 103-16. 

(^) We know the Law of Novgorod principally through a late 
document, the Letter of Justice {Sudnaya Gramota) in the text of 
1471 (see Rambaud, Russie, 1893, p. Ill); but it rested on the same 
principles as the Ruskaya Pravda of Yaroslav the Lawgiver in the 
eleventh century. On the early history of Novgorod (to Yaroslav) 
see also the Chronicle of " Nestor," ed. F. Miklosich, Vienna, 1860, 
chs. 30, 35, 38, 43, 46-7, 50-1, 53-4 (a.d. 947. 970, 977, 980, 997. 
1014, 1018, 1021, 1024-36). 

(«) See Nov. Chron., 1125, 1136, 1138, 1141, 1154, 1157-8, 1160-1, 
1270. 

(7) See Nov. Chron., 1240-63, and especially 1240, 1242, 1246, 
1250, 1259, 1262-3. 



NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION xxxi 

(8) Nov. Chron. 1240-1. 

(^) See especially Nov. Chron., 1471, and pp. x, xxii, xxvii of this 
Introduction. 

(^°) See Nov. Chron., under the years mentioned, 1134, 1146, 
1167, 1209, etc. 

(11) Nov. Chron., 1209. 

(12) See Nov. Chron., 1135 (arbitration), 1214, 1215, 1264 (military 
and political leadership). 

(13) Nov. Chron., 1218-19. 

(14) See the Chronicle of " Nestor," chs. 54, 56, 57 (1034, 1045, 
1052); also Nov. Chron., 1130, 1156, 1163, etc. (on later bishops). 

(15) See Nov. Chron., 1210, 1215-16, 1218, 1259. 

(16) See Nov. Chron., 1218, 1220. 

(17) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1153, 1180. 

(18) Nov. Chron., 1181, 1192, 1209, 1210, 1255. 

(19) Nov. Chron., 1211, 1219, 1220. 

(20) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1153, 1195-6, 1310. 

(21) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1138, 1160. 

(22) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1263, 1308, 1330, 1388, 1414. 

(^3) See E. Worms, Histoire commerciale de la Ligue Hanseatique 
(Paris. 1864), pp. 16,81-2. 

(2*) "Torgovaya Storona," see Nov. Chron., 1134, 1345, 1385, 
1387, 1392, 1418. 

(25) See Worms, Ligwe Hans., pp. 196-7; also V. Thomsen, Origin 
of the Ancient Russ, Oxford, 1877, pp. 126. 

(26) Worms, Ligue Hans., pp. 82-3. 

(27) Worms, Ligue Hans., 83-4, 190-5. 

(28) See Nov. Chron., 1137, 1141-2, 1156, 1195; also 1157, 1178, 
1192. "" 

(29) Nov. Chron., 1209, 1215-17, 1234, 1299; see also 1203, 1207 
(foreign merchants at Kiev), 1225. 

(30) Nov. Chron., 1317, 1332, 1337, 1363-4, 1366-7. 

(31) Nov. Chron., 1410, 1420; also 1437, 1445, 1446. 

(32) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1209, 1214, 1218. 



xxxii THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

(33) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1125, 1136, 1138, 1141, 1154, 1270. 

(34) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1134, 1146, 1156, 1161, 1167, 1171-2 
1175. 1189, 1205, 1209. 1218, 1219, 1230. 

(35) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1228, 1299, 1342, 1375, 1385, 1388, 1415, 
1421, 1437. 

(36) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1291, 1316, 1340, 1346. 

(37) See Nov. Chron., 1218, 1228, 1270, 1299, 1342 (places of 
meeting, St. Sophia or Yaroslav's Court); 1342 (rival Veches at 
both places, ending with an appeal to arms and the mediation of 
the Archbishop— see also 1384); 1215, 1218, 1230, 1345 {Veches 
convoked or led by the Knyaz or Posadnik); 1214 {Veche con- 
voked by the Knyaz, but in vain : the Democracy then calls its own 
Veche). 

(38) See above, note (3^) ; and Rambaud, Russie, p. 114 (Paris, 
1893). 

(38) See the Chronicle of Nikon {Russkaya Lyeiopis po Nikonovu 
Spisku), Imperial Academy, St. Petersburg, 1767, vol. I, p. 132 
(a.d. 1032). These Iron Gates, not to be confused with the famous 
Iron Gates of Derbent in the Caucasus, perhaps lay in the Shchugor 
valley, in about 64° N. Lat., near Mt. Toll Pos Is, the highest 
summit of the Urals. But Spruner-Menke, Hand- Atlas (1880), 
map 67, Russland 966-1114, places them in the Sysola valley, 
towards the easternmost part of the Northern Dvina basin. 

(*°) Seethe Chronicle of Novgorod, A.D. 1079. The Za-Volochye, 
Trans-Volok, or Country beyond the Portage, includes all the Northern 
Dvina basin. 

(*^) See the Pervonachalnaya Lyetopis or Fundamental Chronicle, 
otherwise the Chronicle of Nestor {Chronica Nestoris textum Russo- 
Sloveniciim), ed. Fr. Miklosich (Vienna, 1860), ch. 81, p. 160. 

(*2) SeeiVof. Chron., 1169, 1187, 1193, U'di;iheChronicle of Nikon 
{Russk. Lyet. p. Nikon. Spisk.), a.d. 1193-4, vol. II, pp. 259-260; 
and the Sophia Chronicle {Sophiiskaya Lyetopis) in the Complete 
Collection of Russian Chronicles {Polnoe Sohranie Russkikh Lyetopisei) , 
issued by the Russian Archseographical Commission, vol. V, pp. 
1691-70. 

(*3) See Nicholas Karamzin, History of the Russian Empire {Istoriya 
Gosudarstva Rossiiskago), vol. IV, p. 59, in Einerling's ed. (St. Peters- 
burg, 1842) ; Knyaz Yaroslav is hereby debarred from possessing any 



NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION xxxiii 

villages in the domains of Novgorod, even to Zavoloche, Kola, 
Perm, Pechora, or Yugra. 

(44) Nov. Chroii., 1323, 1329. 

(•*^) Nov. Chron., 1332. Ivan Kalita was Grand Prince [Veliki 
Knyaz) of Moscow, 1328-40. 

(46) Nov. Chron., 1445. 

(47) On Ivan Ill's Siberian expeditions of 1465, 1483 and 1499, 

see the Chronicle of Great Ustvug [Lyeiopis Velik. Ustyuzhskaya), 
pp. 35-36, 41-42, 44-45, ed. A. K. Trapeznikov (Moscow, 1888) ; the 
Chronicle of Archangel [Arkhangelogorodsk. Lyetopis), Moscow, 1781, 
pp. 141, 1601-61; Oksenov, Political Relations of Moscow with 
Yugraland (in Russian, 1891) : and Karamzin, History of Russia, 
vol. VI, pp. 176-178, in Einerhng's ed. (St. Petersburg, 1842). 

(48) Nov. Chron., 1337, 1340, 1342, 1366, 1393. See Early Voyages 
and Travels to Russia, etc. (London, Hakluvt Society, 1886), vol. I, 
p. 23. 

(^^) Before the Moscow Princes seized this country, they sent 
their falconers thither every year by agreement with Novgorod ; 
see Karamzin, History of Russia (1842), vol. V, p. 93 and note 170. 

{^^) See Nov. Chron., 1397; Karamzin, History of Russia, vol. V, 
pp. 136-137 (ed. 1842). 

(^^) In 1398, the Republic appears to recover most of its Dvina 
territories, storming Ustyug and inflicting death and fines upon 
its enemies and the Moscow merchants in this region. Moscow, 
however, seems to retain great part of the Vologda valley, in spite 
of a promise in 1435 to relinquish this. In 1411, the Novgorod 
governor of the Dvina is ordered to guard against Norwegian raiders. 
Vyatka marauders and Novgorod outlaws burn Kholmogori in 
1417, and capture several Novgorod notables; in 1419 return the 
Northmen or Murnmni, ravaging far and wide in the Trans- Volok, 
and sacking the Michael Monastery on the site of the present city 
of Archangel. Lastly, in 1445, the Swedes attack the Dvina and 
are driven off. See the Chronicle of Novgorod, 1398, 1401, 1411, 
1417, 1419, 1435, 1436, 1445. 

(52) See AW. Chron. ,\ill; Karamzin, History of Russia (ed. 1842), 
vol. V, pp. 201, 206, and notes 356, 367. 

(5^) Sigismund von Herberstein, Reruni Moscoviticarum Commen- 
tarii (London, Hakluyt Society, 1851), vol. II, p. 46. 

C2 



xxxiv THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

(^*) On St. Stephen of Perm, see also Voskrcsenskaya Lyetopis 
in the Polnoe Sobra?iie Rusk. Lyet., vol. VH, pp. 69-70; Wiq Life 
of St. Stephen in Monuments of Ancient Russian Literature {Pam- 
yatniki Star. Rusk. Lit.), vol. IV, p. 119; and Klyuchevsky, Lives 
of the Saints as Historical Material {Zhitiya Svyatykh kak istoricheskii 
istochnik), p. 92, etc. 

(55) See Karamzin, History of Russia (ed. 1842), vol. V, pp. 64-66, 
209-210, and notes 125, 126, 137, 232. 377, 378; Early Travels in 
Russia (London, Hakluyt Society, 1886), vol. II, p. 190; Klyuch- 
evsky, Lives of the Saints (as above), pp. 198-203; Stroev, Lists of 
Russian Hierarchs {Spiski lerarkhov). 

(56) See Karamzin, History of Russia, vol. IV, p. 59, and notes 
115-116 (1842) ; also The Collection of Imperial Charters and Treatises 
{Sobranie Gosudarstvennykh Gramot i Dogovorov). 

(") See Antiquites Russes (Copenhagen, 1850-2), vol. II, pp. 490- 
494. 

(58) A title which surely belongs of right to Novgorod. 

(59) See the Chronicle of Nestor, ed. Miklosich, chs. 18, 30, 35. 

(60) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1113, 1118, 1129, 1134, 1145, 1149, 1154-6, 
1233. 

(fi) E.g., Nov. Chron., 1145, 1149. In the later Middle Ages we 
find this restriction less observed in Novgorod. See A.D., 1263. 

(62) See A. Rambaud, Histoire de Russie, p. 88 (1893). 

(63) Nov. Chron., 1203, 1235. 

(6*) See Nov. Chron., 1238, 1283, 1293, 1314. 

(65) See Nov. Chron., 1325-6, 1332, 1335. 

(66) See Nov. Chron., 1336-7, 1339, 1340, 1342-3, 1353, 1389, 
1392, 1406, 1412, 1437, 1441-2, 1446. 

(67) Nov. Chron., 1332, 1337. 

(68) See Nov. Chron., 1346, 1348, 1353. 1360. 

(69) See Nov. Chron., 1366-7, 1375-6, 1380, 1382, 1386, 1445. 

('0) See Nov. Chron., 1383, 1388, 1391, 1393, 1395-6, 1401, 1411, 
1415, 1437. 



NOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION xxxv 

(71) Nov. Chron., 1397-8, 1401, 1411, 1435, 1437 (Novgorod yields 
to fresh tax demands), 1441. 

('2) See Vilhelm Thomsen, Origin of the Ancient Russ, Oxford', 
1877, pp. 80-2, 125-6; Olaf Tryggveson's Saga, chs. 6, 7, 21; St. 
Olaf's Saga, ch. 191, etc.; Harald Hardrada's Saga, chs. 2, 15-17. 

C^) Chronicle of Nestor (ed. Miklosich), ch. 15, p. 10. 

(7*) See iV(?s/or, ch. 15, p. 10 (Miklosich); Thietmar, C/trontco«, 
in Pertz, Monumenta Germ, hist.. Script., vol. Ill, p. 871; V. Thom- 
sen, Origin of the Ancient Russ, pp. 124, 126. 

('=) See Nov. Chron., 1142, 1164. 

(7^) Nov. Chron., 1240. See also Rambaud, Russie, p. 134; 
Bestuzhev-Ryumin, History of Russia, St. Petersburg, 1872, vol. i, 
ch. VI, sections iii-iv (German trans., Mitau, 1877, p. 243), 

(") Nov. Chron., 1256, 1292-3, 1295, 1300-2. 

(78) Nov. Chron., 1302, 1323, 1338. 

(79) Nov. Chron., 1348-50. 

(80) SeeiVow. Chron., 1395-6, 1411, 1445. 

(81) Nov. Chron., 1224. 

(82) See Nov. Chron., 1236 (conquest of Bolghar) ; 1238, etc. 
(conquest of Russia). 

(83) Nov. Chron., 1242, 1247, 1257, 1259, 1262-3. 

(84) Nov. Chron., 1258. 

(85) Nov. Chron., 1259; see also 1293. 

(8») Nov. Chron., 1315-16, 1319, 1322, 1325-7. 

(87) Nov. Chron., 1380, 1382, 1398-9; see also 1408, 1445. 

(88) See, e.g. Nov. Chron., 1183, 1198, 1200, 1203, 1210, 1213, 
1219, 1234, etc. 

(89) See Nov. Chron., 1258, 1263, 1266-7, 1285, 1323, 1326, 1331, 
1335. 

(90) Thus for a few years it is from a foreign and hostile land that 
the Russian primate sends his disregarded orders to Novgorod. 

(91) See A^oy. Chron., 1342, 1346, 1370, 1376. 



xxxvi THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

n See Nov. Chron., 1377, 1399, 1400, 1404. 1410. 1415, 1436 
1440, 1444-5 [1471]. 

n See Nov. Chron., 1231, 1233, 1234, 1237, 1240-1, 1242, 1253, 
1268. 

(^^) See Nov. Chron., refs. in last note, and also under the years, 
1269, 1298, 1328, 1335, 1342-3, 1350. 1362-3, 1367-8. 1370-1, 1377, 
1381. 1390-1, 1406-7. 1409-10, 1412. 1417, 1420, 1444-5. 

(95) Nov. Chron., 1410. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE TEXT OF THE NOVGOROD CHRONI- 
CLE BY PROFESSOR A. A. SHAKHMATOV. ST. PETERS- 
BURG UNIVERSITY. 

Chronicle- WRITING at Novgorod began very early, certainly by the 
eleventh century, for the chronicle of Nestor (the monk of Kiev), 
called Povest vremennykh let {Annals of Contemporary Years), 
which appeared in 1110, contains a number of items from the Nov- 
gorod Chronicle. Thus we read, in Nestor, that in 1063 the Volkhov 
flowed backwards for six days foreboding disaster, and four years 
later Novgorod was burned by the Prince Vseslav of Polovtsk. It is 
clear that this information could only have reached the Pechersk 
monastery in Kiev, where the Annals of Contemporary Years were 

_ composed, through the channel of a Novgorod chronicle. The latter 
was probably composed and kept in the Bishop's Palace or " Court," 
a fact to which the following data point: In 1136 and 1137, the 
entries were made by Kirik, one of the clergy of St. Sophia, well 
known in the history of early Russian literature, and the author of 
several works, including one of exceptional interest on chronology. 
Again, the entries in the Chronicle from the twelth to the fifteenth 
centuries largely relate to the Vladyka or Archbishop of Novgorod 
and the affairs of the See. 

1 Several considerations, mostly founded on the text of the Novgorod 
Chronicle in the Synodal^ and other transcripts, point to the fact 
that in 1167 the archiepiscopal chronicle was rearranged as an his- 
torical compilation on a larger scale. The foundation for this was 
formed by the incorporation in it of the text of the Kiev Annals of 
Contemporary Years, to which were added under their respective 
dates all the annual entries of events made in Novgorod. This 
rearrangement was probably made by order of Ilya (Elias), first 
Archbishop of Novgorod. In its original form this rearrangement of 
the archiepiscopal chronicle has not survived ; but we can gain some 
idea of it, first, from the later historical compilations, which were no 
longer of local, but of general, Russian character and scope, and 
comprised the Novgorod Chronicle among their other component 

^' parts, and secondly, from the oldest existing transcript of the 
Novgorod Chronicle itself, viz. the Synodal Transcript here trans- 
lated. /The Synodal Transcript had, as its foundation, an historical 
compilation made by a priest of the Novgorod Church of St. James, 
one Herman Voyata. The compiler speaks of himself in the entry 
for A.D. 1144, saying that in that year he was appointed priest; 
^ So-called because in the possession of the Synodal Library at Moscow. 



xxxviii THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

under the year 1188 we read of the death of Herman Voyata, forty- 
five years priest of St. James. ^ Herman Voyata prepared for his 
church a copy of the compilation of Archbishop Ehas, which was, 
however, very much abbreviated up to the beginning of the twelfth 
century; in this copy remarkable items of news were sometimes 
omitted, e.g. the consecration of St. Sophia in 1050, and the mis- 
adventures of Bishop Luka in 1055 and 1058. 

The entry concerning the death of Herman Voyata suggests that 
his compilation was continued at St. James's after his death. 
This conclusion is strengthened by the mention of the sacristan 
Timothy as transcriber, or compiler, of the chronicle (in 1230), and 
a happy conjecture has identified this person with Timothy, sac- 
ristan of the Church of St. James, who in 1262 transcribed an 
existing liturgical work. But the chronicle of St. James was pro- 
bably not carried on independently : it was most likely a compilation 
of chronicles founded on the archiepiscopal chronicle, added to 
from time to time. 

The archiepiscopal chronicle was carried on uninterruptedly, 
being as it were a continuation of the compilation of chronicles 
made in 1 167. A new rearrangement of the archiepiscopal chronicle, 
undertaken probably on the initiative of Archbishop Basil, a learned 
and enlightened man, took place c. 1330-5. This rearrangement 
was founded on the compilation of chronicles made at the Church 
of St. James ; possibly because a few years previously the compilation 
of chronicles made in the year 1167 had, at the demand of the 
Metropolitan, been dispatched to Vladimir (on the Klyazma). 
Abotit the year 1310, the Metropolitan Peter planned a pan-Russian 
compilation of chronicles, in which the chronicle-writing of all 
Russia should be concentrated, and the local annals be brought 
together. This plan is connected with the efforts of the Metro- 
politan to conserve the unity of the Russian metropolitan province, 
a unity threatened by serious danger, especially since the beginning 
of the fourteenth century, when the Metropolitan, abandoning Kiev, 
which had been devastated by the Tartars, migrated to Vladimir. 
For this plan, then, the local chronicles must be collected in Vladi- 
mir; hence the Novgorod archiepiscopal compilation of 1167 was 
transferred thither. The Metropolitan's pan-Russian compilation 
of chronicles has only survived in a later rearrangement (of the 
fifteenth century), and, to a certain extent, in the so-called Lavr^w- 
tcvski (" Laurentian ") transcript of 1377, which borrowed from it 

1 See Nov. Chron., 1144. 1188. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE TEXT xxxix 

the part covering the period 1240-1305. The appearance in Nov- 
gorod of a copy of this pan-Russian compilation (or of certain parts 
of it) suggested the creation of a Novgorod compilation of chronicles. 
Its foundation, I repeat, was formed by the compilation of chronicles 
of the Church of St. James; it was amplified both by data from the 
Novgorod archiepiscopal chronicle, by annual entries from it, and 
also by loans from the pan-Russian compilation. Among these are 
the capture of Kiev by the sons of Oleg and the Polovtsi in 1203; 
the crusading capture of Constantinople in 1204; the fratricide of 
K nyaz Gleh ol Ryazan in 1218; the battle on the river Kalka in 
1224; the conquest of Suzdal by the Tartars in 1238. 

The Novgorod compilation of chronicles of Archbishop Basil was 
brought down to the year 1329. This compilation has not come 
down to us in the original. But the Synodal transcript, which we 
possess, is an almost contemporary copy, made, as is believed, for 
the monastery of St. George, near Novgorod. This copy was 
amplified by entries under the years 1331-3, 1337, 1345 and 1352. 
It has not come down to us in its entirety, for it lacks the beginning 
(to A.D. 1016). Judging by the total number of sheets, 128 are 
missing. These probably contained the text of the Annals of 
Contemporary Years in a redaction similar to those which have 
survived (the Ipatevskvi and Hlehnikovski transcripts), for it is just 
this redaction of the Annals of Contemporary Years that was fol- 
lowed by the historical compilation of Archbishop Elias, which 
formed the foundation of the historical compilation of the Church 
of St. James. 

The historical compilation of Archbishop Basil underwent fresh 
rearrangement about 1420-30. It was now considerably enlarged 
by annual entries made uninterruptedly at the Archbishop's Court. 
But for some reason that beginning of the compilation which was 
the result of the labours of Herman Voyata (who in his turn had 
abbreviated his model, viz., the compilation of Archbishop Elias) 
came to be considered unsatisfactory. No transcript of the Annals 
of Contemporary Years was to be found in Novgorod, but on the 
other hand, a transcript, incomplete it is true, of the still older 
Kiev historical compilation, the immediate predecessor of the 
Annals of Contemporary Years, was discovered. This incomplete 
work ends abruptly in 1074, midway in its account of the death of 
Theodosius, igumen or abbot of the Pechersk monastery at Kiev 
(the complete work probably went down to 1093) ; besides this the 
sheets recording events from 1016 to 1052 were lost. From the 



xl THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

year 1075 onwards the composer of the new compilation, called the 
Sophia Chronicle, had to follow the compilation of Archbishop Basil. 
The Sophia Chronicle was probably composed at the instance of 
Archbishop Euthymus, by one of the clergy of St. Sophia in Nov- 
gorod called Matvei (Matthew) Mikhailov Kusov. 

In the middle of the fifteenth century, a fresh rearrangement of 
the pan-Russian historical compilation was made at Moscow, pro- 
bably at the Court of the Metropolitan. Its basis was the pan- 
Russian compilation of 1423, which largely repeated that of the 
Metropolitan Peter, and to it were added the Kiev Chronicle and the 
Sophia Chronicle of Novgorod. This Moscov/ compilation has not 
survived, but it gave rise to existing reproductions (e.g., the 
so-called First Sophia Chronicle and Fourth Novgorod Chronicle, 
published in vols. IV-VI of the Complete Collection of Russian 
Chronicles). In the fifties of the fifteenth century a fresh re- 
arrangement of the Sophia Chronicle was made at Novgorod. The 
text of this compilation follows both the fourteenth-century com- 
pilation of Archbishop Basil, and the Moscow compilation of the 
mid fifteenth century. This rearrangement of the Sophia Chronicle, 
which in all its manuscripts reaches down to 1443, has been pre- 
served in (a) the so-called Commission Transcript (belonging to the 
Imperial Archseographical Commission); {b) the Academy Tran- 
script (belonging to the Imperial Academy of Sciences); and the 
Tolstoi Transcript (belonging to the Imperial Public Library). 
From their resemblance to Archbishop Basil's compilation there is a 
close connexion between these MSS. and the Synodal Transcript. 
In editing the Synodal Transcript recourse can be had to the Com- 
mission, Academy, and Tolstoi Transcripts as auxiliary transcripts 
offering different readings. The last edition of the Synodal Tran- 
script was issued by the Archseographical Commission {The Nov- 
gorod Chronicle According to the Synodal Parchment Transcript, 
St. Petersburg, 1888). The text of the Commission Transcript of 
the fifteenth century is, on pp. 1-82, 84-117, provided with different 
readings and additions from the Academy and Tolstoi Transcripts. 
On pages 83-4 (beginning with the words " but you are carpenters ") 
and in various passages between page 84 and page 117, we have 
the text of the Synodal Transcript, while the readings of the Com- 
mission, Academy and Tolstoi Transcripts are given as variants. 

In the Russian edition of 1888, the difference between the source 
is marked by printing the Synodal text from the beginning of the 
line, and the Cormnission text at a distance of four letters from the 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE TEXT xli 

beginning of the line. From page 117 (a.d. 1075) down to page 329 
(with some sHght intervals) the Synodal text appears again, while the 
Commission, Academy and Tolstoi variants are given in footnotes. 
On pages 330-428 (a.d. 1333-1446) we have the Commission text 
afresh till 1443 (p. 423) provided with Academy and Tolstoi variants 
(at 1441 the Academy breaks off). The addenda to this edition 
(pp. 431-90) contain a series of supplementary articles from the 
Commission Transcript which are not strictly part of the chronicle 
(lists of princes, bishops, posadniks, and also juridical matter). 

A. A. SHAKHMATOV. 



For Bibliographical Note see end of this volume. 



xlii 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TITLES, TECHNICAL TERMS, 
ETC.. WHICH IN THE TEXT HAVE BEEN RETAINED IN 
THE ORIGINAL RUSSIAN. TOGETHER WITH THE ENGLISH 
EQUIVALENTS. AND THE PAGES WHERE THEY FIRST 

OCCUR. 



Artug = a Norwegian copper 
coin (p. i8i). 

Baskak = Tartar official, tax- 
collector (p. 103). 

Berkovets = 10 puds, i.e., 400 
Russian lbs. (p. 77.) 

Boyar — noble (p. 10). 

Denga = a small coin, 216 of 
which went to the rouble (p. 
204). 

Detinets-gorod — citadel (p. 7). 
/ Druzhina = bodyguard (p. i). 

Gorodishche = citadel, fort (p. 7). 

Grivna = pound (p. 2 ; cf . appen- 
dix). 

Jgumen — abbot (p. 5). 

Igumena — abbess (p. 26). 

Kad, Kadka = barrel (a meas- 
ure, same as osminka, q.v., p. 

23)- 
Knyaginya = Princess (p. 20). 
Knyaz = Prince (p. i). 
Knyaz, Veliki = Grand Prince 

(p. 67). 
Korohya — basket (a measure, 

p. 202). 
Kima = money, cf . appendix (p. 

23)- 
Kurgan = fort (p. 65). 
i Lyakh = Pole (p. i). 
Lyakhi = Poles, Poland (p. i). 
Nemtsy = Foreigners of Teutonic 

race (p. 44). 
N Ogata, cf. appendix (p. 10). 
Osminka = 11 pecks (p. 11). 
Pochka = a small weight, about 

one-fifth dram (p. 204). 
Poprishche — verst, q.v. (p. 215). 



Posadnik — burgomaster (p. 9). 

Pud = about 36 lbs. (p. 27). 

Rezana, cf. appendix (p. 15). 

Rouble = J lb. of silver, a unit 
of money and of weight, (p. 
128). 

Sazhen= ik fathom (p. 128). 

Schema — the strictest monas- 
tic order (p. 34). 

Smerd — common person, com- 
mon soldier (p. 2). 

Sotski == commander of a hun- 
dred (5^0 — hundred, p. 10). 

Starosta — elder (p. 2). 

Svei = Swedes (p. 17). 

Tamga = a tax levied by the Tar- 
tars; properly a seal on mer- 
chandise (see p. 95, n. i). 

Tiun = bailiff (p. 71). 

Tsar = King, Emperor (p. 30). 

Tsargrad — Constantinople (p. 
20). 

Tsariisa = Queen, Empress (p. 

95). 
Tysyatski = commander of a 

thousand (p. 35). , 

Veche (pron. vyetche, with the 

stress on the first syllable) = 

council (p. I). 
Veliki Knyaz — Grand Prince 

(p. 41). 
Verst — about two-thirds of 'a 

mile (p. 26). 
Vladyka = Archbishop (p. 6). 
Volok = portage (p. 6). 
Voyevoda — general (p. i). 
Zverinets = enclosure for ani- 
mals, park (p. 5). 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



xliii 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TITLES, TECHNICAL TERMS, 

ETC., WHICH IN THE TEXT HAVE BEEN TRANSLATED, 

TOGETHER WITH THE RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS AND 

THE PAGES WHERE THEY FIRST OCCUR. 



Adventurers = molodtsy (p. iii). 
Army = polk (p. 51). 
Bishop = cpiskop (p. 8). 
Body-guard = gridba (p. 38). 
Charter = gramota (p. 72). 
Clan = plemya (p. 38). 
Colony = sloboda (p. 169). 
Council = Veche (p. i). (Pro- 
nounced Vye-tche). 
Council-chamber — gridnitsa (p. 

73). 

Court = dvor (p. i, 14, 62). 

Courtier = dvoryanin (p. 50). 

District = volost (p. 32). 

Document = gramota (p. 104). 

Fence = tyn (p. 82). 

Fines = vira dikaya (p. 50). 

Fortification = gorod (p. 51). 

Fortified town = gorod (p. 8). 

Fortress = osek (p. 52). 

Fortress, prison = ostrog (p. 67). 

Fosse — greblya (p. 118). 

House == dvor (strictly speaking, 
the house with yard or 
court and fence and gates, 

P- 51)- 
Lieutenant = natnestnik (p. 54). 
Lithuanians = Litva (p. 32). 



Lord = gospodin (p. 256). 
Noble = velmozha (p. 90). 
Palace = polata (p. 52). 
Palace = terem (p. 130). 
Patrimony = otchina (p. 132). 
Picture (sacred) = ikon (p. 43). 
Priest = pop (p. 36). 
Province = oblast (p. 13). 
Russia = Rus (p. 7). 
Russian Land, the = Russkaya 

Zenilya (p. 5). 
Serf = kholop (p. 65). 
Serf = smerd (p. 11, 14). 
Sire = gospodin (p. 142). 
Sovereignty — tsarstvo (p. 90). 
Steward = stolnik (p. 90). 
Stockade = ostrog (p. 82). 
Stockade = gorod (p. 66). 
Throne = 5/0/ (p. 2). 
Town = gorod (p. 3). 
Town = posad (p. 79). 
Tribe = yazyk (p. 64). 
Tribune = aynvon (p. 47). 
Tribute = vykhod (p. 133). 
Usher = podvoiski (p. 42). 
Village = pogost (p. 86). 
Wall — val (sc. of earth, p. 64). 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 
1016-147 I 



The Chronicle of Novgorod 

A.D. 1016. A.M. 6524. [There was a fight at Lyubets, and Yaroslav 
won; and Svyatopolk fled to the Lyakhi} 
And at that time Yaroslav was keeping many Varangians^ in Nov- 
gorod, fearing war; and the Varangians began to commit violence 
against the wives of the townsmen. The men of Novgorod said: 
" We cannot look upon this violence," and they gathered by night, 
and fell upon and killed the Varangians in Poromon's Court; and 
that night Knyaz^ Yaroslav was at Rakomo. And having heard this, 
Knyaz Yaroslav was wroth with the townsfolk, and gathered a thou- 
sand soldiers in Slavno,^ and by craft falhng on those who had killed 
the Varangians, he killed them; and others fled out of the town. 
And the same night Yaroslav's sister, Peredslava, sent word to 
him from Kiev, saying: "Thy father is dead, and thy brethren 
slain." And having heard this, Yaroslav the next day gathered a 
number of the men of Novgorod, and held a Veche^ in the open air, 
and said to them: " My beloved and honourable Druzhina,^ whom 
yesterday in my madness I slew, I cannot now buy back even with 
gold." And thus he said to them : " Brethren ! my father Volodimir 
is dead, and Svyatopolk is Knyaz in Kiev; I want to go against him ; 
come with me and help me." And the men of Novgorod said to 
him: " Yes, Knyaz, we will follow thee." And he gathered 4,000 
soldiers : there were a thousand Varangians, and 3,000 of the men of 
Novgorod; and he went against him. 

And Svyatopolk having heard this, gathered a countless number of 
soldiers, and went out against him to Lyubets and encamped there 
in the open country with a number of soldiers. And Yaroslav hav- 
ing come, halted on the bank of the Dnieper; and they stood there 
three months, not daring to come together (sc. in conflict). Svyato- 
polk's Voyevoda"^ by name Wolf's Tail,^ riding along the river-bank, 

1 Lyakhi = th.e Poles, Poland. 

2 sc. Scandinavians. 

"• i.e. Prince. See Introduction, pp. ii-iv. 

* A quarter of the town. 

5 The popular assembly. See Introduction, pp. ii, viii, ix. 

* Bodyguard. 
" General. 

* Volchii Khvost. 



.;2.' THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

began to reproach the men of Novgorod : " Wherefore have you come 
with that builder of wooden houses ?]^ 

A.D. 1016. A.M. 6524. " You are carpenters, and we shall make 
you build houses for us." And the Dnieper 
began to freeze. And one of Yaroslav's men was on friendly terms 
with Svyatopolk. And Yaroslav sent one of his attendants to him 
by night, and he spoke to him. And this is what he said to him: 
" What dost thou advise to be done now ? There is but little mead 
brewed, and the Druzhina is large." And that man said to him: 
" Say thus to Yaroslav, if there is little mead, but a large Dyuzhina, 
then give it in the evening." And Yaroslav understood that he 
was advising him to fight at night ; and that evening Yaroslav with 
his troops crossed to the other bank of the Dnieper, and they 
pushed the boats away from the bank, and prepared to make battle 
that night. And Yaroslav said to his Druzhina: " Put a mark on 
you, wind your heads in kerchiefs." And there was a terrible fight,, 
and before dawn they conquered Svyatopolk, and Svyatopolk fled 
to the Pecheneg people. ^ 

And Yaroslav went to Kiev, and took his seat on the throne^ 
of his father Volodimir. And he began to distribute pay to his 
troops: to the siarostas'^ ten grivnas^ each, to the smerds^ one grivna 
each, and to all the men of Novgorod ten each, and let them all go 
to their homes. 

A.D. 1017. A.M. 6525. Yaroslav went to Beresti"; and St. Sophia 
was founded at Kiev. 

A.D. 1018. A.M. 6526. 

A.D. 1019. A.M. 6527. 

A.D. 1020. A.M. 6528. A son Volodimir was born to Yaroslav. 

A.D. 1021. A.M. 6529. Yaroslav defeated Bryacheslav. 

1 The Synodal MS. of the Novgorod Chronicle begins with the words : 
" You are carpenters." The portion of the chronicle for the year 1016 here 
printed in brackets is from another IMS. and is given here merely to make intel- 
ligible the remainder of the entry for this year. — Ed. 

- A nomad people in S. Russia. 

3 Stol. 

^ Elders, captains. 

5 Originally the equivalent of a pound of silver, it was at this time about 
\ lb. ; cf . Appendix. 

6 Common soldiers (ht. " evil-smelling "). 

.^ Brest, in Poland, now called Litevski, or " Lithuanian." 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



A.D. 


1022. 


A.M. 


G530. 


A.D. 


1023. 


A.M. 


6531. 


A.D. 


1024. 


A.M. 


6532. 


A.D. 


1025. 


A.M. 


6533. 


A.D. 


1026. 


A.M. 


6534. 


A.D. 


1027. 


A.M. 


6535. 


A.D. 


1028. 


A.M. 


6536. 


A.D. 


1029. 


A.M. 


6537. 


A.D. 


1030. 


A. M. 


6538. 


A.D. 


1031. 


A.M. 


6539. 


A.D. 


1032. 


A.M. 


6540. 


A.D. 


1033. 


A.M. 


6541. 


A.D. 


1034. 


A.M. 


6542. 


A.D. 


1035. 


A.M. 


6543. 


A.D. 


1036. 


A.M. 


6544. 


A.D. 


1037. 


A.M. 


6545. 


A.D. 


1038. 


A.M. 


6546. 


A.D. 


1039. 


A.M. 


6547. 


A.D. 


1040. 


A.M. 


6548. 


A.D. 


1041. 


A.M. 


6549. 


A.D. 


1042. 


A.M. 


6550. 


A.D. 


1043. 


A.M. 


6551. 


A.D. 


1044. 


A.M. 


6552. 


their 


bones. 




A.D. 


1045. 


A.M. 


6553. 



There appeared a sign in the sky like a 
serpent. 



Yaroslav founded the town^ of Kiev, and 
the Church of St. Sophia. 

The church of the Holy Mother of God was 
consecrated by Volodimir. 



Volodimir, the son of Yaroslav, went against 
the Yem^ people with the men of Novgorod. 

Volodimir went against the Greeks. 

Two Knyazes, Yaropolk and Oleg, sons of 
Svyatoslav, were buried, and they christened 

St. Sophia was burnt down, on a Satur- 
day, after the early morning service, in the 
third hour, on March 15. 

1 Gorod, sc. fortified town. 

2 A Finnish tribe. 

B2 



4 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

The same year St. Sophia at Novgorod was founded by Knyaz 
Volodimir. 

A.D. 1046. A.M. 6554. 

A.D. 1047. A.M. 6555. 

A.D. 1048. A.M. 6556. 

A.D. 1049. A.M. 6557. 

A.D. 1050. A.M. 6558. Svyatopolk was born. 

A.D. 1051. A.M. 6559. Yaroslav appointed Larion the Russian to I 
be Metropohtan. 

A.D. 1052. A.M. 6560. Volodimir, son of Yaroslav, died at Nov- 1 

gorod, on October 4; and Izyaslav took his 
seat on the throne in Kiev. 

A.D. 1053. A.M. 6561. 

A.D. 1054. A.M. 6562. Yaroslav died. -1 

A.D. 1055. A.M. 6563. 

A.D. 1056. A.M. 6564. 

A.D. 1057. A.M. 6565. 

A.D. 1058. A.M. 6566. 

A.D. 1059. A.M. 6567. They [Izyaslav, Svyatoslav and Vsevolod] 
released [Knyaz] Sudislav [their uncle] from 
prison [having sat there twenty-four years; and they made him 
take the oath and he became a monk].^ 

A.D. 1060. A.M. 6568. Igor, son of Yaroslav died. 

A.D. 1061. A.M. 6569. The Polovets^ people came on February 1 
and defeated Vsevolod on the 2nd. 

A.D. 1062. A.M. 6570. 

A.D. 1063. A.M. 6571. 

A.D. 1064. A.M. 6572. 

A.D. 1065. A.M. 6573. Vseslav began to make war; and in the west 
there appeared a great star. 

1 Words in brackets supplied from another text. 

2 Usually known as Polovtsy, i.e. the Kumans, a nomad people of Southern 
Russia, not Slavs, who in the centuries preceding the Tartar invasion periodi- 
cally ravaged the country round Kiev. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 5 

A.D. 1066. A.M. 6574. Vseslav came and took Novgorod, with the 
women and children; and he took down the 
bells from St. Sophia — Oh great was the distress at that time! — ■ 
and he took down the church lustres. 

A.D. 1067. A.M. 6575. They defeated Vseslav at Nemiza. The 
same year they captured him in Russia [Rus.y 

A.D. 1068. A.M. 6576. The wrath of God came on us; the Polovets 
people came and conquered the Russian^ 
Land. The same year the men of Kiev rescued^ Vseslav from prison. 
The same year Svyatoslav defeated the Polovets people near 
Snovsk, and Izyaslav fled to the Lyakhi. 

A.D. 1069. A.M. 6577. Izyaslav came from the Lyakhi, and Vseslav 
fled to Polotsk. 

The same year, in the autumn, on October 23, the day of the 
Lord's brother, St. James, a Friday, at the sixth hour of the day, 
Vse . . . again came to Novgorod; and the men of Novgorod drew 
up their forces against them, near the Zverinets^ on the Kzeml^; 
and God helped Knyaz Gleb with the men of Novgorod. 

Oh ! great was the slaughter among the Vod^ people, and a count- 
less number of them fell ; but the Knyaz himself they let go for the 
sake of God; and the next day the honourable cross of Volodimir 
was found at St. Sophia's in Novgorod, Fedor'^ being then Bishop. 

A.D. 1070. A.M. 6578. [A son] was born [to Vsevolod, and they 
called him] Rostislav; and the monastery 

church of St. Michael was founded at Kiev. 

A.D. 1071. A.M. 6579. 

A.D. 1072. A.M. 6580. Boris and Gleb^ were transferred from the 
Lto [river] to Vyshegorod. 

A.D. 1073. A.M. 6581. The Pechersk Church was founded by the 
Igmnen^ Feodos.^" The same year Svyato- 
slav and Vsevolod drove Izyaslav away to the Lyakhi. 

1 Here the Kiev region. See Introduction, p. xvi. 

2 Russkaya Zemlya. 

3 Vysyekosha=^{).it.) cut him out. 

* An enclosure to keep wild animals {zver). 

5 Kzeml, or Gzen, a stream near Novgorod. 

* A Finnish tribe. 

' Theodore. A colloquial form of Feodor. 

* sc. their remains. 

* Abbot, Superior, Head of a Monastery, from ijyovfievos. 
*" Theodosius. 



6 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

A.D. 1074. A.M. 6582. Fedos, 7^Mwg» of Pechersk, died on May 3. { 

A.D. 1075. A.M. 6583. 

A.D. 1076. A.M. 6584. 

A.D. 1077. A.M. 6585. Fedor, Vladyka^ of Novgorod, died. 

A.D. 1078. A.M. 6586. Oleg fled to Tmutorokan, and brought back 1 
the Polovets people, and defeated Vsevolod ^ 
on the Sozh [river]. The same year there was a fight at Chernigov, ' 
and two Knyazes, Izyaslav and Boris, were killed. 

A.D. 1079. A.M. 6587. They killed Knyaz Gleb beyond the Volok^ 
on May 30. The same year the Polovets 
people killed Roman. 

A.D. 1080. A.M. 6588. 

A.D. 1081. A.M. 6589. 

A.D. 1082. A.M. 6590. 

A.D. 1083. A.M. 6591. 

A.D. 1084. A.M. 6592. 

A.D. 1085. A.M. 6593. 

A.D. 1086. A.M. 6594. 

A.D. 1087. A.M. 6595. 

A.D. 1088. A.M. 6596. The Church of St. Mikhail was consecrated. 

A.D. 1089. A.M. 6597. The Pechersk Church was consecrated by 
the Metropolitan loan.^ 
The same year (Vsevolod's daughter) died. 

A.D. 1090. A.M. 6598. He fetched Yanek^ the Eunuch Metro- 
politan. The same year the Church of Saint 
Mikhail at Pereyaslavl was consecrated. 

A.D. 1091. A.M. 6599. They transferred the Igumen Fedos* of Pec- 
hersk into the monastery from Pechera.^ The 
same year the Eunuch Metropohtan loan died. 

1 Archbishop — ht. ruler. 

2 Fo^O/%= Portage, the watershed between two river basins, across which 
the boats are drawn; " beyond the Volok," za volokom, or zavoloche, is spe- 
cially the Dvinskaya Zemlya, the land of the Dvina, the basin of the Northern 
Dvina. See Introduction, pp. ix, x, xi, etc- 

3 i.e. John. 

* sc. the remains of. 
^ lit. the cave. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 7 

A.D. 1092. A.M. 6600. A panic came over the people of Polotsk, 
so that it was impossible to walk in the 
streets, because it was as if there was a quantity of soldiers and as 
if one could see horses' hoofs; and if anyone went out of his house, 
he would be suddenly and unaccountably killed. 

A.D. 1093. A.M. 6601. Vsevolod died; and Svyatopolk took his 
^ seat in Kiev. The same summer the 

Polo vets people defeated Svyatopolk and Mstislav at Trepol. 

A.D. 1094. A.M. 6602. 

A.D. 1095. A.M. 6603. Svyatopolk and Volodimir went against 
David to Smolensk, ^ and gave Novgorod to 
David. The same year locusts came to Russia on August 28. 

A.D. 1096. A.M. 6604. 

1 A.D. 1097. A.M. 6605. Vasilko was blinded. The same year, in the 
winter, Mstislav with the men of Novgorod 
defeated Oleg at the Kulatsk^ during the great fast. The same 
year in the spring, the other side^ was burnt and two days later the 
Detinets-gorod* was burnt down; and they killed the Knyaz's 
servants. 

A.D. 1098. A.M. 6606. 

A.D. 1099. A.M. 6607. 

A.D. 1100. A.M. 6608. 

A.D. 1101. A.M. 6609. Vseslav, i^wj'az of Polotsk, died. 

A.D. 1102. A.M. 6610. 

A.D. 1103. A.M. 6611. All the brethren Knyazes of the Russian 
Land went against the Polovets people to the 
Suten, and defeated them, and captured the belongings of their 
Knyaz. The same year the Mordva^ people defeated Yaroslav at 
Murom. The same year Knyaz Mstislav founded the Church of 
the Annunciation in the Gorodishche.^ 

A.D. 1104. A.M. 6612. Nikifor, Metropolitan of Russia, came, 

1 "Pitch(town)." 

2 sc. the river Kalaksha. 

3 sc. that part of Novgorod east of the river Volkhov. 

* The citadel. 

* A Finnish tribe. 

* " Citadel," or " fort," on the outskirts of Novgorod, 2 versts away. 



8 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

A.D. 1105. A.M. 6613. Lazor, Mina, and Amfilokhi were appointed 
Bishops. The same year they made war 
against Ladoga; and all the houses from the Stream, past Slavno,^ 
up to Saint Ilya were burnt. 

A.D. 1106. A.M. 6614. They defeated the Polovets people on the 
Dunai. The same year Knyaz Svyatosha, 
son of David at Chernigov, father-in-law of Vsevolod, was shorn. 

A.D. 1107. A.M. 6615. The earth trembled on February 5. 

A.D. 1108. A.M. 6616. Nikita, Vladyka of Novgorod, died on Jan- 
uary 30; and in the spring they began to 
paint^ St. Sophia, by the efforts of the holy Vladyka. 

A.D. 1109. A.M. 6617. The water was high in the Dnieper, the 
Desna and the Pripet. And they finished 
the refectory in the Pechersk monastery. The same year a church 
was founded at Kiev by Knyaz Svyatopolk. 

A.D. 1110. A.M. 6618. Vladyka loan came to Novgorod on Decem- 
ber 20. 

A.D. nil. A.M. 6619. Svyatopolk, Volodimir and David and the 
whole Russian Land to a man went against 
the Polovets people and defeated them and took their children, 
and rebuilt the fortified towns of Surtov and Sharukan. 

At the same time the Lower town^ at Kiev was burnt, as well as 
Chernigov, Smolensk and Novgorod. The same year loan. Bishop 
of Chernigov, died. The same year Mstislav went against Ochela.'* 

A.D. 1112. A.M. 6620. 

A.D. 1113. A.M. 6621. Yaroslav, son of Svyatopolk, went out 

/against the Yatvyag people,5and having come 
back from the war he took [to wife] the daughter of Mstislav. In 
the same year Svyatopolk died, and Volodimir took his seat on the 
throne in Kiev. David Igorovits died this same year. In this 
same year Mstislav defeated the Chud^ people at Bor. That same 
year was founded in Novgorod the Church of St. Nicholas. That 

1 A quarter of the town, sometimes called the Slavenski End. 

2 sc. to decorate with paintings or frescoes. 

3 Podole. 

* In the Chud country. 

5 A race in W. Russia, closely allied to the Lithuanians. 

* Finnish, f ri^<^ 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 9 

same year the whole of the outer town on this side^ was burned down, 
from a fire at Luka's. 

A.D. 1114. A.M. 6622. Svyatoslav died in Pereyaslavl. In the 
same year Feoktist was installed Bishop of 
Chernigov. 

A.D. 1115. A.M. 6623. The brothers Volodimir, Oleg and David 
assembled in Vyshegorod, together with the 
whole Russian Land, and they consecrated the stone church on 
May 1, and on the 2nd, the 8th of the Indiction [the remains of] 
Boris and Gleb were transferred. The same year there was a sign 
in the sun, as though it had perished, and in the autumn, on August 
1, Oleg, son of Svyatoslav, died. In Novgorod all Mstislav's horses 
and those of his Druzhina died. The same year, on April 28, the 
foreign merchant, Voi, laid the foundation of a church to St. 
Theodore of Tyre. 

A.D. 1116. A.M. 6624. Mstislav with the men of Novgorod went out 
against the Chud people and took Med- 
vezhya Golovofi on [the day of] the forty saints. That same year, 
Mstislav laid the foundations of a larger planned Novgorod (larger 
than the first). That same year, Paul, Posadnik^ of Ladoga, laid 
the foundations of the town of Ladoga in stone. 

A.D. 1117. A.M. 6625. Mstislav went from Novgorod on March 17 
to take the throne at Kiev, and he put his 
son, Vsevolod, on the throne at Novgorod. On May 14 that same 
year there was a sign by thunder at ten o'clock during evening ser- 
vice in St. Sophia in Novgorod; one of the chanters, a clerk, was 
struck by the thunder, and the whole choir with the people fell 
prone, the people remaining alive; and in the evening there was a 
sign in the moon. The same year the Igiimen Anton laid the 
foundation of the stone church of the monastery of the Holy Mother 
of God. 

The same year, Dobrynya, Posadnik of Novgorod, died on 
December 6. 

A.D. 1118. A.M. 6626. Dmitri Zavidits, Posadnik of Novgorod, 
died on July 9, having been sole Posadnik 

1 sc. the St. Sophia or Western side of Novgorod. 

* The Bear's Head ; in Finnish : Oden-paa, the modern Odeppe, a village 
S. of Yurev, or Dorpat, W. of Novgorod. 
3 Burgomaster. 



10 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

seven months. The same year, Volodimir with Mstislav brought 
all the Boyars^ of Novgorod to Kiev and led them to the honourable 
Cross,2 and then dismissed them to their houses, retaining others by 
him, being wroth with those because they had plundered Danislav 
and Nozdrich, and with the Sotski^ Stavro, and he drowned all of 
them. 

A.D. 1119. A.M. 6627. The Igiimen Kyuryak and Knyaz Vsevolod 
laid the foundation of the monastery church 
of St. Georgi in Novgorod. The same year died Kosnyatin* Moseo- 
vits the Posadnik. The same year, Anton's Church in the monas- 
tery of the Holy Mother of God in Novgorod was completed. 

A.D. 1120. A.M. 6628. Boris came to be Posadnik in Novgorod. 

A.D. 1121. A.M. 6629. 

A.D. 1122. A.M. 6630. Mstislav's wife, Christina, died. The same 
year Mstislav married in Kiev Dmitrovna, 
daughter of Zavidits of Novgorod. 

A.D. 1123. A.M. 6631. Vsevolod, son of Mstislav, married in Nov- 
gorod. The same year the Church of St. 
Mikhail fell in Pereyaslavl, and in the spring, Vsevolod and the men 
of Novgorod during the Great Fast went against the Yem people 
and defeated them ; but the march was terrible ; [a loaf of] bread 
cost one nogata.^ 

A.D. 1124. A.M. 6632. On the Uth day of August before evening 
service the sun began to decrease and it 
totally perished; oh, there was great terror and darkness ! there were 
stars and the moon ; then it began to re-appear and came out quickly 
in full; then all the city rejoiced. 

A.D. 1125. A.M. 6633. Volodimir the Great, son of Vsevolod, died 
in Kiev; and they put his son Mstislav on 
the throne of his father. The same year there was a great storm 
with thunder and hail ; it rent houses and it rent tiles off shrines ; 
it drowned droves of cattle in the Volkhov, and others they hardly 

> Nobles. 

2 i.e. made them take the oath of loyalty. 

3 Commander of a hundred (5/0). 

4 Constantine. 

6 cf. Appendix. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 11 

saved alive. The same year they painted the Anton chapel in the 
monastery (sc. frescoes). 

The same year the people of Novgorod put Vsevolod on the 
throne. 

A.D. 1126. A.M. 6634. Vsevolod went to Kiev to his father and he 
came back to the throne in Novgorod on 
February 28. The same year they gave the office of Posadnik to 
Miroslav Gyuryatinits. 

A.D. 1127. A.M. 6635. Vsevolod founded the stone church of St. 
loan in Novgorod, in the name of his son, 
in Petryata's Court. The same year a blizzard fell thick over land 
and water and houses during two nights and four days. The same 
year the Igumen Anton built a refectory of stone in Novgorod. The 
same year the water was high in the Volkhov and snow lay until 
James's^ day. And in the autumn the frost killed all the corn and 
the winter crop; and there was famine throughout the winter; an 
osminka^ of rye cost half a grivna.^ 

A.D. 1128. A.M. 6636. Kyuryak, Igumen of St. Georgi, died. The 
same year loan, son of Vsevolod, grandson 
of Mstislav, died on April 16. The same year Zavid Dmitrovits was 
made Posadnik in Novgorod. This year it was cruel; one osminka 
of rye cost a grivna; the people ate lime tree leaves, birch bark, 
pounded wood pulp mixed with husks and straw; some ate butter- 
cups, moss, horse flesh; and thus many dropping down from hunger, 
their corpses were in the streets, in the market place, and on the 
roads, and everywhere. They hired hirehngs to carry the dead out 
of the town ; the serfs could not go out ; woe and misery on all ! 
fathers and mothers would put their children into boats in gift to 
merchants,'* or else put them to death ; and others dispersed over 
foreign lands. Thus did our country perish on account of our sins. 
This 3^ear, the water was high in the Volkhov, and carried away 
many houses; and Knyaz Boris Vseslavits of Polotsk died; and 
Zavid Dmitrovits, Posadnik of Novgorod, died. 

A.D. 1129. A.M. 6637. Daniel came from Kiev to be Posadnik in 

Novgorod. 

1 May 1. 

2 About eleven pecks. 

3 cf . Appendix. 

* sc. as slaves to the oversea merchants, who came up the river Volkhov 
from the Baltic to Novgorod in boats. 



12 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

A.D. 1130. A.M. 6638. Vsevolod with the men of Novgorod went 
against the Chud people in the winter 
during the Feast; them he slaughtered, their dwellings he burned, 
and their wives and children he brought home. The same year he 
went to Kiev to his father. The same year they finished the Church 
of St. John. This year coming from beyond sea from the Goths,^ 
seven boats sank; they themselves all sank and their goods; but 
some escaped, though naked, and came from Donia- in health. 

This year Vladyka loan of Novgorod, resigned, he had sat twenty 
years, and they appointed Nifont Vladyka, a holy and very God- 
fearing man; he came to Novgorod on the 1st day of January, on 
St. Basil's day to mid-day service. And they let Petrila be Posadnik 
over Novgorod. 

A.D. 1131. A.M. 6639. There was a sign in the sun in the evening 
time on March 20. The same year in the 
winter, Vsevolod went against the Chud people, and there happened 
a great calamity ; they did to death many good men of Novgorod at 
Klin on Saturday, January 23. Then also Vladyka Nifont made 
Anton Igumen. 

A.D. 1132. A.M. 6640. Mstislav Volodimirits died in Kiev on 
April 14; and Yaropolk, Mstislav's brother, 
took his seat on the throne. This year, Vsevolod by order of Yaropolk 
went into Russia to Pereyaslavl although he had kissed the Cross 
to the people of Novgorod that I wish to die in your midst. And 
Georgi and Andrei said: " Behold our brother Yaropolk, after his 
own death wishes to give Kiev to Vsevolod his nephew: " and they 
drove him out of Pereyaslavl. And he came back to Novgorod 
and there was a great rising amongst the people. And the men of 
Pleskov^ and of Ladoga came to Novgorod, and drove out Knyaz 
Vsevolod from the town ; and then again, having taken counsel they 
brought him back from the Mouths^ and they let Miroslav be Posad- 
nik in Pleskov and Raguilov in the town of Ladoga. 

A.D. 1133. A.M. 6641. There was a sign in the sun before evening 

service. And the same year they renewed 

the bridge across the Volkhov, which had been destroyed, and they 

1 sc. Gothland. 

- i.e. Denmark. 

3 i.e. Pskov. 

* Usti, sc. of the river Volkhov in Lake Ladoga. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 13 

built two wooden churches in the market place ; to the Holy Mother 
of God and to St. George, under Knyaz Vsevolod. The same year 
in the winter, Vsevolod with the men of Novgorod went against the 
Chud people and took the town of Gyurgev^ on the anniversary of 
St. Nikifor, the 9th day of February. 

A.D. 1134. A.M. 6642. The people of Novgorod began to talk of a 
war with Suzhdal,- and they killed one of 
their own men and threw him from the bridge on Pentecost Saturday. 
The same year the business side^ caught fire, from the Carpenters' 
brook to the end of Kholm,^ as it had caught fire before; and ten 
honourable churches were destroyed by fire, on August 4. The 
same year Vsevolod marched with the men of Novgorod, wishing 
to place his brother in Suzhdal, and at the Dubna they turned 
back; and during the same journey they took away the Posadnik-ship 
from Petrila and gave it to Ivanko Pavlovits ; and Izyaslav went to 
Kiev: and all the Russian Land was rent asunder. The same year 
they cut to pieces some men of Novgorod beyond the Sea in Donia^ ; 
and Igumen Isaia went as envoy to Kiev ; and he came back with the 
Metropolitan Mikhail to Novgorod on December 9. The same year 
in the winter, Vsevolod went against Suzhdal with an army and all 
the Novgorod province,** on December 31; and bad weather set in; 
frost and blizzard, very terrible ! They fought on Zhdana hill, and 
much evil was wrought, and they killed Ivanko, Posadnik of Nov- 
gorod, a very brave man, on January 26, also Petrila Mikultsits and 
many good men, but of the men of Suzhdal yet more; and having 
made peace, they came back; and they let the Metropolitan go to 
Kiev on February 10 on Sexagesima Sunday, but those who were 
going to Suzhdal would not let him go, but he said to them: " Do 
not go, God will listen to me." And having come [back] they gave 
the Posadnik-s]\\p to Miroslav Gyuryatinits. 

A.D. 1135. A.M. 6643. Posadnik Miroslav went from Novgorod to 
make peace between the people of Kiev 
and those of Chernigov, and he came [back] without having achieved 
anything ; for the whole Russian Land was in great disorder ; Yaro- 
polk called the men of Novgorod to his side; and the Knyaz of 

1 i.e. Yurev, or Dorpat. 

2 A town E. of Moscow. 

3 The Eastern side of the town. 

^ A part of Novgorod, lit. " The Mound." 

5 i.e. Denmark. 

6 Oblast. 



14 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Chernigov to his ; and they fought, and God helped the son of Oleg 
with the men of Chernigov and he cut up many of the men of Kiev, 
and others they captured in the month of August. And this was 
not the whole of the evil ; the Polo vets people and every one began to 
muster fighting men. The same year, Vsevolod with Vladyka Nifont 
founded a stone church of the Holy Mother of God in the market 
place. The same year, Irozhnet founded a church to St. Nicholas 
in Yakov Street. The same year in the winter, Vladyka Nifont 
with the best men went into Russia, and found the men of Kiev and 
the men of Chernigov ranged against each other, and a quantity of 
troops; and by the will of God they were reconciled. And Miroslav 
died before the [return of the] Vladyka on January 28; the Bishop 
came on February 4. And they gave the Posadnik-shvp in Novgorod 
to Kostyantin Mikultsits. 

A.D. 1136. A.M. 6644. Of the year of the Indiction 14 The men 
of Novgorod summoned the men of Pleskov 
and of Ladoga and took counsel how to expel their Knyaz Vsevolod, 
and they confined him in the Court^ of the Bishop, together with 
wife and children and mother-in-law, on May 28, and guards with 
arms guarded him day and night, thirty men daily; and he sat two 
months and they let him out of the town on July 15, and they 
received his son, Volodimir. And they made these his faults: 
L He has no care for the serfs; H. Why didst thou wish to take thy 
seat in Pereyaslavl ? HL Thou didst ride away from the troop in 
front of all, and besides that much vacillation, ordering us first to 
advance against Vsevolodko and then again to retreat ; and they did 
not let him go till another Knyaz came. 

Then also the monastery church of the Holy Resurrection was 
destroyed by fire. The same year, Knyaz Svyatoslav Olgovits 
came to Novgorod from Chernigov, from his brother Vsevolodko on 
July 19, formerly, the 14th of the Calends of August, the Sunday of 
the festival of St. Euphemia, at 3 o'clock of the day, the 19th day of 
the moon in the sky. 

The same year, already the 15th of the Indiction, they killed Georgi 
Zhiroslavits, and threw him from the bridge, in the month of Sep- 
tember. The same year they consecrated the Church of St. 
Nicholas by a great consecration on December 5. The same year, 
Svyatoslav Olgovits married in Novgorod and was wedded by his 
own priests in the Church of St. Nicholas; and Nifont did not wed 

1 Dvor. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 15 

him, he did not let priests or monks [go to the wedding] saying: 
" It behoves him not to take her [to wife]." 

The same year the favourites of Vsevolod shot at the Knyaz; 
but he remained ahve. 

A.D. 1137. A.M. 6645. On March 7, in the 15th year of the 
Indiction, Kostyantin, Posadnik of Nov- 
gorod, and some other good men fled to Vsevolod; and they let 
Yakun Miroslavits be Posadnik in Novgorod. The same year 
Vsevolod Mstislavits came to Pleskov, wishing to take his seat again 
on his own throne in Novgorod, secretly called on by men of Nov- 
gorod and of Pleskov, his friends: " Come, Knyaz, they want you 
again." And when this was heard, that Vsevolod was at Pleskov 
with his brother Svyatopolk, there was great tumult in Novgorod. 
The people did not want Vsevolod; and some hurried off to Vsevolod 
to Pleskov, and took to plundering their houses, Kosnyatin's, 
Nezhata's, and those of many others, and besides that seeking out 
those Boyars who were friends of Vsevolod, they took one and a half 
thousand grivnas from each and gave it to the merchants to prepare 
for war; but they also laid hands on the innocent. Then Svyatoslav 
Olgovits collected the whole Novgorod land and fetched his brother 
Glebko, [and with] men of Kursk [and] with Polovets people went 
to Pleskov to drive away Vsevolod ; and the men of Pleskov did not 
submit to them, nor did they drive out the Knyaz from them, but 
they had guarded themselves and barricaded all the ways by 
felling trees, and Knyaz and people having taken counsel on the way, 
they turned back at Dubrovna, and also having said: " Let us not 
spill blood with our brothers ; rather let God settle by his providence." 
Then too, Vsevolod Mstislavits died in Pleskov, in the month of 
February, and the men of Pleskov took sides with his brother 
Svyatopolk; and there was no peace with them, nor with the men of 
Suzhdal, nor with those of Smolensk, nor with those of Polotsk, nor 
with those of Kiev. And all the year a large osminka cost seven 
rezanas?- 

A.D. 1138. A.M. 6646. In the month of March on the 9th day [the 
day of] the forty Saints, there was great 
thunder, so that sitting in doors we heard it clearly. 

The same year they drove Svyatoslav, the son of Oleg, out of 
Novgorod, on April 17, on the third Sunday after Easter; having 
sat two years less three months. 

1 cf. Appendix. 



16 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

The same year they sent to Suzdhal for Gyurgi Volodimirits ; and 
on the 23rd of that month the people took alarm: for they had 
falsely said that Svyatoslav was outside the town with the men of 
Pleskov; and the whole town went out to Silnishche/ and it was 
nothing at all, but Svyatoslav's wife with his best men were taken 
prisoners in Novgorod, and Svyatoslav himself the men of Smolensk 
took on the way and kept guard over him in the monastery at 
Smyadino, likewise his wife in the monastery of St. Barbara in 
Novgorod, awaiting examination by Yaropolk and Vsevolodko. 

The same year Knyaz Yaroslav, son of Gyurgi, grandson of 
Volodimir, came from Suzhdal into Novgorod on to the throne, 
on May 10; and they made peace with the men of Pleskov. The 
same year Knyaz Yaropolk of Kiev died, and his brother, Vyaches- 
lav, took his seat on the throne. 

A.D. 1139. A.M. 6647. Knyaz Gyurgi came from Suzhdal to Smo 
lensk and summoned the men of Novgorod 
against Kiev against Vsevolod, and they did not listen to him. 
And then Rostislav fled from Novgorod to Smolensk to his father 
on September 1, having sat in Novgorod eight years and four months; 
and Gyurgi was wroth, going back to Suzhdal, he took Novi-torg.^ 
The men of Novgorod sent to Kiev for Svyatoslav Olgovits, having 
given their oath; and there was tumult in Novgorod, and Svyatos- 
lav was away a long time. The same year, Svyatoslav Olgovits 
entered Novgorod and took his seat on the throne in the month of 
December on the 25th. 

A.D. 1140. A.M. 6648. On March 20 there was a sign in the sun; 
only so much of it remained as there is in a 
moon of four days ; but it filled out again before setting. The same 
year they sent Kosnyatin Mikultsits and six others after him to 
Vsevolod to Kiev; having put in chains Polyud Kosnyatinits, 
Demyan and some others. 

A.D. 1141. A.M. 6649. On April 1 there was a very marvellous sign 
in the sky; six circles, three close about the 
sun, and three other large ones outside the sun, and stood nearly 
all day. 

The same year they came from Vsevolod from Kiev for his brother 
Svyatoslav to take him to Kiev; " and receive my son as your 

1 Near Novgorod. 
* lit., New Market. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 17 

Knyaz," he said. And when they sent the Bishop and many best 
men for his son, they said to Svyatoslav: " Thou wait for thy bro- 
ther, then thou shalt go; " but he, fearing the men of Novgorod, 
" whether they are going to deceive me," fled secretly in the night; 
Yakun fled with him. And they took Yakun on the [river] Plisa, 
and having brought him hither with his brother Procopi, they 
nearly did him to death, having stripped him naked, as his mother 
bore him, and they threw him down from the bridge; but God 
saved him, he waded to the bank, and they beat him no more, but 
took from him 1,000 grivnas, and from his brother 100 grivnas, 
hkewise they took from others; and they exiled Yakun with his 
brother to the Chud people, having chained their hands to their "^ 
necks; and afterwards Gyurgi fetched them to him, and their wives 
from Novgorod, and kept them by him in favour. And Vsevolod 
was wroth, and he detained all the emissaries and the Bishop and 
the merchants. 

And the people of Novgorod sat without a Knyaz nine months: 
and they summoned Sudila, Nezhata and Strashko from Suzhdal, 
who had fled from Novgorod on account of Svyatoslav and Yakun; 
and they gave the Posadnik-shvp in Novgorod to Sudila ; and they 
sent to Suzhdal for Gyurgi to be Knyaz, and he did not go, but sent 
his son, Rostislav, who had been before. 

The same year Rostislav went on to the throne at Novgorod, on 
November 26. 

A.D. 114:2. A.M. 6650. They did not let the Bishop and the mer- 
chants and the Novgorod emissaries leave 
Russia, and they did not wish for any other Knyaz than Svyatopolk; 
and he gave them Svyatopolk from his own hands; Gyurgi having 
broken his oath, by letting his son go back to Novgorod. And they 
heard in Novgorod that Svyatopolk is coming to them with all 
their people, and they took Rostislav and put him in the Bishop's 
Court, having sat (sc. on the throne) four months. 

The same year, on April 19, Svyatopolk entered Novgorod; and 
they let Rostislav go to his father. 

The same year came the Yem people, and made war on the 
Novgorod province; 400 of the men of Ladoga defeated them, and 
did not let one escape. 

The same year a Knyaz of the Svei^ with a Bishop in sixty boats 
attacked merchants who were coming from over sea in three boats; / 

* Swedes. 



18 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

and they fought, they accomplished nothing, and they separated 
three of their boats, and they killed one hundred and fifty of them. 

A.D. 1143. A.M. 6651. All the autumn was rain}', from Our Lady's 
Birthday^ to Korochun'^ warm, wet; and the 
water was very high in the Volkhov and everywhere, it carried abroad 
hay and wood; the lake^ froze in the night, and the wind broke up 
[the ice] and carried it into the Volkhov, and it broke the bridge, 
it carried away four piles, never heard of more. 

The same year Svyatopolk married in Novgorod, he brought a 
wife from Moravia, between Christmas and Epiphany. 

The same year the Korel people"^ went against the Yem people 
and [those] running away, they destroyed two of their vessels. 

A.D. 1144. A.M. 6652. They made a whole bridge across the 
Volkhov by the side of the old one, entirely 
new. 

The same year the whole of Kholm^ was burned, and the church of 
St. Ilya. The same year they painted fittingly all the porches in 
the Church of St. Sophia in Novgorod, under Vladyka Nifont. 
Then, too, they gave the Posadnik-shi-p to Nezhata Tverdyatits. 
The same year they finished the stone church of the Holy Mother of 
God in the market place in Novgorod. The same year the holy 
Vladyka Nifont appointed me priest. 

A.D. 1145. A.M. 6653. There were two whole weeks of great heat, 
like burning sparks, before harvest; then 
came rain, so that we saw not a clear day till winter; and a great 
quantity of corn and hay they were unable to harvest; and that 
autumn the water was higher than three years before ; and in the 
winter there was not much snow, and no clear day, not till March. 
The same year, two priests were drowned and the Bishop did not 
let sing over them. The same year they founded a stone church, Boris 
and Gleb, at Smyadino by Smolensk. The same year the whole 
Russian Land went against Galich, they devastated much of their 
province, but took not one town, and returned, and they went also 
from Novgorod with Voyevoda Nerevin to help the people of Kiev, 
and returned with love. 

' September 25. 

- The Winter solstice. 

3 sc. Lake Umen, at the north end of which Hes Novgorod. 

* A Finnish tribe. 

5 i.e. The Mound, a quarter of the town. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 19 

A.D. 1146. A.M. 6654. Vsevolod died in Russia in the month of 
Jiily, and his brother, Igor, took his scat on 
the throne and sat two weeks, and the people disliked him ; and they 
sent word to Izyaslav Mstislavich in Pereyaslavl, and he came with 
soldiers, and they fought; and God helped Izyaslav, and Izyaslav 
took his seat on the throne; and they took Igor five days after the 
fight and made him captive ; and in the autumn he begged permission 
to be shorn ; and he was shorn. 

Then, too, they gave the Posadnik-ship to Kostyantin Mikultsits, 
having taken it away from Nezhata. 

The same year they made four churches: to the holy Martyrs 
Boris and Gleb in the town, to the holy Prophet Ilya, to the holy 
Apostles Peter and Paul, in the KJiolm [quarter], and to the Holy 
Benefactors^ Kosma and Damyan. 

A.D. 1147. A.M. 6655. In the autumn Svyatopolk with the whole 
Novgorod province went against Gyurgi 
wishing to go against Suzhdal, and turned back at Novi-torg for 
the bad roads. 

The same year in the winter Posadnik Kostyantin died and they 
gave it again to Sudila Ivankovits. 

Then, too, Igiimen Onton' died. The same year they gave the 
Igumen-shxp to Andrei in Onton's place. 

The same year the people of Kiev killed Knyaz Igor Olgovits. 

A.D. 1148. A.M. 6656. There was rain with hail on June 27, a 
Sunday; and thunder set fire to the Church 
of the Holy Mother of God in the monastery of Zverinets. The same 
year Vladyka Nifont went to Suzhdal, for peace, to Gyurgi; and 
Gyurgi received him with love, and consecrated the Church of the 
Holy Mother of God, with great consecration, and released all the 
men of Novi-torg and all the merchants, untouched, and sent them 
with honour to Novgorod; but peace he gave not. 

The same autumn Izyaslav sent his son, Yaroslav, from Kiev, 
and the men of Novgorod received him, and he took Svyatopolk 
away because of his wickedness, and they gave him Volodimir. 

The same winter Izyaslav, son of Mstislav, came to Novgorod 
from Kiev, and went to Rostov against Gyurgi with the men ol 
Novgorod; and they made much war on Gyurgi's people, and took 

^ Bestnezdniki=a.va.pyvpoi; these two saints who were doctors and gave their 
services gratis, are often so-called. 
* so. Anthony. 

C2 



no THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

six small towns on the Volga, they laid waste as far as Yaroslavl, 
and took 7,000 heads (captives), and turned back for the bad roads. 

A.D. 1149. A.M. 6657. Nifont, Vladyka of Novgorod, went into 
Russia, summoned by Izyaslav and Klim 
the Metropohtan: for Izyaslav with the Bishops of the Russian 
province^ had appointed him, not having sent to Tzargrad;'^ and to 
Nifont he spake thus: " You were not fittingly appointed, for you 
were neither blessed nor appointed by the great council." And 
he (Izyaslav) on this account did not hurry to acquit him, but put 
him in the Pechersk monastery until Gyurgi should come. The 
same year Gyurgi came against Kiev, summoned by Svyatoslav 
Olgovits, and they fought at Pereyaslavl, and the men of Pereyas- 
lavl sat on the defensive, at the bidding of Gyurgi ; and Gyurgi took 
his seat in Kiev, and Izyaslav fled to Volodimir. The same year 
tax gatherers in small number went out; and Gyurgi, aware that 
they went a small party, sent Knyaz Berladski with soldiers, and 
having fought a little at one point, the men of Novgorod took stand 
on an island, and the others having taken stand opposite, they 
began to make a barricade in boats ; the men of Novgorod went to 
them on the third day, and they fought ; and many of both were left 
lying, but of the men of Suzhdal without number. The same 
winter the Yem people came with armed force against the Vod 
people, several thousand; and the men of Novgorod having heard, 
about 500 of them went with the Vod people against them, and did 
not let a man escape. The same night there was a sign in the 
moon : the whole of it perished, during early morning service it filled 
out again, in February. 

A.D. 1150. A.M. 6658. Vladyka Nifont came from Kiev, released by 
Knyaz Gyurgi; and the people at Novgorod 
were glad. 

A.D. 1151. A.M. 6659. Izyaslav with Vyacheslav defeated Gyurgi 
at Pereyaslavl on July 17. 

The same winter the Knyaginya^ of Izyaslav died. 

The same year Vladyka Nifont covered St. Sophia all smoothly 
over with lead and plastered it with lime all about. Then, too, 
they erected two churches: of St. Vasili and of St, Kostyantin 
and his mother, Helen. 

1 Kiev and district. 

* i.e. the Emperor's town, Constantinople. 

3 Princess, sc. wife. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 21 

A.D. 1152. A.M. 6660. On April 23, the Church of St. Michael 
in the middle of the market place took fire, 
and there was much damage; the whole market place was burnt, and 
the houses up to the stream, and hitherwards to Slavno, and 
eight churches were burnt down, and a ninth, the Varangian one. 

A.D. 1153. A.M. 6661. The God-loving Vladyka Nifont went to 
Ladoga and founded the stone Church of 
St. Kliment. 

The same year Igmnen Arkadi built the wooden Church of the 
Assumption of the Holy Mother of God, and established for himself 
a monastery; and it was a refuge for Christians, a joy to the Angels, 
and perdition to the devil. 

A.D. 1154. A.M. 6662. The men of Novgorod drove out Knyaz 
Yaroslav on March 26, and fetched in 
Rostislav, son of Mstislav, on April 17. 

The same year they built a church to St. Sava. 

The same year on November 14, Izyaslav died in Kiev. Then, 
too, Rostislav went from Novgorod to [take] the throne in Kiev, 
having left his son, David, in Novgorod. And the men of Nov- 
gorod were indignant, because he did not make order among them 
but tore them more apart ; and they showed the road to his son after 
him. Then they sent Vladyka Nifont with the foremost men to 
Gyurgi for his son, and fetched in Mstislav, son of Gyurgi, on Jan- 
uary 30. The same winter Vyacheslav died in Kiev. 

Then, too, Rostislav went to Chernigov from Kiev, having sat 
in Kiev one week, and they defeated him, having deceived [him] ; 
and Izyaslav Davidovits took his seat in Kiev. 

A.D. 1155. A.M. 6663. In Palm week Knyaz Gyurgi entered Kiev 
and took his seat on the throne, and Izyaslav 
Davidovits fled to Chernigov; and Gyurgi received his nephews in 
peace with love, and distributed proper districts among them; and 
there was quiet in the Russian Land. 

A.D. 1156. A.M. 6664. The men of Novgorod drove out Sudila 
from the Posadnik-shi^ , and he died on the 
fifth day after that expulsion ; and then they gave the Posadnik-shx^ 
to Yakun Miroslavits. The same spring, on April 21, Vladyka 
Nifont died: he had gone to Kiev against the Metropolitan; many 
others, too, said that having plundered St. Sophia, he went to Tsar- 
grad; and they said many things against him, but with sin to them- 



22 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

selves. About this each one of us should reflect : which bishop orna- 
mented St. Sophia, painted the porches, made an ikon-case, and 
ornamented the whole outside; and in Pleskov erected a Church 
of the Holy Saviour in stone, and another in Ladoga to St. 
Kliment ? And I think that God for our sins not wishing to give us 
his coffin for our consolation, led him away to Kiev, and there he 
died; and they placed him in the Pechersk monastery, in a vault 
in the [church of the] Holy Mother of God. The same year the 
whole town of people gathered together, and decided to appoint as 
Bishop for themselves, Arkadi, a man chosen of God; and the whole 
people went and took him out of the monastery of the Holy Mother 
of God, both Knyaz Mstislav Gyurgevits, and the whole choir of 
St. Sophia, and all the town priests, the Igumens and the monks, 
and they led him in, having entrusted him with the bishopric in 
the Court of St. Sophia, till the Metropolitan should come to Russia, 
and then you shall go to be appointed. The same year the oversea 
merchants put up the Church of the Holy Friday on the market place. 

A.D. 1157. A.M. 6665. There was a bad tumult in the people, and 
they rose against Knyaz Mstislav Gyurgevits, 
and began to drive him out of Novgorod ; but the Mercantile^ Half 
stood up in arms for him ; and brother quarrelled with brother, they 
seized the bridge over the Volkhov, and guards took their stand at 
the town gates, and [so did] the others on the other side; and they 
were within a little of shedding blood between them. And then 
Svyatoslav Rostislavits and David entered, and that night Mstislav 
fled out of the town. After three days Rostislav himself entered, 
and the brothers came together, and there was no harm at all. 

The same spring Knyaz Gyurgi died at Kiev, and the men of Kiev 
set Izyaslav Davidovits on the throne. 

The same year Andrei, Igiimen of the Church of the Holy Mother 
of God, died, and they appointed Olksa'^ in his place. 

The same autumn it was very terrible: thunder and lightning, and 
hail in size larger than apples, at 5 of the night, on November 7. 

A.D. 1158. A.M. 6666. Rostislav went to Smolensk with his 
Knyaginya and he set his son, Svyatoslav, 
on the throne in Novgorod, and David in Novi-torg. 

The same year there was great mortality in the people, for our 
sins, and a quantity of horses died, so that it was not possible to walk 

^ i.e. the Eastern. 
* sc. Alexis. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 23 

to the market place through the town, nor along the dike, nor out to 
the fields, for the stench ; horned cattle also died. 

The same year Arkadi went to Kiev to be appointed Bishop, and 
he was appointed by the Metropolitan Kostyantin, and came to 
Novgorod on the 13th day of September, on the eve of the Exaltation 
[of the Holy Cross]. 

The same year Mstislav Izyaslavits defeated Izyaslav Davidovits, 
and drove him away out of Kiev, and summoned Rostislav his uncle 
to Kiev to the throne. 

The same autumn they appointed Dionisi Igumen of St. Georgi 
[in the monastery]. 

A.D. 1159. A.M. G667. Mstislav went to Kiev and took his seat on 
the throne in Kiev. The same year Kostyan- 
tin, Metropolitan of Russia, died at Chernigov. 

A.D. 1160. A.M. 6668. The men of Novgorod received Svyatoslav 
Rostislavits and sent him on to Ladoga, and 
the Knyaginya they let enter the monastery of St. Barbara, and his 
Dnishiiia they put into a dungeon; and they fetched in Mstislav 
Rostislavits, grandson of Gyurgi, on June 21. 

The same winter they gave the Posadnik-'ihx^ to Nezhata, and took 
Svyatoslav to Ladoga, and thence he fled to Smolensk. 

The same j'ear, in the winter, Rostislav defeated Izyaslav Davido- 
vits at Belgorod,^ and they killed him himself, and a quantity of 
Polo vets people fell. 

A.D. 1161. A.M. 6669. Rostislav agreed with Andrei about Novgo- 
rod, and they fetched away Mstislav, 
Gyurgi 's grandson, having sat one year short of a week, and fetched 
in Sv3^atoslav again with his fullliberty on September 28. Then, too 
they took the Posadnik-shi^ from Nezhata and gave it to Zakhari. 

The same year the sky stood clear all summer and all the corn was 
scorched, and in the autumn frost killed all the spring corn. 

But furthermore for our sins the evil did not stop there, but again 
in the winter the whole winter stood with heat and rain, and there 
was thunder; and we bought a little barrel (kadka)- for seven kunas? 
Oh, there was great distress in the people and want ! 

A.D. 1162. A.M. 6670. Igumen Olksa of the [monastery of the] 
Holy Mother of God died, and they ap- 

1 i.e. \Vliite-town. 

- The same as osminka, cf. appendix. , 

^ i.e. marten-skins, or parts of them, used as money, ci. appendix. 



24 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

pointed Manuil Igimien after him. The same year they appointed 
Sava Igumen in the [monastery of the] Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

A.D. 1163. A.M. 6671. Arkadi, Bishop of Novgorod, died on 
September 19; they laid him with great 
honour in the porch of St. Sophia. 

A.D. 1164. A.M. 6672. The Svei^ approached Ladoga, and the 
people of Ladoga set fire to their dwellings, 
and shut themselves up in the town with Posadnik Nezhata, and 
sent for the Knyaz and for the men of Novgorod. And they came 
right up to the town on a Saturday, and could do nothing to the 
town, but took more harm themselves; and they retired to the 
river Voronai. The fifth day after this Knyaz Svyatoslav arrived 
with the men of Novgorod, and with Posadnik Zakhari, and turned 
upon them, on May 28, the day of Saint Eulah, on Thursday, 
at 5 of the day, and defeated them with God's help, some they 
cut down, and others they took. They had come in 55 boats, 
43 boats they took; only a few of them escaped, and those 
wounded. 

A.D. 1165. A.M. 6673. Ilya was appointed Vladyka of Novgorod by 
the Metropolitan loan, under Rostislav, 
Knyaz of Russia, on the 28th of March, in Palm week, and he came 
to Novgorod on May 11, under Svyatoslav, Knyaz of Novgorod, 
and Posadnik Zakhari. 

The same year they put up the Church of the Holy Trinity in 
Shetitsinitsa,^ and Knyaz Svyatoslav another to St. Nicholas in the 
Gorodishche. 

The same year Igumen Dionisi went with love to Russia, and the 
Vladyka was ordered by the Metropolitan [to assume] the Arch- 
bishopric. The same winter there was severe frost. 

A.D. 1166. A.M. 6674. The Metropolitan loan died at Kiev. 

The same year was founded the stone 
Church of St. Saviour at the gates of the monastery of St. Georgi. 

The same year, in the winter, Rostislav came to Luki from Kiev, 
and summoned the men of Novgorod to a council: householders, 
guards and principal merchants; and here he fell ill himself, and 

^ i.e. Swedes. 

'^ sc. Quarter of the Shieldmakers. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 25 

turned back, and died on the road; and they carried him to Kiev, 
and laid him in St. Fedor's.^ 

A.D. 1167. A.M. 6675. Mstislav Izyaslavits took his seat on the 
throne in Kiev. The same spring Sedko 
Sitinits founded the stone Church of the Holy Martyrs Boris and 
Gleb under Knyaz Svyatoslav Rostislavits, and Vladyka Hya. 
The same year Kostyantin came to Russia to be Metropolitan. 

The same year Knyaz Svyatoslav went out of Novgorod to Luki, 
and sent to Novgorod, saying thus to them, that: " I do not want to 
be Knyaz among you, it pleases me not." And the men of Nov- 
gorod having kissed the picture of the Holy Mother of God, said to 
themselves that: " We do not want him," and went to drive him 
away from Luki ; and he, having heard that they are coming against 
him, went to Toropets, and the men of Novgorod sent to Russia to 
Mstislav for his son. And Svyatoslav went to the Volga, and 
Andrei gave him help, and he burned Novi-torg, and the men of 
Novi-torg retired to Novgorod; and he did much damage to their 
houses, and laid waste their villages. And his brother Roman and 
Mstislav burned Luki; and the people of Luki took precautions 
and retired, some into the town, and others to Pleskov. Andrei 
combined with the men of Smolensk and Polotsk against Novgorod, 
and they occupied the roads, and seized the Novgorod emissaries 
everywhere, not letting Mstislav in Kiev know; imposing Svyatoslav 
on the town by force, and saying this word: " There is no other 
Knyaz for you than Svyatoslav." The men of Novgorod, however, 
heeded this not, and killed Zakliari the Posadnik, and Nerevin, and 
the herald Nesda, because they thought they gave information to 
Svyatoslav ; and they found for themselves a way to Vyatsko- and to 
Volodar;^ and Danislav Lazutinits went with a company to Kiev to 
Mstislav for his son ; and Svyatoslav came with the men of Suzhdal , 
and with his two brothers and with men of Smolensk and Polotsk 
to Russa'* ; the men of Novgorod with Yakun went against them ; but 
without reaching [them] they turned back: and they accomplished 
nothing. 

They then gave the Posadnik-ship to Yakun, and the people of 
Novgorod sat without Knyaz from Simeon's day^ till Easter under 

' sc. " Theodore's." 

2 Vyacheslav. 

3 Volodimir. 

* A town at the S. end of Lake Ilmen, at the N. end of which Hes Novgorod. 

* February 3. 



26 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Yakun, awaiting his son from Mstislav. The same winter Mstislav 
went against the Polovets people and defeated them, and brought 
booty into the Russian Land in such quantity that there was no 
number to it. The same year the servant of God Anna, Iguniena} of 
St. Barbara, died; and they appointed Marmyana in her place. 

A.D. 1168. A.M. 6676. Knyaz Roman Mstislavits, grandson of 
Izyaslav, came to the throne in Novgorod 
on April 14, on the second Sunday after the Great Day,"^ 
first of the Indiction. And the people of Novgorod were glad at 
[the fulfilment of] their wishes. The same j^ear the men of Nov- 
gorod marched with the men of Pleskov to Polotsk; and having 
burned the district they turned back at 30 versts from the town. 
In the spring, towards the end of the same year, Roman, with the 
men of Novgorod, went to Toropets, and they burned their houses, 
and captured a quantity of prisoners. At the same time the sons of 
Rostislav with Andreyevits, and with the men of Smolensk and of 
Polotsk, and of Murom, and of Ryazan, went against Mstislav to 
Kiev; but he did not fight with them, he retired of his own accord 
from Kiev. 

A.D. 1169. A.M. 6677. Danislav Lazutinits went as tribute col- 
lector with a Druzhina beyond the Volok^, 
and Andrei sent his force against him, and they fought with them, 
there were 400 men of Novgorod, and 7,000 of Suzhdal; and God 
helped the men of Novgorod, and 1,300 of them fell, and of the men 
of Novgorod 15 men; and the men of Novgorod retired and having 
again returned, took the whole tribute, and another one from the 
serfs of Suzhdal; and they came back all well. The same year in 
the winter the men of Suzhdal with Andreyevits, Roman and 
Mstislav with the men of Smolensk, and of Toropets, of Murom 
and of Ryazan with two Knyazes, the Knyaz of Polotsk with the 
men of Polotsk, and the whole Russian Land proper, approached 
Novgorod. And the men of Novgorod stood firm for Knyaz Roman 
Mstislavits, grandson of Izyaslav, and for Posadnik Yakun, and 
constructed a defence about the town. And they came up to the 
town on a Sunday to negotiate, and parleyed for three days ; and on 
the fourth day, on Wednesday, they came up in force, and fought 
all day; and towards evening Knyaz Roman with the men of Nov- 

1 Abbess. 

2 sc. Easter. 

3 sc. to the country of the Northern Dvina. cf. p. 6. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 27 

gorod defeated them, by the power of the Cross and of the Holy 
Mother of God and by the prayers of the faithful Vladyka Ilya, on 
the 25th of the month of February, the day of the holy Bishop 
Tarasi, some they cut down, and others they took, and the rest 
of them escaped with difficulty, and they bought men of Suzhdal 
at 2 nogatas. 

A.D. 1170. A.M. 6678. There was dearness in Novgorod; and they 
bought a barrel^ of rye at 4 grivnas, and 
bread at 2 nogatas, honey at 10 kiinas a pud.'^ The men of Novgorod 
having taken counsel showed Knyaz Roman the road, and themselves 
sent to Ondrei^ for peace with [guarantee of] full liberty. The 
same year Knyaz Rurik Rostislavits entered Novgorod, on 
October 4, on St. lerofei's. The same year the God-loving 
Vladyka Ilya with his brother Gavrilo erected a monastery, the 
Church of the Annunciation of the Holy Mother of God. The same 
year Knyaz Mstislav Izyaslavits, grandson of Volodimir, died. 
The same year Knyaz Gleb Gyurgevits died at Kiev, and they 
fetched in Volodimir Mstislavits. 

A.D. 1171. A.M. 6679. Knyaz Volodimir died at Kiev, having sat 
on the throne three months. The same year 
Knyaz Rurik took away the Posadnik-shi^ from Zhiroslav, at Nov- 
gorod, and drove him out of the town; he went to Suzhdal to 
Ondrei, and they gave the Posadnik-shx^ to Ivanko Zacharinits. 
The same yeox Roman Rostislavits took his seat on the throne in 
Kiev. The same year in the winter Rurik went out from Nov- 
gorod, and the men of Novgorod sent to Ondrei for a Knyaz; and he 
sent with his own men Zhiroslav to be Posadnik. 

A.D. 1172. A.M. 6680. Knyaz Gyurgi Andreyevits, Gyurgi's grand- 
son, came to Novgorod. The same year 
they founded the stone church of St. Yakov in the Nerev end.* 
The same year Roman Rostislavits went out from Kiev of his own 
accord, and Mikhalko Gyurgevits took his seat in Kiev. 

The same year in the winter Vladyka Ilya of Novgorod went to 
Ondrei, to Volodimir, for full justice. 

Then, too, they gave the Posadnik-ship to Ivanko Zacharinits. 

1 Kad. 

2 About 36 lbs. 
' i.e. Andrew. 

* sc. of the town. 



28 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

A.D. 1173. A.M. 6681. Knyaz Gyurgi Andreyevits with the men of 
Novgorod and of Rostov went to Kiev 
against the sons of Rostislav, and drove them away out of Kiev; 
and he stood by Vyshegorod seven weeks, and they came back all 
well to Novgorod; and Yaroslav Izyaslavits took his seat on the 
throne in Kiev. 

The same year, on the 14th of the month October, Ilya, Vladyka 
of Novgorod, consecrated in Novgorod the stone church of the Holy 
Martyrs, Boris and Gleb, in the town, and another of stone to the 
Holy Redeemer at the gates of St. Georgi. 

A.D. 1174. A.M. 6682. His own favourites killed Knyaz Andrei at 
Volodimir, on the eve of St. Peter and St. 
Paul, in the night, when sleeping at Bogolyub's house and there was 
with him only one young boy; having killed the door-keepers, they 
came to the vestibule, and the Kynaz becoming aware, caught hold 
of his sword and took his stand in the doorway, struggling with 
them, but there were many of them, and the Knyaz was alone; so 
they laid on with force and broke the doors, and entered in upon 
him, and fell on him with pikes, and there he ended his hfe. And 
there was great tumult in that land and great misery, and a quan- 
tity of heads fell, so that there was no number [to them] ; and then 
they set on the throne Mstislav Rostislavits with his brother Yaro- 
polk. 

The same year Roman Rostislavits, grandson of Mstislav, took 
his seat in Kiev. 

A.D. 1175. A.M. 6683. They led out Knyaz Gyurgi Andreyevits 
from Novgorod, and Mstislav set his son 
Svyatoslav in Novgorod. The same year he himself entered Nov- 
gorod, having fought with his uncle Mikhalko, and took his seat 
in Novgorod; and Mikhalko took his seat in Volodimir, and set his 
brother Vsevolod in Pereyaslavl. 

The same year a fire broke out from Deigunitsy,^ and three 
churches were burnt: St. Michael, St. Yakov, and the Holy 
Ascension. 

The Posadnik of Novgorod, Ivanko Zakharinits, died the same 
year, and they gave it again to Zhiroslav. And towards the end 
of that year they drove Zhiroslav out of the Posadnik-sYn^ and gave it 
to Zavid Nerevini ts. 

t of the town. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 29 

A.D. 1176. A.M. 6684. The Volkhov went again into flood for five 
days. The same spring Knyaz Mstislav married 
in Novgorod and took the daughter of Yakun Miroslavits; and 
then the men of Rostov summoned him to them and he went 
to Rostov with his Druzhina and left his son in Novgorod. 
And he came to Rostov. And at that time Mikhalko had 
died, and he went with the men of Rostov and with those 
of Suzhdal to Volodimir; and Vsevolod opposed his forces with 
the men of Volodimir and Pereyaslavl, and they fought, and a 
great multitude of both fell, and Vsevolod prevailed. And 
Mstislav returned to Novgorod, but the men of Novgorod did 
not receive him, but showed him with his son Svyatoslav the road; 
and the men of Novgorod took to themselves Yaroslav, the son of 
Vsevolod. 

The same winter Mstislav, with his son-in-law Gleb and with his 
brother Yaropolk, went against Suzhdal and they fought beyond 
the Kalaksha; and there the men of Ryazan defeated [them], and 
took Knyaz Gleb with his son, Mstislav, with his brother Yaropolk, 
and made them captive. 

The same winter the whole Chud Land came to Pleskov, and 
fought with them, and killed Vyacheslav, Mikita Zakharinits, and 
Stanimir Ivanits, and others, but they killed a quantity of Chud 
people. The same year Mikhal Stepanits put up a new church of 
St. Mikhail, and Moisei Domanezhits another of the Decapitation of 
St. John in Chudinets Street. 

A.D. 1177. A.M. 6685. Gleb, Knyaz of Ryazan, died in captivity in 
Volodimir. At the same time Knyaz Mstis- 
lav was blinded, with his brother Yaropolk, by their uncle Vsevolod, 
and he let them go into Russia. And the two blind [men], being led 
with rotting eyes, when they reached Smolensk they came to 
Smyadino into the Church of the Holy Martyrs Boris and Gleb; 
and there forthwith the Grace of God and of our Holy Sovereign 
Lady the Mother of God and of the newly manifested holy Martyrs 
Boris and Gleb descended on them and there they saw clearly. 
The same year in the autumn the Nerev end from Ivankovo took 
fire and five churches were burnt down. And in the winter Knyaz 
Mstislav with his brother Yaropolk came to Novgorod, and the men 
of Novgorod set Mstislav on the throne, and Yaropolk in Novi- 
torg, and Yaroslav in Volok-Lamsk, and thus they arranged [things] 
according to their will. 



30 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

A.D. 1178. A.M. 6686. Of the Indiction 10. On April 20, Knyaz 
Mstislav, son of Rostislav, and grandson of 
Gyurgi, died, and they laid him in the porch of St. Sophia; and 
they set his brother Yaropolk on the throne in Novgorod. Vsevolod 
seized some merchants of Novgorod, and the men of Novgorod 
showed Yaropolk the road, and then Vsevolod hastened to Novi- 
torg and took it. Then the men of 'Novgorod sent for Roman to 
Smolensk, and he entered the Council on Sunday in Holy Week. 

A.D. 1 179. A.M. 6687. Vladyka Ilya with his brother laid the 
foundation of a stone church of the Annun- 
ciation of the Holy Mother of God, and began to build the church 
on the '21st of the month of May, on the day of the holy Tzar 
Kostyantin and of Elena, and they finished on August 25, on [the 
day of] the holy Apostle Tit; and the whole work of building the 
church [occupied] seventy days; and it was a refuge for Christians. 

The same year Elisava, servant of God, Igumena of St. loan, died, 
and they appointed Fegnia in her place. 

The same year Roman went from Novgorod to Smolensk. And 
the men of Novgorod then sent into Russia for his brother Mstislav, 
and Mstislav entered Novgorod on the 1st of the month of Novem- 
ber, [the day] of the Holy Benefactors Kosma and Damyan; and 
in the winter Mstislav went with the men of Novgorod against the 
Chud people to Ochela, and set fire to their whole land; they them- 
selves fled to the sea, but even there plenty of them fell. 

A.D. 1180. A.M. 6688. Knyaz Mstislav Rostislavits, grandson of 
Mstislav, died at Novgorod on the 14th of 
the month of June, and they laid him in St. Sophia at [the shrine of] 
the Holy Mother of God. And the men of Novgorod sent to Svyato- 
slav into Russia for his son, and brought Volodimir to Novgorod, 
and set him on the throne on August 17. Then, too, they 
took the Posadnik-s\i\^ from Zavid and gave it to Mikhal Stepanits. 
The same year the God-loving Vladyka Ilya of Novgorod with his 
brother Gavrilo founded a stone church in the monastery at the 
gates by [the church of] the Holy Annunciation. The same year 
in the winter Knyaz Svyatoslav Vsevolodits, Oleg's grandson, went 
out from Russia against Suzhdal in force against Vsevolod, and his 
son Volodimir with the men of Novgorod out from Novgorod, 
and they met on the Volga at the mouth of the Tver,^ and laid 
waste all the Volga, and set fire to all the towns, and not having 
1 sc. the mouth of the river Tvertsa, where it flows into the Volga at Tver. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 31 

reached Pereyaslavl by 40 versts at the Vlena river, there they 
turned; for there the men of Suzhdal had come out in force, and 
they made a defence about themselves and did not dare give battle. 
And the Knyaz with the men of Novgorod kept sending to them ask- 
ing for battle, but God by his mercy did not shed more Christian 
blood; for they had come together for a little time, and the men of 
Novgorod killed about 300 of them, and themselves all returned 
well; and they took the Knyaz himself to Novgorod, and they set 
Yaropolk in Novi-torg; and the great Svyatoslav Vsevolodits 
entered Novgorod. 

A.D. 1181. A.M. 6689. On the 3rd of the month of June the Varan- 
gian church in the market-place was set fire 
to by thunder at 10 of the day, after evening service, and the 
church of St. loan in Ishkovo was burnt. The same year a fire 
broke out in Slavno, from Kosnyatin's, and two churches were 
burnt: that of St. Mikhail and that of the Holy Fathers, and many 
houses along the bank, even as far as the Stream. 

The same year they constructed the wooden church of St. Yakov 
in Dobrynya Street and of the Holy Benefactors Kosma and Dam- 
yan and of St. Sava and of St. Georgi and of St. loan at Ishkovo. 

The same year the men of Novgorod went to Dryutsk with Svyato- 
slav, Oleg's grandson; and at that time came Vsevolod with his 
whole force and with men of Murom and of Ryazan against Novi- 
torg; and the men of Novi-torg shut themselves in the town with 
Knyaz Yaropolk, and they besieged the town, and sat [there] five 
weeks, and they became exhausted in the town : because there was 
no food for them, others of them ate even horse-flesh; and they shot 
at Knyaz Yaropolk in the town, and there was great distress among 
them; and the men of Novi-torg surrendered, and he led away 
Yaropolk with him, having fettered [him], and all the men of Novi- 
torg with wives and children, and set fire to the town; and the men 
of Novgorod returned from Dryutsk, having set fire to the town. 

Then also in the winter they showed the road to Volodimir 
Svyatoslavits, and he went to his father into Russia, and the men of 
Novgorod applied to Vsevolod for a Knyaz, and he gave them his 
brother-in-law. 

A.D. 1182. A.M. 6690. Knyaz Yaroslav, son of Volodimir, and 
grandson of the Great Mstislav, came to 
Novgorod. 
The same year Vladyka Ilya with his brother finished the church 



32 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

at the gates of the Holy Epiphany. Then also they put up th 
church of the Holy Fathers. 

A.D. 1183. A.M. 6691. Radko and his brother put up the church of 
St. Eupati in Rogata Street. 

The same year Vsevolod with his whole province went against the 
Bolgar people, and the Bolgar people killed Knyaz Izyaslav Glebo- 
vits. 

The same winter the men of Pleskov fought with the Lithuanians,^ 
and much evil was done to the men of Pleskov. 

A.D. 1184. A.M. 6692. Vladyka Ilya with his brother founded the 
stone church of St. loan on the market 
place. 

The same year Vsevolod fetched away Yaroslav Volodimirovits 
from Novgorod, sending his brother-in-law for him, for the men of 
Novgorod were indignant with him: because he had done many 
wrongs to the Novgorod district. ^ And having taken counsel the 
men of Novgorod applied to Smolensk to David, asking for his son; 
and he gave them Mstislav, and they brought him to Novgorod 
and set him on the throne in the month of September. 

The same year they built a new wooden church of St. Vlasi. 

A.D. 1185. A.M. 6693. On the 1st day of May, at the 10th hour of 
the day, at evening bell, the sun grew dark, 
for an hour or more, and there were the stars; then it shone out 
again, and we were glad. 

On the 6th of the same month the people of Luki founded a 
stone church to the holy Apostles Peter and Paul in Silnishche.^ 
The same year Miloneg founded the stone church of the Holy Ascen- 
sion under Vladyka Ilya and Knyaz Mstislav Davidovits. 

And in the winter David went to Polotsk with the men of 
Novgorod and of Smolensk, and having made peace returned 
through Yemenets. 

A.D. 1186. A.M. 6694. Zavid went to David to Smolensk, and they 
gave the Posadnik-shvp to Mikhal Stepanits. 
The same year the Greek Tsar Aleksa Manuilovits came to Nov- 
gorod. Then also some young men went with Vyshata Vasilevits 
against the Yem people and came back again well, having get 

1 Litva, the collective designation of the Lithuanians. 

2 Volost. 

3 Near Novgorod. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 33 

booty. The same year Ilya, Vladyka of Novgorod, died on the 
7th day of the month of September, and was laid in the porch of St. 
Sophia. And the men of Novgorod having consulted with Knyaz 
Mstislav and with the Igumens and priests, thought good to appoint 
for themselves his, Ilya's, brother (Gavrilo) ; and they sent a request 
to the Metropolitan Nikifor; and the Metropolitan sent for him and 
all the Russian Knvazes, and accepted him with love. The same 
winter they killed Gavrilo Nerevmits and Vacha Svenevits in Nov- 
gorod, and cast them from the bridge. At the same time there was 
an uprising in Smolensk, between Knyaz David and the people of 
Smolensk, and many heads fell of the best men. 
A.D. 1187. A.M. 6695. Gavrilo was appointed F/«(^y^a of Novgorod 
on the 29th of the month of March, the day 
of St. Varikhis and he came to Novgorod on the 31st of the month of 
May, the day of the holy Martyr Ermi; and the men of Novgorod 
were glad. The same year Igumen Moisei [of the church] of the 
Holy Mother of God in the Anthony monastery, died, and they 
appointed Volos in his place. The same year there was very terrible 
thunder and lightning; [the people] having come with crosses from 
St. Sophia to St. Michael's and singing nine hymns, the thunder 
and lightning struck and all the people fell, and the^ church caught 
fire, but by the mercy of God and by the prayers of St. Michael, 
there was no harm in the church; but two men were dead. 

The same year the tax-gatherers in the Pechera and Yugra 
country^ were done to death in Pechera, and others beyond the 
Volok and about a hundred men of the notables fell.^ The same 
year there was a sign in the sun at mid-day; it was like the moon, 
and grew dim, but after a little time it filled and shone out again, on 
September 9. 

The same year the men of Novgorod drove out Mstislav Davidovits 
and sent to Vsevolod to Volodimir for Yaroslav Volodimirits. And 
he entered Novgorod and took his seat on the throne on Novem- 
ber 20. 

A.D. 1188. A.M. 6696. Simyun Dibakhevits founded the stone 
Church of the Assumption of the Holy 
Mother of God in the Arkadi monastery. The same year they 
made a new bridge over the Volkhov by the side of the 
qjd one. The same year Herman, called Voyata, servant of 
God, priest of St. Yakov's, died, having served 45 years 

1 N.E. of Novgorod, what is now Northern Russia. 

* cf. p. 6. 

D 



\ 



34 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

in St. Yakov's in meekness, humility and fear of God. Vladyka 
Gavrilo took him with him to Pleskov, and having reached 
Pleskov he fell ill and the Vladyka shore him into the schema^ and he 
died on the 13th of October, the day of the holy martyrs Karp and 
Papil, and they laid him in the monaster}^ of the Holy Saviour. 
Give peace, O Lord, to the soul of Thy servant Herman, and forgive 
him all voluntary and involuntary sins. 

The same winter things were dear, they bought bread for two 
nogatas, and one barrel of rye for six grivnas; but by God's mercy 
there were no ill effects among the people. The same year the men 
of Novgorod were plundered by the Varangians in Gothland and by 
the Nemtsy," in Khoruzhk and in Novi-torg, and in the spring they 
let no man of their own go beyond sea from Novgorod, and gave 
no envoy to the Varangians, but they sent them away without 
peace. 

A.D. 1189. A.M. 6697. On the 4th of June, the day of St. Mitrofan. 
Gavrilo, Vladyka of Novgorod, consecrated 
the church of the Assumption of the Holy Mother of God in the 
Arkadi monastery. The same year Vladyka Gavrilo put up a new 
church in Zhatun in the name of the three Holy Youths, Anani, 
Azari and Misail, and Danil the Prophet. The same year, on the 
day of the Nativity of the Holy Mother of God, a daughter Knyag- 
inya was born to Yaroslav in Novgorod. The same year they 
finished painting the church of the Holy Annunciation. The same 
year they took the Posadyiik-shi^y from Mikhal and gave it to 
Miroshka Nezdinits. 

A.D. 1190. A.M. 6698. A son Mikhail was born to Yaroslav in Nov- 
gorod, whose name^ as Knyaz was Izyaslav, 
and grandson of Volodimir. The same year the men of Pleskov 
did to death [some] Chud people of the coast ; for they had come in 
seven boats'* and went over by the portage into the lake^ round 
[avoiding] the rapids, and the men of Pleskov struck upon them 
and did not let a man escape, and the boats they brought into the 
town of Pleskov. 

> The strictest monastic order. 

2 Nom. PI., lit. the " dumb" or "incomprehensible " folk, a term applied by 
all Slavs to all foreigners of Germanic race, sometimes including Scandinavians. 

3 sc. secular name. 

* Shnek. 

* sc. Lake Chud or Peipus. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 35 

A. D. 1191. A.M. 661)9. The men of Novgorod went in sailing vessels* 
with the Korel people against the Yem 
people, and made war on their land and burned it, and cut to 
pieces the cattle. The same year Knyaz Yaroslav built a wooden 
church in the Gorodishche to St. Nikola, and the Vladyka one to the 
Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary in his own Court; Vnezd 
Nezdinits in the same year also one to the Sacred Image; and 
Kosnyatin with his brother one to the Holy Friday, in the market 
place. The same year the God-loving Vladyka Gavrilo consecrated 
the church of the Holy Ascension erected by the Tysyatski^ Miloneg. 
The same year Kynaz Yaroslav went to Luki, summoned by the 
Knyazes and people of Polotsk, and took with him the foremost 
Druzhina of the men of Novgorod, and they met on the border and 
put love between each other, how in the winter they would all meet 
either against the Lithuanians or the Chud people. And Knyaz 
Yaroslav came to Novgorod with gifts. Then also was a son born 
to Knyaz Yaroslav. And it was in the winter, Knyaz Yaroslav 
with the men of Novgorod, of Pleskov and of his own province went 
against the Chud people, took the town of Gyurgev, burned their 
country, and brought countless plunder; and themselves all came 
back well to Novgorod. 

A.D. 1192. A.M. 6700. Knyaz Yaroslav went on St, Peter's Day^ to 
Pleskov with a few men of Novgorod; and 
himself took his seat at Pleskov, having sent his court with the 
men of Pleskov to make war; and having gone they took the town of 
Medvezhya Golova, burned it, and came back well. 

The same year the monk Varlam, whose secular name was Aleksa 
Mikhalevits, put up a church below at Khutin in the name of the 
Transfiguration of the Holy Saviour; and Vladyka Gavrilo conse- 
crated it on the [day of that] festival, and named the monastery. 
The same year they finished the church of the Holy Apostles in 
Silinishche and Vladyka Grigori consecrated it on Peter's Day. 
The same year Igumen Marturi built a wooden church at Russa on 
the island, in the name of the Holy Transfiguration and made a 
monastery, and it was a refuge to Christians. The same year the 
church of the Holy Apostles in KJiolm* was burned down, set afire 
by thunder. The same year Igmnena Marya of the Holy Resurrec- 

1 Loiva. 

2 Commander of a thousand {t\>svacha=\,QOO). ■, 

3 June 29. 

* A part of Novgorod. See p. 18. 

D 2 



36 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

tion died, and they appointed Evdokia in her place. The same year 
they appointed Efrosinia, daughter of Peter the merchant, Igumena 
of the Holy Mother of God in Zverinets. 

A.D. 1193. A.M. 6701. Gavrilo Vladyka of Novgorod died on 
May 24, the Day of St. Simon of Divna 
Gora} and he was laid in the porch of St. Sophia, by the 
side of his brother, called in monkhood, Grigori. And the men of 
Novgorod having consulted with Knyaz Yaroslav, the Igumens, the 
people of St. Sophia and the priests,'^ decided on Marturi chosen by 
God, and sent for him and brought him from Russa, and they set 
him in the Bishopric; and they sent [word] to the Metropolitan 
and he sent for him with honour; and he went with the foremost 
men ; and Knyaz Svyatoslav received him with love, and the Metro- 
politan; and they appointed him on December 10, the Day 
of St. DsLniel-Stolpnik,'^ and he came to Novgorod on January 16, 
the day of the Falling off of the Fetters of the Holy 
Apostle Peter. The same year they went from Novgorod with 
armed force to the Yugra country with the Voyevoda Yadrei, and 
they came to the Yugra country and took a town'* ; and they came to 
another town"* and they shut themselves up in the town, and they 
stood by the town five weeks ; and the Yugra people used to send out 
to them saying with deceit thus, that: " We are gathering silver 
and sables, and other precious goods; do not ruin your serfs and your 
tribute," while deceiving them and gathering troops; and when 
they had gathered troops, they sent out from the town to the 
Voyevoda, saying thus: " Come into the town, having taken with 
you the bigger men." And the Voyevoda went into the town taking 
with him a priest and Ivanko Legen and other bigger men; and 
they cut them down on the eve of St. Barbara; and they sent out 
again and took 30 of the bigger men ; and these they cut to pieces, 
and then 50 [and did the same to these. Then Savko said to the Yugra 
Knyaz: " If thou, Knyaz, dost not also kill Yakovets Prokshinits, 
but lettest him go alive to Novgorod, then he will again bring troops 
hither to thee, Knyaz, and will make waste thy land." And the Knyaz 
having summoned Yakovets Prokshinits he gave order to kill him. 
And Yakovets said to Savko: " Brother, God and St. Sophia shall 
judge thee, inasmuch as thou tookest thought against the blood of 

1 The Wonderful Hill, near Antioch. 

» Popy. 

3 Stylites. 

* Gorod — fortified town, but often was merely a fortified post. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 37 

thy brothers ; thou shalt stand with us before God and shalt answer 
for our blood." Having said this he was killed: for this Savko had 
held secret intercourse with the Yugra Knyaz.] And when they 
were exhausted by hunger, for they had stood six weeks listening to 
their deceit, on the Festival of St. Nicholas, having issued from the 
town they cut them all up. And there was woe and misery to those 
who remained alive; for there were 80 men left. And through all 
the winter there was no word of them in Novgorod, neither of the 
living nor of the dead. And Knyaz and Vladyka in Novgorod and 
all Novgorod grieved. The same year a son, named Rostislav, was 
born to Yaroslav in Novgorod. The same year they built a wooden 
church [called] Zhivoglozha to the Hoi}'' Apostles in Kholm, and 
one to St. loan the Merciful at the gates of the Resurrection. 

A.D. 1194. A.M. 6702. A fire broke out in Novgorod on All Saints' 
Sunday during Fast, on going to early morn- 
ing service; it started in Savko 's Court in Yaryshev Street, and the 
fire was bad, three churches were burned: St. Vasili, Holy Trinity, 
and the Holy Exaltation ; and many good houses ; and they subdued 
it at Luka's Street. And for our sins evil did not stop here; but on 
the next day it started in Cheglov Lane, and about ten houses took 
fire. And then more arose; on Friday in the same week during 
market, it started from Khrevkov Street as far as the Stream in the 
Nerev end, and seven churches were burnt and large houses. Thence 
the evil grew: every day it would start unseen at six and more places, 
and people dared not feed in their houses, but hved a-field; and then 
the Gorodishche^ took fire. The same year Ladoga took fire before 
Novgorod, and then, too, Russa took fire; and in the Lyudin end ten 
courts took fire; and thus wonders continued from All Saints up to 
Our Lady's Day. 

And then came the rest of the living from the Yugra country. 
Their own fellow-travellers killed Sbyshko Volosovits and Zavid 
Negochevits and Moislav Popovits, and others bought themselves 
off with money^; for they thought they had held counsel with 
the Yugra people against their brothers, but that is for God to 
judge. The same year they put up the church of the holy apostle 
Philip in Nutna Street, and Vladyka Marturi consecrated it on 
January 29 on the Translation of the remains of St. Ignati. 

* Near Novgorod ; cf. p. 7. 
» Kunas; cf- appendix. 



38 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

The same year Igumen Dionisi of St. Georgi died, and they ap- 
pointed Savati in his place. The same winter Igumen Gerasim of 
the Holy Mother of God in the Arkadi monastery, died, and they 
appointed the priest Pankrati in his place. 

A.D. 1195. A.M. 6703. The God-loving Vladyka of Novgorod Mar- 
turi founded a stone church at the town gate 
in the name of the Laying Down of the Robe and Girdle of the Holy 
Mother of God; and they began to make it on May 4, the 
Day of St. Isaki, and finished on August 2, St. Stephen's Day; 
and the Vladyka himself consecrated it on the Festival of the Holy 
Mother of God's Laying Down of the Robe and Girdle ; and it was a 
refuge for Christi;ins, and a joy and delight to the faithful. The same 
autumn Vladyka Marturi founded the stone church of the Holy 
Resurrection in the monastery, and they made it up to about the 
doors by the autumn. The same year the servant of God, Christina, 
of St. Barbara, died, and in her place the Vladyka and all the Sisters 
chose and appointed the meek and humble Barbara, daughter of 
Gyurgi Olekshinits; and the Vladyka appointed her on the festival 
of St. Euphemia. The same year they built a new wooden church 
for Nozdritsin, to the Holy Exaltation, to St. Vasili and to St. 
Dmitri. 

In the winter of the same year Vsevolod summoned the men 
of Novgorod against Chernigov, against Yaroslav and against 
the whole clan^ of Oleg; and the men of Novgorod did not deny 
him: householders, body-guards'- and merchants went with Knyaz 
Yaroslav ;^ and they reached Novi-torg, and Vsevolod sent word and 
turned them home with honour. And the men of Novgorod 
sent to him Posadnik Miroshka and Boris Zhiroslavits and the 
Sotski Mikifor, asking for his son; being indignant with Yaroslav; 
and they returned to Novgorod. The same winter the men of 
Smolensk and of Chernigov fought, and God helped the men of 
Chernigov and they took Kyiyaz Boris Romanovits, and there was 
no peace between them. Vsevolod received Miroshka the Posadnik 
and Boris and Ivanko and Foma,* and did not let them [return] 
to Novgorod, while he himself sent to [for] the Polovets people; and 
Vsevolod and David began to collect forces for themselves, also 

1 Pie my a. 

2 Gridba. 

3 Their own Knyaz Yaroslav, against Knyaz Yaroslav of Chernigov. 
* sc. Thomas. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 39 

Yaroslav of Chernigov and Igor with their brothers; and there was 
no peace between them, but they stirred up war all the more. 

A.D. 1196. A.M. 6704. The cousins Kosnyatin and Dmitri founded 
the stone church of St. Kyuril^ in the monas- 
tery at Nelezino- in Lubyana Street ; and they began to make it in 
the month of April, and finished it on July 8, the Day of St. 
Prokopi, and the Vladyka Marturi consecrated it in the winter on 
12th of January, the Day of St. Tatyana, with Igumen Onisim ; and it 
was a joy to Christians and eternal remembrance for Kosnyatin and 
Dmitri. The same year Vladyka Marturi painted the church of the 
Holy Mother of God at the gate; the painter was a Greek, Petrovits. 
The same year they finished the church of the Holy Resurrection 
and the Vladyka Marturi consecrated it on September 13, the 
Day of St. Kornili, on the eve of the Holy Exaltation, in the presence 
of the Igumen, the Vladyka labouring, burning with heat of the sun 
by day, and troubled at night, to finish and see the church completed 
and adorned; and he received what he wished, the Kingdom of 
Heaven and endless joy, into the ages. Amen. 

Towards the end of summer the men of Novgorod applied to 
Vsevolod on account of Posadnik Miroshka and Ivanko and Foma, 
for he had let go Boris and other men with him ; but Vsevolod having 
gathered his force, and having brought the force of the Polovets 
people, went to Chernigov, and led Miroshka the Novgorod Posadnik 
and Ivanko and Foma with him, and he ordered the men of Novgo- 
rod to go to Luki ; and they went with Yaroslav, and having sat at 
Luki they returned home; and Vsevolod having gone into their land, 
God did not allow more bloodshed between them, and they took 
peace between each other, and all the Knyazes set Novgorod at 
liberty: where it pleased them, there they might take to themselves 
a Knyaz. And Vsevolod having returned, let Foma go to Novgo- 
rod, but he did not let go Miroshka nor Ivanko ; and incensed the men 
of Novgorod; and having taken counsel, the men of Novgorod 
showed Yaroslav the road out of Novgorod, and drove him out on 
St. Gyurgi's Day, in the Autumn. 

Knyaz Yaroslav went to Novi-torg, and the men of Novi-torg 
received him with salutations ; and the good in Novgorod regretted 
him, but the wicked rejoiced. And they sent to Yaroslav to 
Chernigov for his son, and sat in Novgorod without Knyaz all 

1 Cyril. 

* Near Novgorod. 



40 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

winter; and Yaroslav was Knyaz in Torzhok^ in his own district 
and took tribute along the whole Upper Country^ and the Msta^, 
and he took tribute beyond the Volok^ And the men of 
Novgorod having ousted Vsevolod beyond the Vo/ok, and in all 
his land, he detained [their people], not letting them go to Nov- 
gorod ; but they went about the town of Volodimir at will. 

The same winter Vladyka Marturi consecrated the church of St. 
Kyuril at Nelezino. 

A.D. 1197. A.M. 6705. Knyaz Yaropolk Yaroslavits came from 
Chernigov to Novgorod in Palm Week, at 
the beginning of the year in the month of March; and having sat 
alone from Palm Week to Simon's Day, six months, they drove him 
out of Novgorod, and sent again for Yaroslav. Yaroslav went 
from Novi-torg to Volodimir summoned by Vsevolod. The foremost 
men and the Sotskis went from Novgorod and took Yaroslav with 
all truth and honour; and Yaroslav came in the winter a week 
after Epiphany and took seat on his throne, and embraced the 
people, and all was well, and Miroshka the Posadnik came, having 
sat away from Novgorod two years ; and all came back unharmed in 
any way, and all in Novgorod, from small to great, were glad. 
The same year Vladyka Marturi put up a church to St. Nikifor 
on the island. The same year Polyuzhaya, daughter of Gorodshinits 
Zhiroshkin, put up the monastery of St. Euphemia in the Carpen- 
ter's Quarter.^ 

A.D. 1198. A.M. 6706. The God-loving Vladyka Marturi founded a 
stone church at Russa to the Holy Trans- 
figuration, they began to make it on May 21, the Day of 
SS. Kostyantin and Elena, and finished on July 31, the Day 
of Holy St. Ulita, and he consecrated the church on the Assump- 
tion of the Holy Mother of God and made an honourable festival, 
and made a service, and he prayed, saying: " O Lord God! Look 
down from heaven and see, and visit Thy vineyard, and complete 
that which Thy right hand has planted; and look down upon this 
church which Thy servant Vladyka Marturi erected, in the name of 
Thy holy Transfiguration : that whosoever shall pray in this church 

^ Little Market, the same town as Novi-torg. 

* Otherwise Bezhitsy, Bezhitski Verkh. 

3 A river flowing into Lake Ilmen from the E. 

^ cf. p. 0. 

s Ploimki. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 41 

with faith, hear Thou his prayer and remit his sins, by the prayers 
of the Holy Mother of God and of all Thy Saints, Amen." And the 
blessed man rejoiced in soul and body, having provided for himself 
eternal remembrance, and an honourable monastery for all Chris- 
tians. The same spring Yaroslav's two sons died: Izyaslav had 
been set to be Knyaz in Luki and covered Novgorod from the 
Lithuanians, and there he died; and Rostislav at Novgorod; and 
both were laid in the monastery of St. Georgi. The same year the 
Veliki Knyaz^ Yaroslav, son of Volodimir, grandson of Mstislav, 
founded the stone church of the Transfiguration of the Holy Saviour 
in Novgorod on the hill, called Nereditsa-; and they began to make 
it on June 8, on St. Fedor's Day, and finished in the month 
of September. The same autumn the men of Polotsk with the 
Lithuanians came against Luki and burned the dwellings, bat the 
people of Luki took warning and escaped out of the town. The 
same year they founded the stone church of St. Ilya in Kholni. 
The same winter Knyaz Yaroslav with the men of Novgorod, of 
Pleskov, of Novi-torg and of Ladoga and with the whole Novgorod 
province went to Polotsk, and the men of Polotsk met them with 
salutation on the Kasopl lake; and having taken peace, they re- 
turned to Novgorod : for God did not allow the Christians' bloodshed 
between each other. 

A.D. 1199. A.M. 6707. Vsevolod having sent, he fetched Yaroslav 
out of Novgorod and brought him to him, 
and summoned the Vladyka and Posadnik Miroshka and the bigger 
men from Novgorod after his son. And when they were on Lake 
Seregeri the servant of God, Vladyka Marturi of Novgorod, died, on 
August 24, the day of the holy Apostle Barfolomei; and 
they brought him and laid him in the porch of St. Sophia. People 
went with the Posadnik, and with Mikhalko to Vsevolod; and he 
received them with great honour and granted them his son Svyato- 
slav; and having consulted with the Posadnik he sent him to Nov- 
gorod with the men of Novgorod, and he put into the Episcopate 
Mitrofan, a man chosen by God; and all Novgorod having gone they 
set him with honour, until there should be a summons from the 
Metropolitan , and then thou shalt go for installation. The same year 

1 Grand Prince; in modern Russian the title is used by male blood-relations 
of the Emperor, and is always translated " Grand Duke," though the title 
'■ ivnyaz" is otherwise always translated " Prince." 

* A suburb of Novgorod. 



42 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

they founded the stone church of the Forty Saints. In the same 
year Yaroslav's Knyaginya put up the church and the monastery of 
the Birth of the Holy Mother of God in Mikhahtsa Street, and they 
appointed Posadnik Zavid's widow [Igumena]. The same year 
they painted the church of the Holy Transfiguration in the Gorod- 
ishche. The same year they painteci the Vladykas church of the 
Holy Saviour in the monastery in Russa. And Knyaz Svyatoslav, 
son of Vsevolod, grandson of Gyurgi, came to Novgorod on 
January 1, St. Vasili's Day, and they set him on the throne in 
St. Sophia, and all Novgorod rejoiced. The same year they walled 
around the town of Russa. 

A.D. 1200. A.M. 7708. The Lithuanians took the Lovot^ up to [the 
village of] Nalyuch from Belaya [village] 
as far as [the villages of] Svinort and Vorch and the men of Novgo- 
rod pursued them to [the village of] Tsernyany and fought with 
them, and killed 80 men of the Lithuanians, and of the men of 
Novgorod 15 [were killed] : Raguila Prokopinits, with his brother 
Olksa, Gyurgi Sbyshkinits, Ratimir Nezhatinits, Strashko the 
silversmith's weight tester, Vnezd Yahinits, young Luka Miroshkin, 
Mikita"'^ Lazorevits, Zhiroshka Ogasovits, Osip^ the usher'*, Roman 
Pokt, and four other men; they recovered all the plunder and the 
rest escaped. The same year Nezdila Pekhtsinits went as Voyevoda 
to Luki; he went with a small Druzhina from Luki into Lotygola,^ 
and they found them in their bedrooms, killed 40 men of them, 
took their wives and children, and themselves came all well 
to Luki; and from those who had not followed them from Molbo- 
vich with some of the Druzhina they took money,® having beaten 
them. 

A.D. 1201. A.M. 6709. The men of Novgorod put Mitrofan, chosen 
by God, into the Episcopate after Marturi, 
and he went into Russia with men of Novgorod and of Vsevolod, to 
present himself to the Metropolitan, and he was appointed on 
July 3, St. Uakinf 's " Day; and he came to Novgorod on 
September 14, the Exaltation of the Honourable Cross; and the 

1 A river flowing into Lake Ilmen. 

2 Nikita. 

3 Joseph. 

* Podvoiski. 

* A part of Livonia, lit. " End of the Letts." 

* Kunas. 

~ Hvacinth. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 43 

men of Novgorod were glad at their Vladyka. On April 15 of the 
same year the church of St. Nikola in the Gorodishclie^ was burnt 
down by thunder; and the whole summer stood with rain. And 
they let the Varangians go over sea without peace. The same year 
they built a wooden defence in Russa; and in the autumn the 
Varangians came by land for peace ; and they gave them peace at 
all their will. 

A.D. 1202. A.M. 6710. They completed the stone church of the 
Holy Prophet Ilya in Kholm, at the Slavno 
end, and Vladyka Mitrofan consecrated it on a festival. 

A.D. 1203. A.M. 6711. Rurik with the sons of Oleg and the heathen 
Polovets people, with Kontsyak and Danila 
Byakovits captured Kiev, on January 1, St. Vasili's Day; and whom- 
ever their hands reached, whether monk or nun, priest or priest's 
wife, these they led off to the heathen; and all foreign merchants 
and foreigners of every country shut themselves up in the churches, 
and they granted them their lives; but their merchandise they 
divided with them by halves; but everything in the monasteries 
and in all the churches, all valuables and ornaments and ikons"^ 
the pagans tore off and carried away into their own land ; and they 
set fire to the town. [Then, too, the Russian Knyazes Rurik, 
Roman, Mstislav and many other Knyazes went against the Polovets 
people. And then the winter was very cruel; and they took much 
plunder and drove away their herds. The same year Roman sent 
Vyacheslav ordering him to have Rurik shorn a monk.] The same 
year the sons of Oleg defeated the Lithuanians, and did to death 
seven hundred and a thousand of them. The same year Miroshka, 
Posadnik of Novgorod died, he was shorn in St. Georgi's, and then 
they gave the Posadnik-shx"^ to Mikhalko Stepanits. The same year 
for our sins all the horses died in Novgorod and in the villages 
so that it was not possible to go anywhere for the stench. 

A.D. 1204. .\.M. 6712. Oleksa^ reigning in Tsargmd,'^ during the 

reign of his brother Isak^ whom having 

blinded, he himself became Tsar, shut up his [Isaac's] son 

Oleksa in high walls under guard, so that he might not get out. 

1 Near Novgorod, see p. 7. 

» Ikony. 

' Alexi-s. 

« Constantinople; cf. p. 20. 

* Isaac. 



44 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

And time having passed, Isak ventured to pray for his son, that he 
would release him, to come before him from prison, and Isak per- 
suaded his brother, and they took a declaration, he and his son, 
that they would not take thought against the throne; and he was 
released from prison, and went about at will. And Tsar Oleksa 
did not trouble about him, trusting his brother Isak and his son, 
because they had taken the declaration. And then Isak having 
taken thought, coveted the throne, and instructed his son, secretly 
sending to him, how that: " I did good to my brother, Oleksa, I 
ransomed him from the heathen and he has returned me evil, 
having blinded me, and took my throne." And his son conceived 
desire, as he instructed him, and they took thought how he should 
go out of the town into far countries and thence seek the throne. 
He was led on to a ship and put into a barrel having three false 
bottoms at one end behind which Isakovits^ sat, and at the other 
end was water, where the plug was; for it was impossible otherwise 
to go out of the town ; and so he went out of the Greek land. And 
the Tsar having learnt sent to seek him ; and they began to seek him 
in many places, and entered the ship where he was, and searched all 
places, and drew the plugs out of the barrels and seeing water 
running, they went away, and did not find him. And thus, Isako- 
vits went out and came to the Nemetski^ Tsar, Phihp, to his brother- 
in-law and sister. The Nemetski Tsar sent to the Pope to Rome, 
and they informed him thus, not to make war on Tsargrad, but as 
Isakovits said: "The whole town of Kostyantin^ desires my rule," 
so setting him on the throne, you will go to the aid of Jerusalem; 
if they do not want him, bring him back to me, but do no injury 
to the Greek land. 

But the Franks'* and all their Voyevocias conceived lust for the 
gold and silver, which Isakovits promised them, and forgot the 
commands of Tsar and Pope. First having come to the Sound, they 
broke the iron locks, and having advanced to the town, they hurled 
fire into the churches, in four places. Then Tsar Oleksa having 
perceived the flames, did not take up arms against them. Having 
summoned his brother Isak, whom he had blinded, he set him on 
the throne and said: " Since thou hast acted thus, brother, forgive 

' i.e. Isaac's son. 

* German, cf. p. 34. 
3 Constantinople. 

* Fryazi. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 45 

me; this is thy throne "; and fled out of the town. And the town 
was burnt, and churches of untold beauty, whose number we cannot 
declare; and the porch of St. Sophia was burnt, where all the patri- 
archs were painted, and the hippodrome and down to the sea; and 
hitherwards it burned up to the Tsar's palace and to the Sound. 
And then Isakovits with the Franks pursued Tsar Oleksa and did 
not reach him, and returned to the town, and drove his father off 
the throne, and became Tsar himself and saying thus: " Thou 
art blind, how canst thou hold the throne? I am Tsar." Then 
Tsar Isak full of regret for his town and throne, for the spoliation of 
the monasteries, and for the silver and gold promised to the Franks 
and given them, fell ill, and became a monk, and went away from 
this world. After Isak's death the populace rose against his son 
for the burning of the town and the spoliation of the monasteries; 
and the common people assembled and [drew in] the good men, 
taking counsel with them whom to appoint Tsar; and all wanted 
Radinos; but he did not want the throne, and hid himself from 
them, disguising himself in monk's vestments; but having taken 
his wife they led [her] into St. Sophia, and pressed her much: 
" Tell us where is thy husband ? " And she did not tell about her 
husband. Then they took a man by name Nikola, a soldier, and 
put the crown on him without the Patriarch, and remained there 
with him in St. Sophia six days and six nights. 

And Tsar Isakovits was in Lakherna,^ and he wanted to bring 
the Franks into the town without the knowledge of the Boyars; 
but the Boyars having learned, appeased the Tsar and did not allow 
him to let loose the Franks, saying: " We are with thee." Then 
the Boyars fearing the introduction of the Franks, having consulted 
with Murchufl,- took Tsar Isakovits, and put the crown on Mur- 
chufl. Now Isakovits had taken Murchufl out of prison and he 
[Murchufl] had taken declaration not to seek the throne from under 
Isakovits, but keep it under him. And Murchufl sent to Nikola and to 
the people to St. Sophia: " I have taken your enemy Isakovits; 
I am your Tsar. And I grant Nikola to be first among Boyars; 
put off the crown from thee." 

And all the people did not let him put off the crown, but swore the 
more: " Whosoever shall turn away from Nikola, let him be ac- 
cursed." The same day having waited for the night they all dis- 
persed and took Nikola and Murchufl and took his wife and put her 

1 sc. Vlakherna, ' Blachernae' in Constantinople (a suburb till Heraclius I, 
610-641). 

* Alexis V, Mourtzouphlos. 



46 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

into prison and made fast Oleksa Isakovits in walls, and Murchufl 
himself became Tsar on February 5 hoping to destroy the Franks. 
But the Franks, having learned that Isakovits was taken, made war on 
the district round the town, asking Murchufl: " Give us Isakovits, 
that we may go to the Tsar of the Nemtsy^ whence we were sent ; and 
have thou his throne." But Murchufl and all the Sfn'ars refused to give 
him alive, and having done Isakovits to death, said to the Franks: 
" He is dead; come and see him." Then the Franks were troubled 
for their disobedience ; for not thus had the Tsar of the Nemtsy'^ and the 
Pope of Rome directed them, and they had done this harm to 
Tsargrad. And they all said themselves: " Since we have not 
Isakovits, with whom we came, it is better for us to die at Tsargrad, 
than to go away with shame." Therefore, they began to take up the 
offensive against the town. They bethought them as before, with 
yards on the masts of their ships, on other ships they constructed 
battering rams and ladders, and on others they bethought them to 
hang down barrels packed with pitch over the town, and having lit 
shavings, they dropped on to the houses, as they fired the town before. 

And they advanced to the town on April 9, on Friday of the fifth 
week of the Fast, but achieved nothing against the town; but they 
killed nearly 100 men of the Franks. And the Franks stood there 
three days; and on Monday in Palm week they advanced to the 
town at sunrise, opposite St. Saviour's called Vergetis,^ opposite 
Ispigas,^ and they took stand as far as Lakherna. And they ad- 
vanced on forty large ships; and they were lashed between each 
other, and in them men on horses, dressed in armour, their horses 
too ; and other of their ships and galleys stood back fearing to catch 
fire, as the Greeks before also had directed ten ships with fire on to 
them ; and having awaited a favourable wind under sail at midnight 
on St. Vasili's Day, they achieved nothing against the Frank ships: 
for Isakovits had given them word, and ordered the Greeks to attack 
them and their ships ; in this way the Franks did not take fire. 

And thus was the taking of Tsargrad the Great : the wind drew the 
ships up to the town wall; the ladders were high, overlooking the 
town, and the lower ladders were level with the ramparts; the Greeks 
fought from the high ladders over the town and the Varangians with 
stones and arrows and javelins, while from the lower ladders the 
men climbed down into the town ; and thus they took the town. 

* Germans. 

* i.e. EvepyerTj^. 
•* i.e. ets TTT/yds 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 47 

And Tsay Murchufl kept encouraging the Boyars and all the people, 
wishing there to make a tight with the Franks, and they did not lis- 
ten to him and they all ran from him ; and the Tsar ran from them 
and overtook them in the horse market, and complained much 
against the Boyars and all the people. Then the Tsar tied out of the 
town, and the Patriarch and all the Boyars, and all the Franks 
entered the town on April 12, Monday, Day of St. Vasili the Con- 
fessor, and halted where the Greek Tsar had stood at St. Saviour's, 
and halted there for the night. And in the morning at sunrise they 
entered St. Sophia, and tore down and cut in pieces the doors and 
the ambo^ all worked with silver, they cut in pieces the twelve 
silver pillars and the four [pillars] of the ikon-case, and the ikon 
bracket, and the twelve crosses which were over the altar, like trees 
bigger than a man, and the bosses between them, and the altar rail 
between the pillars, and these were all of silver; they stripped the 
beautiful altar of its precious stones and lar_ge pearl, and it is not 
known where they put it itself; and they took the forty large cups 
which were before the altar and the censers and silver lamps, so 
many that we cannot tell their number, with priceless vessels 
used on feast-days; they stripped the service copy of the Gospels 
and the Honourable Crosses, and priceless ikons, and under 
the altar cloth they found hidden forty barrels of pure gold ; and in 
the chambers, walls, and repositories of vessels no knowing how 
much gold and silver, beyond number, and priceless vessels. All 
this I have mentioned [was] in St. Sophia alone; while the [church of 
the] Holy Mother of God which is in Vlakherna, where the Holy 
Spirit used to descend every Friday, that they also stripped; and 
[the number] of other churches no man can tell, because they were 
beyond number. The wonderful Digitria- of the Holy Mother of 
God which used to go through the town was, however, preserved by 
God with [the help of] good people, and exists to-day and is our hope. 
The other churches in the town and outside the town and monas- 
teries in the town and outside the town they plundered all — we 
cannot tell their number, nor their beauty. They robbed the monks 
and nuns and priests and some of them they beat to death ; and the 
Greeks and the Varangians, who had remained they drove out of the 
town. 

These are the names of their Voyevodas: — I. Markos of Rome,'' 

1 Amvon. 

* OSrjyriTpia. 

3 i.e. Boniface, Marquess of Monferrat. 



48 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

in the town of Bern where the pagan and wicked Dedrik^ 
had dwelled; H. Kondoflandr;'^ HI. the bhnd Duzh^ from St. 
Mark's island, Venedik. Tsar Manuel blinded this Duzh; for many 
philosophers had begged the Tsar: " If thou lettest this Duzh go 
whole, then he will do much harm to thy empire." And the Tsar 
not wishing to kill him, he ordered his eyes to be blinded with 
glass; and his eyes were as if uninjured, but he saw nothing. This 
Duzh had planned many attacks on the town and all used to obey 
him; his ships from off which they took the town were large. The 
Franks stood before Tsargrad from December to April, until they 
took the town. And on May 9 they appointed Tsar their own Latin 
Kondoflandr with their own bishops, and divided the power amongst 
themselves: [they gave] to the Tsar the town, to Markos the Sound, 
and to the Duzh the Desyatina.'^ 

And so perished the empire of the God-protected Kostyantingrad 
and the Greek land in the quarrel of Tsars; and the Franks rule it. 

A.D. 1205. A.M. 6713. The Moon shone eight nights. The same 
year the Veliki Knyaz Vsevolod sent to 
Novgorod, saying thus: "Troops are marching to war in your 
land; your Kiiyaz my son Svyatoslav, is young; I give you my 
eldest son Kostyantin." Then they took the Posadnik-ship from 
Mikhalko and gave it to Dmitri Miroshkinits. The same year 
Knyaz Kostyantin Vsevolodits, grandson of Gyurgi, came to Nov- 
gorod on March 20, St. Gerasim's Day, and the whole town was glad 
at [the fulfilment of] its desire. Vsevolod's Knyaginya died the 
same year. 

A.D. 1206. A.M. 6714. God's servant, Mitrofan, whose secular name 
was Mikhalko, Posadnik of Novgorod, died 
on May 18; he had had himself shorn at the Church of the Holy 
Mother of God in the Arkadi monastery. The same year Tverdislav 
Mikhalkovits put up a church to St. Simon Stylites of the Won- 
derful Hill^ over the gates of the Arkadi monastery. 

A.D. 1207. A.M. 6715. The Volodarevitsi and Nosovitsi® put up 
the Church of St. Luke in Lubyana Street, 

1 Theodoric the Ostrogoth, whose Bern is Verona. 

2 i.e. Baldwin, Count of Flanders. 
^ i.e. Doge Dandolo. 

* Tenth part. 

* Near Antioch. 

* FamiHes. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 49 

having transferred it from Koleno. The same year merchants 
from oversea completed the Church of the Holy Friday on August 
30. The same year Fedor Pineshchinits completed the Church of 
St. Panteleimon. The same year God's servant, Parfuri, whose secu- 
lar name was Proksha Malishevits, died; he had had himself shorn 
at the Holy Saviour's [Monastery] at Khutin, under Igiimen Varlam. 
God grant peace to his soul. 

A.D. 1208. A.M. 6716. Lazor, Vsevolod's man, came from Volo 
dimir, and Boris Miroshkinits ordered Oleks 
Sbyslavits to be killed in Yaroslav's court; and they killed him 
guiltless, on Saturday, March 17, St. Alexis' Day. And the next 
morning the Holy Mother of God wept in the Church of St. Yakov in 
the Nerev end. 

A.D. 1209. A.M. 6717. The men of Novgorod went with Kiiyaz 
Kostyantin against Chernigov, summoned by 
Vsevolod; and they came to the river Oka and there all the troops 
assembled, and the Knyaz of Ryazan stood on the further side of 
the Oka, come to help Vsevolod ; and Vsevolod summoned them to 
eat; six Knyazes sat down in a tent, and Gleb and Oleg and the men 
of Novgorod sat in Vsevolod's tent. And there the Volodimiritsi^ 
accused their brothers falsely: " Have no faith in our brothers, 
Knyaz: they have taken counsel against you with the Knyazes of 
Chernigov." Thus they denounced the Knyazes of Ryazan. And 
Vsevolod took them all and their men, and having fettered them 
sent them to Volodimir ; and himself went with the men of Novgorod 
and with the two calumniators to the district of Ryazan, and he 
came to Pronsk, and said: " Surrender yourselves to me." And 
they were with Knyaz Izyaslav, the third Volodimirits ; and Knyaz 
Mikhail ran on ahead from Pronsk ; and took away their water, and 
they surrendered. And he took Knyaz Mikhail's Knyaginya, 
and countless merchandise ; and took peace with Izyaslav and they 
went away well. From Kolomno he let the men of Novgorod go to 
Novgorod having made them presents without number, and he gave 
them all their will and the decrees of their former Knyazes, all 
that the men of Novgorod had wished for, and he said to them : 
" Who of you is good, him love, but punish the bad," and took his 
son Kostyantin with him, and Posadnik Dmitri who was wounded 
near Pronsk, and seven foremost men. Having come to Novgorod 

1 sc. Gleb and Oleg, sons of Volodimir, Knyazes of Ryazan. 

E 



50 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

the men of Novgorod held a Veche over Posadnik Dmitri and his 
brethren, because they had ordered the levying of silver on the 
people of Novgorod, for collecting money^ throughout the district, 
lines^ from the merchants, for enforcing the collection of taxes at 
fixed times and everything bad. And they went to plunder their 
courts, and set fire to Miroshkin's court and Dmitri's, appropriating 
their effects, sold all their villages and servants, sought out their 
treasures, and took of them without number, and the rest they 
divided so that each got some,^ at three grivn as throughout the whole 
town, and took everything. God alone knows how much any took 
secretly, and many grew rich from this ; and what was on the boards* 
that they left to the Knyaz. The same year they brought Dmitri 
Miroshkinits dead from Volodimir and buried him in the monastery 
of St. Georgi along side his father; the people of Novgorod wanted 
to throw him from the bridge, but Vladyka Mitrofan forbade them. 
Vsevolod sent his son Svyatoslav to Novgorod on Sexagesima 
Sunday. Then they gave the Posadnik-shi^ to Tverdislav Mikh- 
alkovits, and Dmitri's written documents they gave to Svyatoslav; 
there was a countless [quantity] of them. And the men of Novgorod 
kissed the honourable Cross, that we will not keep Dmitri's children 
by us, neither Volodislav nor Boris, nor Tverdislav Stanilovits, nor 
Ovstrat Domazhirovits; so the Knyaz sent them away to their 
father, and on some they levied a countless [quantity] of silver. 

A.D. 1210. A.M. G718. The men of Novgorod with Knyaz Volodimir 
and Posadnik Tverdislav, having pursued 
and found the Lithuanians in Khodynitsy, killed them. 

The same year Vsevolod went against Ryazan and said to them : 
" Come to me and my son Yaroslav over the Oka to deliberate." 
And they went over to him and there he seized them all; and sent 
troops; and took al their wives and children, and set fire to their 
town; and thus he distributed them about the towns. The same 
winter Knyaz Mstislav Mstislavits came against Torzhok, and seized 
Svyatoslav's courtiers'^ and put the Posadnik in chains and whoever 
could lay hands on their goods [took them] ; and he sent to Nov- 
gorod : " I bow down to St. Sophia and to the tomb of my father and 
to all the men of Novgorod; I have come to you having heard of the 

1 Kiiny. 

2 Vira dikaya. 

3 Po zuJm — per tooth. 

* sc. rafts. 

* Dvoryane. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 51 

violence [done you] by the Knyaz; and I am sorry for my patri- 
mony." Having heard this the men of Novgorod sent for him with 
great honour: " Come, Knyaz, to the throne." And they set 
Svyatoslav with his men in the Vladyka's court until the settlement 
with his father. Mstislav came to Novgorod and they set him on 
his father's throne, and the men of Novgorod were glad; and 
Mstislav went with the whole army^ against Vsevolod, and they were 
at Ploskeya and Vsevolod sent to him: " Thou art son to me and I 
father to thee ; let go Svyatoslav with his men ; and all that thou hast 
confiscated, make good, and I will let go the merchants and merchan- 
dise." And Mstislav released Svyatoslav and his men and Vsevolod 
released the merchants and their merchandise; they both of them 
kissed the Cross and took peace, and Mstislav came to Novgorod. 

A.D. 1211. A.M. 6719. Dmitri Yakunits came from Russia, and 
Tverdislav of his own will relinquished the 
Posadnik-s\i\]i to a senior, and then they gave the Posadnik-s\\\Tp to 
Dmitri Yakunits. And Knyaz Mstislav sent Dmitri Yakunits to 
Luki with the men of Novgorod to build a fortification,- and himself 
went to Torzhok to inspect the districts; from Torzhok he went to 
Toropets, from Toropets he went to Luki and came together with 
the men of Novgorod ; and to the people of Luki he gave Volodimir 
of Pleskov^ as Knyaz of Luki. / The same year by the will of God 
Vyacheslav Proshinits, grandson of Malishev, completed the stone 
Church of the Forty Saints; and God grant him salvation through 
the prayers of the Forty Saints. The same year in the absence 
of the Knyaz and of the men of Novgorod there was a great fire in 
Novgorod; it broke out in Radyatin Street, and 4,300 
houses* were burnt down, and fifteen churches. The same year, 
in the winter, on January 22, St. KHment's Day, the evil-doer who 
from the first wished no good [to man] put envy in the people with 
Knyaz Mstislav against Vladyka Mitrofan; and they did not allow 
him to clear himself, and led him to Toropets ; but he took this gladly, 
like loan Zlatoust^ and Gregory of Akragas; he accepted a like wrong 
glorifying God. At the same time, before the expulsion of Vladyka 
Mitrofan, Dobrynya Yadreikovits had come from Tsargnid and 
brought with him the [measure of the] Lord's tomb, and had himself 

1 Polk. 

■■' Gorod. 

3 i.e. Pskov. 

* Dvory. 

' St. John Chrysostom. 

E2 



52 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

shorn at Khutin at the Holy Saviour's [monastery] ; and by the will 
of God Knyaz Mstislav and all the people of Novgorod came to love 
him, and they sent him to Russia to get himself appointed; and he 
came appointed as Vladyka Antoni, and he made the palace^ of 
Mitrofan a church in the name of St. Antony. 

A.D. 1212. A.M. 6720. Mstislav went with the men of Novgorod 
against the Chud people called Torma, and 
made many captives and brought back countless cattle. Later, in 
the winter, Knyaz Mstislav went with the men of Novgorod against 
the Chud town called Medvezhya Golova, and ruined their vil- 
lages; and they came up to the town and the Chud people bowed 
down to the Knyaz, and he took tribute from them; and all came 
[back] well. 

A.D. 1213. A.M. 6721. In Peter's Fast, the godless Lithuanians 
came out against Pleskov, and set fire to it ; 
for the people of Pleskov at that time had driven out Knyaz Volo- 
dimir from amongst them, and were on the lake^; they did much 
harm and went away. 

A.D. 1214. A.M. 6722. On February 1, on Quinquagesima Sunday, 
there was thunder after morning service, and 
all heard it; and then at the same time they saw a flying snake. ^ 
On the same day Knyaz Mstislav marched with the men of Novgorod 
against the Chud people to Ereva,* through the land of the Chud 
people towards the sea, he ruined their villages and captured their 
forest fortresses.^ And he stayed with the men of Novgorod by the 
town of Vorobino,^ and the Chud people bowed down to him, and 
Knyaz Mstislav took tribute from them; and gave two parts of the 
tribute to the men of Novgorod, and the third part to the courtiers. 
There were present also Knyaz Vsevolod Borisovits of Pleskov with 
the men of Pleskov, and Knyaz David of Toropets, Volodimir's 
brother; and all returned well with a quantity of plunder. The 
same year Vsevolod the Red, son of Svyatoslav, great-grandson of 
Oleg, drove the grandsons of Rostislav out of Russia, saying thus: 
" You hanged two of my brothers, Knyazes, in Galich" as malefactors 

1 Polata. 

2 Lake Chud. 

3 Or dragon. 

* Or Narova. 

* Oseki. 

« Sparrow- town. 
' Galicia. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 53 

and you put shame on all ; and there is no portion for you in the Rus- 
sian Land." The same year the grandsons of Rostislav sent to 
Mstislav Mstislavich to Novgorod, " Behold Vsevolod Svyatoslavich 
makes us no portion in the Russian Land; come let us claim our 
patrimony." And Mstislav summoned a Veche in Yaroslav's 
Court, and began to summon the men of Novgorod to go to Kiev 
against Vsevolod the Red. The men of Novgorod said to him: 
" Whither, Knyaz, thou shalt look with thy eyes, there will we lay 
down our heads." And Mstislav went to Kiev with the men of 
Novgorod in the month of June, the 18th, St. Fedor's Day; and they 
reached Smolensk and there arose a dispute between the men of Nov- 
gorod and the men of Smolensk, and the men of Novgorod killed a 
man of Smolensk and would not go after their Knyaz. Knyaz 
Mstislav began to summon a Veche, but they would not come to it. 
The Knyaz having kissed all, and saluted them, went; but the men 
of Novgorod having made a Veche of their own began to deliberate. 
And Posadnik Tverdislav said: "Brothers! as our fathers and 
grandfathers laboured for the Russian Land, we, too, will go after 
our Knyaz." And so they went from Smolensk and having over- 
taken the Knyaz they began to make war on the towns of Chernigov 
along the Dnieper; they took Rechitsa by storm and many other 
towns of Chernigov ; and they came up to Vyshegorod and began to 
fight. And Mstislav with his brothers and the men of Novgorod 
prevailed and took two Knyazes: Rostislav Yaroslavits and his 
brother Yaropolk, grandsons of Oleg. And the people of Vyshe- 
gorod bowed down to him and opened their gates. And Vsevolod 
fled from Kiev across the Dnieper, and Mstislav with his brothers 
and the men of Novgorod entered Kiev, and the people of Kiev 
bowed down to him, and set Mstislav Romano vits, grandson of 
Rostislav^ in Kiev. From Kiev they went to Chernigov, and having 
stayed twelve days, they took peace and having taken gifts came all 
well to Novgorod. 

A.D. 1215. A.M. 6723. Knyaz Mstislav went to Kiev of his own free 
will, and made a Veche in Yaroslav's Court, 
and said to the men of Novgorod: " I have arms [to work my will] 
in Russia, and you are free to choose your Knyaz." The same year 
the men of Novgorod, having deliberated much, sent Posadnik 
Gyurgi Ivankovits and the Tysyatski Yakun, with ten senior mer- 
chant men for Yaroslav Vsevolodits, Gyurgi 's grandson, and Knyaz 
Yaroslav entered Novgorod, and Vladyka Anton with the men of 



54 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Novgorod met him. The same year Knyaz Yaroslav seized Yakun 
Zubolomits and sent for Foma Dobroshchinits Posadnik of Novi- 
torg ; and having put him in chains imprisoned him in Tver. And for 
our sins Fedor Lazurtinits and Ivor of Novi-torg informed against 
the Tysyatski Yakun Namnezhits. And Knyaz Yaroslav made a 
Veche in Yaroslav's Court ; they went to Yakun's Court and plun- 
dered it and seized his wife. And Yakun went the next morning 
to the Knyaz with the Posadnik, and the Knyaz ordered to be 
seized his son Khristofor on May 21. And then the Prussians killed 
Ovostrat on a festival day, also his son Lugota, and threw them dead 
into a pit. The Knyaz complained to the men of Novgorod of this. 
The same year Knyaz Yaroslav went to Torzhok taking with him 
Tverdislav Mikhalkovits, Mikifor, Polyud, Sbyslav, Semen, Olksa 
and many Boyars, and having given them gifts, sent them to Nov- 
gorod, and himself settled in Torzhok. The same autumn much 
harm was done ; frost killed the corn crops throughout the district ; 
but at Torzhok all remained whole. The Knyaz seized all the corn 
in Torzhok, and would not let one cart-load into the city ; and they 
sent Semen Borisovits, Vyacheslav Klimyatits, for Zubets Yakun 
to fetch the Knyaz and he detained them ; and he detained whomever 
you sent. And in Novgorod it was very bad, they bought one 
barrel^ of rye for ten grivnas, one of oats for three grivnas, a load 
of turnips for two grivnas; people ate pine bark and lime tree leaves 
and moss. O brothers, then was the trouble; they gave their 
children into slavery. T hey dug a public grave and filled it full. 
O, there was trouble! corpses in the m^N|cet::plac2;jCnipIes~Tn the 
street, corpses in the fields; the dogs could not eat up the men! 
The Vod people all died; the rest were scattered. And thus for 
our sins our power and our town went asunder. 

And the rest of the men of Novgorod sent Posadnik Gyurgi 
Ivanovits and Stepan Tverdislavits and others to fetch the Knyaz, 
and those he detained; and having sent Ivor and Chaponos to 
Novgorod he had his Knyaginya Mstislav's daughter brought to him 
from there. And then they (sc. the men of Novgorod) sent Manuil 
Yagolchevich with the final message: " Come to thy patrimony, to 
St. Sophia; if thou wilt not come, then tell us." These Yaroslav 
likewise would not let go, and he detained all the Novgorod mer- 
chants; and there was sorrow and wailing in Novgorod. And then 
Mstislav Mstislavits having heard of this evil, arrived at Novgorod 
on February 11, seized Yaroslav's lieutenant,"^ Knota Grigorevits, 

» Kad. 

- Namestnik. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 55 

and put all the nobles in chains; and he rode out to Yaroslav's Court 
and kissed the honourable Cross, and the men of Novgorod [did 
likewise] to him to be with him in life and death: " I shall either 
recover the Novgorod men and the districts, or lay down my head 
for Novgorod." Yaroslav had this news at Torzhok and they 
erected a stockade and blockaded the road from Novgorod and the 
river Tvertsa; and he sent 100 of the men of Novgorod to Novgorod 
to conduct Mstislav out of Novgorod; and they did not undertake 
this; but they were all of one mind, also those 100 men. And 
Knyaz Mstislav with the men of Novgorod sent the priest Gyurgi of 
St. loan's in the market-place to Yaroslav to Torzhok, with some of 
his own men : " Son, I greet you; release my men and the merchants; 
and yourself go from Torzhok, and have love with me." But 
Knyaz Yaroslav not liking this, let go the priest without peace, and 
summoned the men of Novgorod to a field outside Torzhok on 
Saturday before Sexagesima, and having seized all the men and 
merchants and put them in chains sent them to his various towns, 
and distributed their merchandise and horses ; and there were of all 
the men of Novgorod over 2,000. And the news came to Novgorod; 
and there were few of the men of Novgorod [left] ; the biggest men 
were captured abroad; and the lesser had been scattered and others 
had died from famine. And Knyaz Mstislav made a Veche in 
Yaroslav's Court : " Let us go," he said, " and recover our men, your 
brothers, and our districts. Novi-torg shall not be Novgorod, nor 
shall Novgorod be Torzhok. But where St. Sophia is there is Nov- 
gorod. God is in the many; but God and justice are also in the 
few." 

A.D. 1216. A.M. 6724. On March 1 on the Tuesday after Pure 
Sunday, Mstislav went against his son-in- 
law, Yaroslav with the men of Novgorod, and on the Thursday the 
transgressors of oath to the Cross fled to Yaroslav; for they had 
kissed the honourable Cross to Mstislav with all the men of Nov- 
gorod, to be all at one, Volodislav Zavidits, Gavrilo Igorevits, 
Gyurgi Olksinits and Qavrilo Milyatinits with their wives and chil- 
dren. And Mstislav went by the Seregeri lake, and entered his own 
district, and said to the men of Novgorod: " Go out foraging, but 
take no heads." They went, and took their fill of food both they 
and their horses, and they were at the head of the Volga. Svyatos- 
lav invested Rzhevka, one of Mstislav's towns, with a force of 10,000. 
But Mstislav with Volodimir of Pleskov went rapidly with 500, 



56 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

for only such was the number of all their men ; and he pursued them 
and they fled. And Yarun had shut himself up in the town with 
100 men and beat them off. And Mstislav went and took Zubchev, 
and they were on the Vozuga ; and thither came Volodimir Ruriko- 
vits with men of Smolensk. They were coming along the Volga, 
making war, and said to him: " Knyaz, go to Torzhok." But 
Mstislav and Volodimir said: " Let us go to Pereyaslavl; we have a 
third friend." And there was no news where Yaroslav was, whe- 
ther at Torzhok or in Tver. And Yaroslav's guards attacked Yarun 
behind Tver, and God helped Yarun and they killed many, others 
they captured, and others escaped to Tver. And these got news of 
Yaroslav and they went along the Volga making war, and they 
burned [along the river] Shesha and also [the towns of] Dubna and 
Kosnyatin and all the country along the Volga. And Eremei 
[coming] from Knyaz Kostj'antin met them with love and with 
greeting; and they went making war to Pereyaslavl and were at 
Gorodishche^ on the river Sarra, at the Church of Saint Marina 
on April 9 on Great Saturday. Knyaz Kostyantin with the men of 
Rostov came and kissed the Cross. 

And Yaroslav went to Torzhok having taken with him the elder 
men of Novgorod, and young men by selection, and all the men of 
Novi-torg. And he came to Pereyaslavl and assembled all his 
district and Gyurgi his, Volodimir and Svyatoslav likewise. And he 
went out from Pereyaslavl with his forces and those of Novgorod 
and of Novi-torg. How terrible, wonderful and strange, brothers ! 
Sons went against father, brother against brother, slave against 
master, master against slave. And Yaroslav and Gyurgi, with 
their brothers took stand on the Khza river. And Mstislav and 
Kostyantin, the two Volodimirs, with the men of Novgorod, took 
stand on the Lipitsa river, and they beheld the forces standing, and 
sent the Sotski Larion to Gyurgi: "We greet thee; we have no 
quarrel with thee, our quarrel is with Yaroslav." And Knyaz 
Gyurgi having answered: " I am one with my brother, Yaroslav," 
they sent to Yaroslav, saying: " Let go the men of Novgorod and of 
Novi-torg that are mine; and all that thou hast occupied of my 
Novgorod districts and the Volok give back; take peace with us, 
and kiss the Cross to us, and let us not shed blood." But they ans- 
wered: " We do not want peace, and I have men: you have gone 
far, and are come out hke fish on to dry land." And Larion told this 
speech to Mstislav and to the men of Novgorod, and the men of 

1 sc. Radilov, q.v. 



THE CHRONICLE OE NOVGOROD 57 

Novgorod said: " Knyaz, we do not want to die on horse-back, but 
as our fathers fought at the [riverj Kalaksha on foot." And Knyaz 
Mstislav was glad at this; and the men of Novgorod having dis- 
mounted from their horses, and thrown off their breeches ran for- 
ward barefoot, having thrown off their boots. And Mstislav rode 
after them on horse-back; and the forces of Ncn'gorod came together 
with the forces of Yaroslav. And so with the power of God and 
with the aid of St. Sophia Mstislav prevailed and Yaroslav and his 
forces turned shoulder. And Gyurgi made resistance to Kostyan- 
tin, but seeing Yaroslav 's forces in flight, he also turned shoulder, 
on April 21, the day of SS. Timofei and Fedor and the Tsanisa 
Alexandra. O great was the victory, countless the number, my 
brethren ; numberless the number of killed so that the mind of man 
cannot imagine it. And Yaroslav having fled into Pereyaslavl, 
ordered the captives to be cast into a pit, all those who were of 
Novgorod; others into prison, and there they expired in numbers. 
And Mstislav and Kostyantin and the two Volodimirs with their 
forces went in pursuit of Gyurgi to Volodimir, and having come they 
halted before the town, and that night the town and the Knyaz's 
court took fire. And the men of Novgorod wanted to go right up 
to the town, but Knyaz Mstislav did not let them. And it happened 
the next morning, Knyaz Gyurgi sent out with greeting to the 
Knyazes: " Do nothing against me to-day; and to-morrow I shall go 
out from the town." And Gyurgi went from Volodimir to the little 
town Radilov; and the men of Novgorod set Kostyantin on his 
father's throne in Volodimir. And Kostyantin rewarded the 
Knyazes with honour, and numbers of the men of Novgorod. And 
Mstislav went with the men of Novgorod to Pereyaslavl, and not 
going up to the town, levied gifts. He sent and took away his 
daughter, the wife of Yaroslav, and all the surviving men of Nov- 
gorod, and all that were in the army with Yaroslav, and all returned 
well to Novgorod. O, great, my brethren, is the Providence of God ! 
on that place of defeat of Gyurgi and Yaroslav there fell numberless 
soldiers. The men of Novgorod killed in the conflict were: Dmitri 
of Pleskov, Onton, kettle maker, Ivanka Pribyshinits, cloak maker; 
and in the pursuit: Ivanko, the priest's son, Simeon Petrilovits, and 
a tax gatherer of Tver. Mstislav came to Novgorod and the Vladyka 
and all the men of Novgorod were glad. They then took the 
Posadnik-ship from Gyurgi Ivankovits and gave it to TvxTdislav 
Mikhalkovits. 



58 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

A.D. 1217. A.M. 6725. Mstislav went away to Kiev, leaving the 
Knyaginya and his son Vasih in Novgorod; 
and he took with him Gyurgi Ivankovits, Sbyslav Stepanits, and 
Olksa Putilovits. Then, too, Volodimir went to Novgorod on 
his own business, and the Lithuanians made war in Shelon. The 
men of Novgorod went in pursuit of them but did not reach them; 
and they went with Knyaz Volodimir and Posadnik Tverdislav to 
Medvezhya-Golova, and halted before the town. And the Chud 
people began to send greeting deceitfully, but sent for the Nemtsy.^ 
And the men of Novgorod began to deliberate with the men of 
Pleskov about the message of the Chud people; going far away 
from their baggage, and the night guards had come in and the day 
guards had not gone out, and they [the Chud people] unexpectedly 
attacked the baggage, and the men of Novgorod ran from their 
Veche to the baggage, and having taken up their arms, beat them 
off the baggage. And the Nemtsy fled to the town, and the men of 
Novgorod killed two Voyevodas and took a third with their hands; 
and they took 700 horses, and returned all well. And Knyaz 
Mstislav came to Novgorod without them;^ and took Stanimir 
Dirnovits with his son, Nezdila, and having put them in fetters, 
imprisoned them; and seized countless quantity of goods and let 
them go again. The same spring, on May 31, a bakery caught fire 
in the middle of the morning, at Ivan Yarishevits's; by midday the 
whole side was burnt as far as the fishery, not a house was left; 
and all who had fled into the stone churches with their goods were 
all burnt there themselves together with their goods. And in the 
Varangian church all the countless Varangian merchandise was 
burnt; fifteen churches were burnt; and the tops^ and the porches 
of the stone churches were burned. 

A.D. 1218. A.M. 6726. Knyaz Mstislav came to Torzhok and took 
Borislav Nekurishinits, and after taking 
much merchandise released him. Then, too, the young Knyaz 
Vasili Mstislavich fell ill in Torzhok, and they brought him dead 
into Novgorod; and they laid him in St. Sophia at the head of his 
grandfather at [the image of] the Holy Mother of God. The same 
year Vladyka Anton laid the foundation of the stone Church of the 
St. Barbara monastery. Mstislav summoned a Veche in Yaroslav's 

» Germans, cf. p. 34. 

- sc. while they were away. 

» Cupolas. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 59 

Court, and said: " I make greeting to St. Sophia and my father's 
tomb, and to you; I wish to go and claim Galich,^ but I shall not 
forget you. God grant that I may lie by my father in St. Sophia." 
And the men of Novgorod begged him much: " Do not go, Knyaz," 
but they could not restrain him; and bidding them farewell, he went 
away. In the same year, Vladyka Mitrofan came from Volodimir; 
and the men of Novgorod conducted him to [the church of] the 
Annunciation of the Holy Mother of God. Mstislav went to Russia, 
and the men of Novgorod sent to Smolensk for Svyatoslav Rostis- 
lavits and he came to Novgorod on the first day of August. The 
same year, Gleb Volodimirich, Knyaz of Ryazan, being instigated by 
Satan to murder, having taken thought in his cursed imagination, 
having as accomplice his brother, Kostyantin, and with him the 
devil who seduced them and put the idea to them, they saying that : 
" Let us kill these, and ourselves take over all the power." And 
thou dost not know, accursed one, the Providence of God; he gives 
power to whom he pleases. The Almighty appoints both Tsar and 
Knyaz. What did Cain obtain from God after killing his brother, 
Abel ? Was it not a curse and a trembling ? or your kinsman the 
accursed Svyatopolk after killing all his brethren ? they received the 
crown of empire, he eternal torment. And this accursed Gleb, 
having conceived Svyatopolk's same idea, hid it in his heart, with 
his brother. And all assembed at a landing place for deliberation: 
Izyaslav, Mikhail, Rostislav, Svyatoslav, Gleb, Roman; Ingvor 
could not arrive in time; his time had not yet come. And Gleb 
Volodimirits with his brother summoned them to them as to the 
honour of a feast, into their tent; and they not knowing his evil 
thought and deceit, all six Knyazes, each with his Boyars and cour- 
tiers came into their tent. And this Gleb before their arrival hav- 
ing furnished his nobles and his brothers and a large quantity of 
pagan Polovets people with arms, hid them in the sleeping tent close 
to the tent in which they were to drink, no one knowing they were 
there except those two evil-minded Knyazes and their accursed con- 
federates. When they began to drink and make merry, then 
immediately the cursed Gleb and his brother having drawn their 
swords, began to slaughter first the Knyazes, then the Boyars and a 
quantity of the courtiers; with their own courtiers and with the 
Polovets people [they slew] six Knyazes alone and many Boyars 
and courtiers. These righteous Knyazes of Ryazan met their end 
on July 20, the day of the holy prophet, Ilya, and received crowns 
' sc. Galicia. 



60 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

from the Lord God, with their Druzhina, Hke innocent 
lambs they gave up their souls to God. And this accursed 
Gleb and his brother, Kostyantin, prepared the heavenly king- 
dom for them, but eternal torment for themselves with their 
confederates. 

And it happened in the winter, Matei Dushiltsevits fled, having 
bound the crier informer Moiseits. And the men of Novgorod having 
gone in pursuit caught him and brought him to the Gorodishche; and 
a lie entered the town that Tverdislav had given up Matei to the 
Knyaz; and the people on the other side [of the river] rang the bell 
at St. Nicholas throughout the night, and those of the Nerev end at 
the church of the Forty Saints likewise assembling people against 
Tverdislav. And it happened the next morning, the Knyaz 
released Matei, having learnt of the uproar and tumult in the town. 
And the people on the other side, even the children, went out in 
armour as for battle, and the Nerev people likewise, but those of the 
outskirts stood up neither for those nor for these, paying no 
attention. And Tverdislav looked towards St. Sophia, and said: 
" If I be guilty, may I die here; if I be innocent justify thou me, 
Lord," and he went with the Lyudin end and with the Prussians. 
There was a slaughter at the town gates ; and they fled to the other 
side, and others to the [Lyudin] quarter ; and they raised the bridge 
and the men of the other, side crossed in boats and came up in force. 
O, brethren, the accursed devil wrought a great wonder! When 
there should have been war against the pagans, then they began to 
fight each other. And they killed a Prussian man, and another man 
of the people of the [Lyudin] end, and of those of the other side 
[they killed] Ivan Dushiltsevits, Matei 's brother, and Kosnyatin 
Prokopinits, of the Nerev quarter, and six others, and many of 
both sides were wounded. This was on January 27, the day of St. 
loan Zlatoust^; and then there were Veches all through the week. 
But the devil was crushed by God and St. Sophia; the cross was ex- 
alted, and brethren came together with one accord, and kissed the 
Cross. And Knyaz Svyatoslav sent his Tysyatski to the Veche, and said : 
" I cannot be with Tverdislav; and I take away the Posadnik-ship 
from him." But the men of Novgorod said: " Is the fault his? " 
And he answered: " No." Tverdislav said: " I am glad, that I am 
not to blame; and you, brethren, are free to choose Posadnik and 
Knvaz." And the men of Novgorod answered: " Knyaz! as he is 

1 St. John Chrysostom. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 61 

without blame, and thou didst kiss the Cross to us not to deprive a 
man without blame, therefore, we bow down to thee, but this is our 
Posadnik, and we will not give in to this." And there was peace. 

A.D. 1219. A.M. 6727. The Veliki Knyaz Mstislav Romanovits sent 
his son Vsevolod from Kiev, saying: " Re- 
ceive to yourselves Knyaz Vsevolod, and let the older Svyatoslav 
return to me." And the men of Novgorod did his will. The 
same winter, Simeon Emin went with 400 men against [the district 
of] Toimokary, but neither Gyurgi nor Yaroslav let them through 
their land; and they came to Novgorod in boats^ and set up their 
tents on the fields, with evil intent. Tverdislav and the Tysyatski 
Yakun took thought and sent to Gyurgi not to let them go there, 
and they stirred up the town. Then they took the Posadnik ship 
from Tverdislav and gave it to Simeon Borisovits, and took the 
office of Tysyatski from Yakun and gave it to Simeon Emin. Then, 
too, they finished the stone Church of St. Barbara. The same 
year Tverdislav and Fedor laid the foundation of a stone Church to 
St. Michael, and another small one to the Three Holy Youths by its 
side, they completed it in four days. Knyazes Mstislav and Volodi- 
mir went from Kiev to Galich against the King's son- ; and the men 
of Galich came out against them and Chekhi and Lyakhi,^ Mora- 
vians and Hungarians,"* and the forces came together. And God 
helped Mstislav, and he entered the town of Galich and they took 
with their hands the King's son and his wife; and he took peace 
with the King, and let go his son, and himself took his seat in Galich 
and Volodimir Rurikovits in Kiev. The same year, Knyaz Vsevolod 
went with the men of Novgorod to Pertuyev, and they met out- 
posts of the Nemtsy,^ Lithuanians and Livonians,® and they fought ; 
and God helped the men of Novgorod; they went up to the town 
and stood there two weeks; they did not take the town, and re- 
turned all well. The same year Anton, Vladyka of Novgorod, went 
to Torzhok. And the men of Novgorod fetched Vladyka Mitrofan 
into the Bishop's court and on to the throne again, and sent to 
Onton': "Go where thou wilt." And Anton went to Novgorod to 
the Holy Redeemer's on the Nereditsa. And Knyaz and men of 

1 Lodya. 

* Korolevich. 

' Bohemians and Poles. 

* Ugry. 

5 cf. p. 34. 

* Lib. '' i.e. Anton. 



62 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Novgorod said to Mitrofan and to Anton: " Go to the Metropolitan; 
that whom he send us, that one be our Vladyka." And they let 
go with them the monk Vasyan the priest, and another priest, 
Boris. And having retmned from Pertuev they gave the Posadnik- 
ship to Tverdislav, and to Yakun the office of Tysyatski again. 

A.D. 1220. A.M. 6728. Vladyka Mitrofan came to Novgorod on 
March 17, having righted himself through 
God and St. Sophia; and Anton the Metropolitan kept by him in 
honour and gave him the Bishopric of Peremyshl. The same year, 
Knyaz Vsevolod went to Smolensk on his own business. And in 
the same winter Knyaz Vsevolod came from Smolensk to Torzhok. 
And the devil wishing no good to the Christian race, and wicked 
men neither, put sin into the heart of the Knyaz and anger against 
Tverdislav, though without fault. And he came to Novgorod and 
stirred up the whole town, wishing to kill Tverdislav, and Tverdis- 
lav was ill. And Knyaz Vsevolod went out from the Gorodishche 
with all his Court^ in armour as for battle and came to Yaroslav's 
Court. And the men of Novgorod met him in arms and took stand 
in battle order in the Knyaz s Court. And Tverdislav was sick and 
they drove him out on a sledge to [the church of] Boris and Gleb 
and the Prussians and people of the Lyudin end, and from the out- 
skirts, gathered round him and took stand round him in battle order 
forming themselves in five troops. And the Knyaz perceiving their 
formation and that they would fight hard for their lives, did not 
ride out, but sent Vladyka Mitrofan with all good messages and the 
Vladyka brought them together in love, and both Knyaz and Tver- 
dislav kissed the Cross. Through God and St. Sophia the Cross 
was exalted, and the devil was crushed, and all brethren were to- 
gether. And Tverdislav having come together with the Knyaz in 
love was deprived of the Posadnik-ship, for he was ill, and they gave 
the Posadnik-ship to Ivanko Dmitrovits. He continued in that 
illness seven weeks, and greater illness took hold of him, and he 
went to [the church of] the Holy Mother of God in the Arkadi mon- 
astery in secret from his wife and children and from all the brethren, 
and had himself shorn on February 8. His wife then had herself 
shorn in another monastery, at St. Barbara's. 

A.D. 1221. A.M. 6729. The men of Novgorod showed Knyaz 
Vsevolod the road. " We do not want thee, 
go whither thou wilt." He went to his father, into Russia. 
1 Dvor. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 63 

A.D. 1222. A.M. 6730. They sent Vladyka Mitrofan and Posadnik 
Ivanko with the elder men to Gyurgi 
Vsevolodits in Volodimir for his son, and he gave them Vsevolod with 
guarantee of ail the liberties of Novgorod. Knyaz Vsevolod came 
to Novgorod, and the Vladyka and all the men [came back] with 
countless gifts; and the men of Novgorod were glad, and there was 
peace. The same year, Knyaz Gyurgi sent his brother Svyatoslav 
to help the men of Novgorod. The men of Novgorod went with 
Svyatoslav to Kes,^ and the Lithuanians also came to their help; 
and they made much war, but did not take the town. And 
Yaroslav's men from Smolensk took Poltesk^ on January 17, 
under K^iyaz Boris and Gleb. The same winter, Knyaz Vsevolod 
fled by night secretly out of Novgorod with all his Court. And the 
men of Novgorod were grieved at this. Then the men of Novgorod 
sent the elder men to Gyurgi: " If it does not please thee to hold 
Novgorod through thy son, then give us thy brother." And he 
gave them his brother Yaroslav. 

A.D. 1223. A.M. 6731. Knyaz Yaroslav came to Novgorod and all 
the men of Novgorod were glad. The 
Lithuanians made war round Toropets, and Yaroslav with the men of 
Novgorod went in pursuit of them as far as [lake] Vosvyat, but did 
not catch them. The same year, Mitrofan, Vladyka of Novgorod, 
died on July 3, St. Vakint's^ Day, on the dawn of Monday, and was 
laid in the porch of St. Sophia; may God grant through his holy 
prayers many years to the Knyaz and to all the men of Novgorod. 
The same day they led the monk Arseni from Khutin into the 
[Bishop's] Court ; a good and very God-fearing man. Knyaz Yaroslav 
came from his brother and went with all the province to Kolyvan,"* 
and conquered the whole Chud land, and brought back countless 
plunder, but did not take the town; they took much gold, and 
returned all well. Knyaz Yaroslav with the Knyaginya and his 
children went to Pereyaslavl; and the men of Novgorod made 
greeting to him: " Do not go, Knyaz " ; but he went according to his 
will. And the men of Novgorod sent to Gyurgi for his son, and he 
again gave them his son Vsevolod. 

A.D. 1224. A.M. 6732. Knyaz Vsevolod Gyurgevits came to Nov- 
gorod. The same year the Nemtsy killed 
1 Wenden. 
= Polotsk. 
^ Hyacinth. 
* Revel. 



64 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Knyaz Vyachko in Gyurgev^ and took the town. The same year, 
for our sins, this was not [all] the evil that happened: Posadnik 
Fedor rode out with the men of Russa and fought with the Lithu- 
anians ; and they drove the men of Russa from their horses and took 
many horses, and killed Domazhir Torlinits and his son and of the 
men of Russa Bogsha and many others, and the rest they drove 
asunder in the forest. The same year, for our sins, unknown tribes^ 
came, whom no one exactly knows, who they are, nor whence they 
came out, nor what their language is, nor of what race they are, nor 
what their faith is; but the}' call them Tartars,^ and others say 
Taurmen, and others Pecheneg people, and others say that they are 
those of whom Bishop Mefodi of Patmos bore witness, that they 
came out from the Etrian desert which is between East and North. 
For thu? Mefodi says, that, at the end of time, those are to appear 
whom Gideon scattered, and they shall subdue the whole land from 
the East to the Efrant,^ and from the Tigris to the Pontus sea except 
Ethiopia. God alone knows who they are and whence they came 
out. Very wise men know them exactly, who understand books; 
but we do not know who they are, but have written of them here for 
the sake of the memory of the Russian Knyazes and of the misfor- 
tune which came to them from them. For we have heard that they 
have captured many countries, slaughtered a quantity of the god- 
less Yas, Obez, Kasog and Polovets peoples, and scattered others, 
who all died, killed thus by the wrath of God and of His immaculate 
Mother, for those cursed Polovets people had wrought much evil 
to the Russian Land. Therefore the all-merciful God wished to 
destroy the Kuman people^, godless sons of Ishmael, that they [might] 
atone for the blood of Christians which was upon them, lawless ones; 
for those Taurmen people passed through the whole Kuman country, 
and came close to Russia where it is called the Polovets Wall.^ 
And the cursed Polovets people, the survivors of those who were 
killed, escaped [to Russia], Kotyan with other Knyazes, while Danil 
Kobyakovits and Gyurgi were killed, and with them a quantity of 
the Polovets people. And this Kotyan was father-in-law to Mstislav 
of Galich. And he came with the Polovets Knyazes with greeting 
to his son-in-law Mstislav in Galich, and to all the Russian Knyazes, 

* Yurev or Dorpat. 

* Yazyk, lit. " tongue." 

* Tatary. 

* Euphrates. 

^ The Polovtsi. 
« Val. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 65 

and brought many gifts: b^r^ps nn''^ ^^mp]'^, buffaloes and girls: 
and they gave gifts [of these} to the Russian Knyazes, saying thus: 
" Our land they have taken away to-day; and yours will be taken 
to-morrow," and Kotyan appealed to his son-in-law, and Mstislav 
began to appeal to the Russian Knyazes, his brethren, saying thus : 
" If we, brothers, do not help these, then they will certainly sur- 
render to them,^ then the strength of those will be greater." And 
thus having deliberated much among themselves, they made 
themselves ready for the journey because of both the greeting and 
the appeal of the Polovets Knyazes. And they began to organize 
their forces, each his own province, and they went, having collected 
the whole Russian Land against the Tartars, and were on the 
Dnieper at Zarub. Then the Tartars having learned that the Rus- 
sian Knyazes were coming against them sent envoys to the Russian 
Knyazes: " Behold, we hear that you are coming against us, having 
listened to the Polovets men ; but we have not occupied your land, 
nor your towns, nor your villages, nor is it against you we have 
come. But we have come sent by God against our serfs ,^ and our 
horse-herds, the pagan Polovets men, and do you take peace with 
us. If they escape to you, drive them off thence, and take to 
yourselves their goods. For we have heard that to you also they 
have done much harm ; and it is for that reason also we are fighting 
them." But the Russian Knyazes did not listen to this, but killed 
all the envoys and themselves went against them, and took stand on 
the Dnieper, this side of Oleshe. And the Tartars sent to them 
envoys a second time, saying thus: " Since you have listened to the 
Polovets men, and have killed all our envoys, and are coming against 
us, come then, but we have not touched you, let God judge all." 
And they let go free their envoys. And then Mstislav having 
forded the Dnieper went across with 1,000 men, against the Tartar 
outposts, and defeated them, and the remainder of them fled with 
their Voyevoda Gemya-Beg to the Polovets kiirgan^ and there they 
could not hold out, and they buried their Voyevoda Gemya-Beg 
alive in the earth, wishing to preserve his life ; and there the Polovets 
men, having begged permission of Mstislav, found him, and killed 
him. And having heard of this the Russian Knyazes passed over 
the Dnieper in a body and went all together, and went after them 
for nine days, and passed over the Kalka river, sent Yarun with the 

^ sc. the Tartars. 

2 Kholopy. 

^ Burial-mound, fort. 



66 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Polovets men forward as outposts, and themselves took up position 
there as an advance. And then Yarun came together with them, 
wishing to fight, but the Polovets men ran away back, having ac- 
complished nothing, and in their flight they trampled the camp of 
the Russian Knyazes, for they had not had time to form into order 
against them^; and they were all thrown into confusion, and there 
was a terrible and savage slaughter. And Mstislav, Knyaz of 
Kiev, seeing this evil, never moved at all from his position; for he 
had taken stand on a hill above the river Kalka, and the place was 
stony, and there he set up a stockade^ of posts about him and fought 
with them from out of this stockade for three days. And other 
Tartars went after the Russian Knyazes fighting them up to the 
Dnieper, but two Voyevodas Tsigirkan and Teshukan stopped at that 
stockade [fighting] against Mstislav and his son-in-law, Andrei and 
Olexander of Dubrovits ; for these two Knyazes were with Mstislav. 
And there were there men in armour with the Tartars and Voyevoda 
Ploskyna; and this accursed Voyevoda, having kissed the honourable 
Cross to Mstislav and to both the Knyazes not to kill them, but to 
let them go on ransom, lied, accursed one; he delivered them bound 
to the Tartars, and they took the stockade and slaughtered the 
people, and there they fell dead. And having taken the Knyazes they 
suffocated them having put them under boards, and themselves 
took seat on the top to have dinner. And thus they ended their 
lives. And pursuing the other Knyazes to the Dnieper they killed 
six: Svyatoslav of Yanev, Izyaslav Ingvorovits, Svyatoslav Shumski, 
Mstislav of Chernigov with his son, and Gyurgi of NeSvezh. 
And then Mstislav Mstislavits having previously escaped across the 
Dnieper, cut loose the boats from the bank so the Tartars should not 
go after them, and himself barely escaped. And of the rest of the 
troops every tenth returned to his home; some the Polovets men 
killed for their horses, and others for their clothes. And thus, for 
our sins God put misunderstanding into us, and a countless number 
of people perished, and there was lamentation and weeping and 
grief throughout towns and villages. This evil happened on May 
31, on Saint Eremei's^ Day. And the Tartars turned back from the 
river Dnieper, and we know not whence they came, nor where they 
liid themselves again; God knows whence he fetched them against 
us for our sins. 
The same year, Tverdislav and Fedor completed the stone 

1 The Tartars. 

2 Gorod. 3 Jeremiah. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 67 

Church of St. Mikliail. In the same year, there was terrible thun- 
der on May 20, the Day of St. Falalei; the Church of the Holy Tri- 
nity was burnt down, and two men fell dead. The same year, 
Simeon Borisovich built a stone church to St. Paul and St. Simeon 
the Accepted of God, and to SS. Kostyantin and Elena, ^ and they 
consecrated it on November 6, St. Paul's Day. The same year, they 
consecrated the Church of St. Mikhail, on a feast day. The same 
year, Knyaz Vsevolod went a second time from Novgorod secretly 
by night with all his Court, and having arrived took his seat in Tor- 
zhok; and his father Gyurgi came to him with troops, and his brother 
Yaroslav and Vasilko Kostyantinovits with the men of Rostov, and 
Mikhail with those of Chernigov. And the men of Novgorod sent 
two men to Gyurgi at Torzhok; " Knyaz, let come to us thy child, 
and thyself go from Torzhok." And Gyurgi said to the envoys: 
" Give up to me Yakim Ivankovits, Mikifor Tudorovits, Ivanko 
Timoshkinits, Sdila Svanits, Vyachek, Ivats, and Radko; and if 
you do not give them up, I have watered my horses in the Tvertsa 
and I will water them in the Volkhov too." And the men of Nov- 
gorod collected all their district and raised a wall- around the town, 
and sent Polyud, Vyacheslav Prokshinits, and Ivanko Yaryshevits 
to G3airgi: " We greet thee, Knyaz, but we do not give up our own 
brothers, and do not thou shed blood; otherwise, thine is the 
sword, but ours are the heads." And the men of Novgorod 
placed outposts on the roads and fashioned forts, they wanted to 
die for St. Sophia in the cause of Posadnik Ivanko Dmitrovits. And 
Knyaz Gyurgi sent his man the Tysyatski Roman with our own men 
and with those of Mikhail: " Receive from me my brother-in-law 
Mikhail." And the men of Novgorod sent their men for Mikhail, 
and Gyurgi with the Knyazes went from Torzhok, having done them 
much damage and he took from them another 7,000 [grivnas]. 

A.D. 1225. A.M. 6733. Knyaz Mikhail, son of Vsevolod, grandson of 
Oleg, came to Novgorod, and it was easy 
throughout the district of Novgorod. And the same year, Knyaz 
Mikhail went to Gyurgi taking with him some men of Novgorod to 
confiscate the goods which he (Gyurgi) had seized in Torzhok and 
throughout his district. 

The same year having recovered the goods from Gyurgi, Knyaz 
Mikhail came [back] and took stand in Yaroslav's Court, and said to 
the men of Novgorod: " I do not want to be Knyaz amongst you; 

^ Constantine and Helen. * Ostroq. 

F2 



68 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

I am going to Chernigov ; let merchants come to me ; and as your 
land is so is my land."^ And the men of Novgorod entreated him 
much and begged him, but could not persuade him, and so they 
escorted him out with honour. And the men of Novgorod sent to 
Yaroslav at Pereyaslavl. Vladyka Anton came from Peremyshl to 
Novgorod, and took his seat on his own throne; and the men of Nov- 
gorod were glad of their Vladyka. The same winter the Lithuanians 
came and wrought countless havoc around Torzhok; but they did 
not come to Torzhok by three versts; there were 7,000 of them, and 
they killed many merchants and they occupied the whole district 
of Toropets; and Knyaz Yaroslav and Volodimir with his son and 
with the men of Novi-torg, the Knyaz s Court, some men of Nov- 
gorod, and the men of Toropets with their Knyaz David, went 
after them, and they sent for the men of Novgorod, but they having 
come as far as Russa turned back. And Knyaz Yaroslav overtook 
them^ on [lake] Vosvyat and turned on them; and thus with the 
help of God and St. Sophia they recovered all the plunder and killed 
2,000 of them^ themselves, and the rest of them fled asunder. And 
there they killed Knyaz David of Toropets and Vasili, Yaroslav's 
sword-bearer. 

A.D. 1226. A.M. 6734. Knyaz Yaroslav came [back] to Novgorod 
and did not make it a cause of anger that 
they had not followed him. Then they put up the Church of the 
Holy Nativity of Christ. The same year Igumen Savati of St. 
Georgi, Archimandrite of Novgorod, died on April 16, on Great 
Thursday. Before his death Savati summoned Vladyka Anton, 
and Posadnik Ivanko, and all the men of Novgorod, and he re- 
quested all his brethren and all the men of Novgorod: " Choose for 
yourselves an Igumen." And they said : " Whom dost thou bless ? " 
And he said: " Bring in the Greek, the priest of SS. Konstantin and 
Elena." And they brought in the Greek, a good and very God- 
fearing man, and they shore him the same day, March 2, St. Fedot's^ 
Day, and they appointed him Igumen on March 8, the Day of St. 
Feofilakt* in congregation. And the same year they founded the 
Church of St. Yakov^ in stone, in the Nerev end. 

A.D. 1227. A.M. 6735. Knyaz Yaroslav went with the men of Nov- 
gorod against the Yem people; and ravaged 

J sc. they are one. 

* sc. the Lithuanians. 
3 Theodosius. 

* Theophylact. ^ James. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 69 

the whole land and brought back countless plunder. And the same 
year they burned four sorcerers, they thought they were practising 
sorcery, but God knows, and they burned them in Yaroslav's 
Court. The same year Vyacheslav, Malishev's grandson, painted the 
Church of the Forty Saints; and God grant him salvation. 

A.D. 1228. A.M. 6736. Anton, Vladyka of Novgorod, went of his 
own free will to Khutin, to the [church of 
the] Holy Saviour. The same year the Yem people came into lake 
Ladoga in boats, ^ to make war, and the news reached Novgorod on 
the Saviour's Day. And the men of Novgorod having taken seat 
in their boats, rowed to Ladoga with Knyaz Yaroslav. And Volodis- 
lav, Posadnik of Ladoga with the men of Ladoga, not waiting for 
the men of Novgorod, went after them in pursuit in boats 
where they were making war, and came up with them, and fought 
with them. And night came on, and they retired to a small island, 
and the Yem people [remained] on the shore with their plunder; 
for they had been making war at the landings and at Olonets. 
And that same night having sued for peace, the Posadnik and the 
men of Ladoga did not grant it; and they- having slaughtered all 
their captives, themselves fled into the forest on foot having cast 
the boats adrift. Many of them fell there, and they burned their 
boats. The men of Novgorod remaining several days on the Neva 
held a council; and they tried to kill Sudimir, but the Knyaz hid 
him in his boat. Thence the men of Novgorod, without waiting 
for the men of Ladoga, returned to Novgorod. And the Izhora 
people who had stayed behind, met them as they fled, and there 
killed a great many of them. And the rest fled asunder; but these 
the Korel people, whichever way they went, whether by the woods, 
or by the fields, or to their tents, discovered and killed. It is 
thought that 2,000 or more of them had come; God knows, and 
few of them escaped to their own country ; all the rest perished. 

The same year, before this war, Knyaz Yaroslav went to Pleskov 
with Posadnik Ivanko and the Tysyatski Vyacheslav. The people 
of Pleskov hearing that the Knyaz was coming to them, shut them- 
selves up in the town and would not let him come to them. And the 
Knyaz having stayed a little at Dubrovna, returned to Novgorod. 
For the report had got abroad in Pleskov that he was bringing 
fetters, intending to put their biggest men into fetters. And having 

1 Lodka. 

2 sc. the Yem people. 



70 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

returned he called a Veche in the Vladyka's Court, and said: " I 
had not planned any harm to the people of Pleskov; but I took 
presents to them in chests, stuffs and fruit; and they have dishon- 
oured me." And he put a great complaint against them. And then 
he brought up troops from Pereyaslavl, saying: " I want to go 
against Riga." And tents stood around the Gorodishche, and others 
about the courts^ in Slavno. And they made all dearer in the 
market, bread and meat and fish; and thence forward the dearness 
remained, they bought bread at two kimas, a kad of rye at three 
grivnas, of wheat five grivnas, millet seven grivnas; and thus it 
remained for three years. And the people of Pleskov having heard 
that Yaroslav was bringing up troops, became afraid and took peace 
with the men of Riga independently of Novgorod saying: " You be 
by yourselves and the men of Novgorod by themselves, we will have 
nothing to do with either ; but if they come against us, then you help 
us." And they said : " Be it so." And they took of them forty men 
as hostages. And the men of Novgorod having learnt, said: " The 
Knyaz calls upon us to go against Riga, but he wanted to go against 
Pleskov." Then the Knyaz sent Misha to Pleskov, saying: " Come 
on the march with me; I have not planned any evil against you. 
But give over to me those who have calumniated me to you." And 
the men of Pleskov said, sending a Greek: " We greet thee, Knyaz, 
and our brothers the men of Novgorod. We will not go on the march 
and will not give up our brethren; and with the people of Riga we 
have taken peace. You marched to Kolyvan, took silver, and then 
you went back to Novgorod and you did not do justice, and did not 
take the town. Then, too, at Kes, and thus at Medvezhya-Golova ; 
and for that they killed our brethren at the lake, and others were 
captured, and you having embroiled [us] there, went off. If you 
have planned against us, then we shall resist you with the Holy 
Mother of God and with our greeting. Then better cut us to pieces 
and take to yourselves our wives and children, no better than the 
pagans. This is our greeting to you." And the men of Novgorod 
said to the Knyaz; "Without our brethren the men of Pleskov 
we will not go against Riga, and we bow down to thee, Knyaz." 
And the Knyaz urged them much, but they would not go on the 
march, and then Knyaz Yaroslav sent home his troops. The men 
of Pleskov had brought up the Nemtsy,^ Chud people, Letts,^ and 
Livonians,* and then let them go again, and those who had bounty 

> Houses. 2 cf. p. 34. 

=* Lotygola. * Lib. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 71 

from Yaroslav they drove out of Pleskov : " Go after your own Knyaz, 
you are no brothers to us." Yaroslav then went from Novgorod to 
Pereyaslavl with his Knyaginya, and left his two sons Feodor and 
Alexander in Novgorod with Fedor Danilovits and the Tiuri^ Yakim. 

The same autumn, great rain came down day and night, on our 
Lady's Day,^ and till St. Nicholas Day,^ we saw not the light of 
day; the people could not get the hay nor do the fields. 

Then the accursed devil, who from the beginning desired no good 
to man, and jealous of him because he drove him away by 
nightly vigils, singing, and prayer, stirred up a great tumult amongst 
the common people against Arseni, a modest and gentle man; 
and they made a Veche in Yaroslav's Court and went to the Vla- 
dyka's Court, saying: " It is warm so long because he took away 
Vladyka Anton to Khutin and himself took his seat, having given 
reward to the Knyaz." And pushing him through the gates, they 
drove him out like a miscreant, God barely saved him from death; 
he shut himself in St. Sophia and then went to Khutin. And the 
next day they fetched in Vladyka Anton again, and put with him 
two men, Yakun Moisevits and Mikifor the guard. And that was 
not enough evil, there was more than that: the whole town rose in 
tumult, and they went from the Veche in arms against the Tysyat- 
ski Vyacheslav, and plundered his Court and those of his brother 
Boguslav, of Andrei the Vladyka' s steward, of Davidko Sophiski, and 
of Sudimir. And against Dushilits, elder of Lipna, they also sent 
to plunder, and were going to hang him, but he escaped on horse- 
back to Yaroslav. But they took his wife saying that: "These 
people urge the Knyaz to evil," and the tumult in the town was 
great. The same autumn there was great water in the Volkhov; 
around the lake and along the Volkhov it carried away the hay. Then 
the lake'* having frozen and stood for three days, a south wind drove 
it up and having broken [the ice] carried it into the Volkhov, tore 
away nine stays of the great bridge, and carried down eight by night 
to the Pitba stream on St. Nicholas Day, and the ninth it carried 
away on December 8, St. Potapi Day. For God wished not to see 
bloodshed among brothers, nor to give joy to the devil: for the 
accursed one rejoices in bloodshed among brothers, but the good 
God so willed it. 

1 Bailiff. 

2 The Assumption. 

3 December 19. 
* Lake Ilmen. 



72 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

They then took the office of Tysyatski from Vyacheslav and gave 
it to Boris Negovich, and they sent a message to Knyaz Yaroslav 
about it: " Come to us; lay down an oath not to send judges about 
the district. On condition of our whole liberty and of all the 
charters^ of Yaroslav be thou our Knyaz. Or be thou to thyself, and 
we to ourselves." 

The same winter, Fedor Danilovits fled with the Tiun Yakim by 
night on Tuesday in Quinquagesima week, taking with them the 
two young Knyazes Fedor and Alexander. Then the men of Nov- 
gorod said: " They must have planned some harm to St. Sophia 
and have run away; we did not drive them out; but have executed 
our own brothers, and we have done the Knyaz no wrong. May 
God and the Honourable Cross judge them; and we will provide us a 
Knyaz," and they kissed the [ikon of the] Holy Mother of God that 
they would all be united, and they sent Khota Stanimirovits and 
Gavrilo of Lyubyanitsa [Street] for Mikhail to Chernigov. And they 
came to Smolensk and the Knyaz of Smolensk at the instance of 
Yaroslav would not let them go, and occupied all the roads. But 
if God be with us, who is against us ? And Mikhail having learnt 
that the emissaries of Novgorod were kept in Smolensk, for he was 
then at Bryn with his son, went in haste to Torzhok and came to 
Torzhok in Palm week; and all the people were glad. 

A.D. 1229. A.M. 6737. Knyaz Mikhail came from Chernigov to 

Novgorod on Holy Day, at the close of St. 

Thomas's Week, and the men of Novgorod were glad at their choice ; 

and he kissed the Cross on the whole liberty of Novgorod and on all 

the charters of Yaroslav, and he granted the serfs freedom not to 

pay taxes for five years, who ever had fled to other folk's land, and 

those who live here he ordered to pay taxes as former Knyazes had 

fixed. And the men of Novgorod took much money- from Yaros- 

lav's favourites and the people of Gorodishche ; they did not plunder 

their houses but made them give towards the building of the great 

bridge. The same year they began the foundation of a great bridge 

above the old bridge. They then took the Posadnik-ship from 

Ivanko Dmitrovits and gave it to Vnezd Vodovik; and they gave 

Torzhok to Ivanko ; he went to Torzhok but the Novi-torg people 

would not receive him, and thence he went to Yaroslav. 

The same year, Knyaz Mikhail said: "Behold, you have no 

Vladyka, and it is not seemly for this town to be without a Vladyka. 

^ Gramofa. 
- Kuny. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 73 

And since God has laid his punishment on Anton, do you elect a 
fitting man, whether from amongst priests, Igumens, or monks." 
And some said to the K^iyaz; " There is a monk, a deacon at St. 
Georgi's by name Spiridon, he is worthy of it ! " And others named 
Osaf, Bishop of Volodimir in Volynia, and yet others a Greek. 
" Whomever the Metropolitan shall give, that one shall be our 
father." And Knyaz Mikhail said: " Let us cast three lots, whom 
God will give us." And having written out the names they laid 
them on the holy table and sent out the young Knyaz Rostislav 
from the Vladyka's council chamber. ^ God chose him a servant 
and shepherd of the speaking sheep in Novgorod and in all its pro- 
vince, and Spiridon was drawn ; and they sent for him to the monas- 
tery and having brought him, they set him in the court, until he 
should go to Kiev to be appointed. 

The same year, Knyaz Mikhail went to Chernigov to his brothers, 
taking with him the Novgorod men, Boguslav Gorislavits, Sbyslav 
Yakunkovits, Domash Tverdislavits, Gleb, son of the Posadnik, 
Mikhail Mikiforovits, and Mikhail Prikupov; and his son Rostislav 
he left in Novgorod. " God grant me," he said, " that I obtain 
justice for Novgorod, that then I may take my son from you." 
And he sent Nezdilo Prokshinits and Ivanko Tudorkovits to Yaros- 
lav, saying: " Give up the Volokr and all thou hast that belongs to 
Novgorod, which thou hast occupied by force, and kiss the Cross." 
And Yaroslav said: " I will not give up that, and do not kiss the 
Cross; you for yourself and I for myself." And he detained the 
emissaries all the summer. The same year Spiridon went to Kiev 
for confirmation by the Metropolitan, to be appointed on December 
17. The same winter, the Lithuanians came and ravaged [the towns 
and districts of] Lyubno, Moreva, and Serigeri, the men of Novgorod 
pursued them and having overtaken them, beat them, and took 
away all their captives, in the month of January. 

A.D. 1230. A.M. 6738. The earth quaked on a Friday in the fifth 
week after Easter during dinner, and some 
had already dined. And this, brethren, was not for good, but for 
evil; God shows us his signs because of our sins, that we repent us 
of our sins. What great mortality God brought on us that spring [ 
And yet seeing this we understood not our ruin; but were more 
prone to evil. The same year, on May 14, St. Sidor^ Day, on Tues- 

1 Gridnitsa. 

2 Volok Lamsk. 
* Isidore. 



74 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

day, in the middle of the morning the sun grew dark and became 
hke a moon of the fifth night ; and it filled out again and we godless 
ones were glad. On the 19th of the same month on [the day of] 
the Veche of the 318 holy Fathers, Vladyka Spiridon came 
to Novgorod, appointed by the Metropolitan Kuril^; he was 
appointed priest in Quinquagesima week, and Vladyka after Holy 
Week on Veche [Day]. The same year, Knyaz Mikhail had his 
son Rostislav shorn in St. Sophia in Novgorod, and Vladyka Spiridon 
took off his hair; and he set him on the throne, but himself went to 
Chernigov. The same year, Stepan Tverdislavits quarrelled with 
Vodovik, Ivanko Timoshkinits siding with Stepan, and the Posad- 
nik's servants beat Ivanko; this happened in the Gorodishche. 
And the next morning he called a Veche in Yaroslav's Court 
against the Posadnik, and went against his Court, and they 
plundered it. The Posadnik and Simon Borisovich again roused up 
the whole town against Ivanko and Yakim Vlunkovits and Proksha 
Lashnev; they went from the Veche and plundered many houses 
and they killed Volos Blutkinits at the Veche. The Posadnik 
said: " Thou didst try to set fire to my Court. "^ Proksha's Court 
they set fire to, and Yakim fled to Yaroslav, while others hid 
themselves, but they made these take oath and then let them go. 
And Vodovik having caught Ivanko, later killed him, casting him 
into the Volkhov. And God seeing our lawlessness and our hatred 
of our brothers, and our rebelliousness against each other, jealousy, 
and false swearings by the Cross which the angels cannot look on 
and turn their many-eyed wings from, we holding it in our hands kiss 
with foul lips, therefore, God brought the pagans upon us and they 
laid waste our land. Ourselves not watching at all, we [without 
mercy] lost our power, and so it became empty: and thus did the 
Lord God reward us according to our deeds. 

On [the Day of] the Exaltation^ of the Honourable Cross, a frost 
killed the crops throughout our district and from that there arose 
great misery. We began to buy bread at eight kunas, a barrel of 
rye at twenty grivnas, or at twenty-five in the courts, wheat at 
forty grivnas, millet at eight, and oats at thirteen grivnas; our town 
and our country went asunder and other towns and countries be- 
came full of our own brothers and sisters; and the rest began to die. 
And who would not weep at this, seeing the dead lying in the 
streets, and the little ones devoured by dogs? And God put into 

1 CyrU. 

- House. ■' September 26. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 75 

the heart of Vladyka Spiriclon to do good. He put a common grave 
by the Church of the Holy Apostles in Prussian Street and engaged a 
good and gentle man by name Stanila to carry the dead on horses 
wherever he went about the town and so continuously he dragged 
them every day; and he filled it up to the top; there were 3,030 in it. 

The same winter, the young Knyaz Rostislav went with Posadnik 
Vnezd to Torzhok, on December 8, on a Sunday. And the next 
morning, the 9th, they killed Semen Borisovits and plundered his 
whole house and his villages, took his wife, and himself they buried 
at the Church of St. Gyurgi^ in the monastery. Similarly the house 
and villages of Vodovik and of his brother Mikhail, of Danislav, of 
Boris the Tysyatski, and of Tvorimirits and the houses of many 
others. And Vodovik having heard this evil fled from Torzhok 
with his brothers, and the Tysyatski Boris with the men of Novi- 
torg fled to Mikhail to Chernigov. 

They gave the Posadnik-shi^ to Stepan Tverdislavich, and to 
Mikita Petrilovits the office of Tysyatski, and Semen's and Vodo- 
vik's property they distributed among a hundred. They laboured 
collecting, and these got the fruit of their labours; for of such the 
Holy Spirit said: " He collecteth, and knoweth not for whom he 
collecteth." 

And they showed young Knyaz Rostislav the road from Torzhok 
and [sent him] to his father in Chernigov: " As thy father said he 
would mount his horse for war on Exaltation Day,- and kissed 
the Cross; behold, it is now St. Michael's Day,^ the kissing of the 
Cross has fallen from us,'* go thou away, and we will provide a Knyaz 
for ourselves." And they sent for Yaroslav, with [reservation of] all 
the liberties of Novgorod. And Yaroslav came quickly to Novgorod 
on December 30, and made a Veche and kissed [the ikon of] the 
Holy Mother of God in [confirmation of] all the charters^ of Yaroslav. 
And having sat two weeks he returned to Pereyaslavl, taking some 
of the younger men of Novgorod with him, and he set his two sons 
Fedor and Alexander in Novgorod. 

The same winter, Yaroslav, Vladyka Spiridon and the whole 
of Novgorod led in Igumen Arseni, a mild and gentle man, from the 
Church of Saint Saviour in Khutin and made him Igumen of 

* George. 

- September 26. 
3 November 21. 

* sc. our oath is annulled. 
5 Gramota. 



76 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

St. Georgi. And they deprived Sava of it, and confined him in a cell, 
and being taken ill, he lay six weeks, and died on March 15, on 
Saturday, before morning, and so he was buried by Igumen Arseni 
and the entire brotherhood. God grant [the fulfilment of] his 
prayers to all Christians and to me the sinful Timofei, sacristan; 
for he was a good man, mild, gentle and without anger. May God 
give peace to his soul with all the righteous in the kingdom of 
Heaven ! And we will turn to the preceding, to the bitter and sad 
memory of that spring. For what is there to say, or what to speak 
of the punishment that came to us from God ? How that some of 
the common people killed the living and ate them ; others cutting up 
dead flesh and corpses ate them; others ate horseflesh, dogs and cats; 
but to those found in such acts they did thus — some they burned 
with fire, others they cut to pieces, and others they hanged. Some 
fed on moss, snails, pine-bark, lime-bark, lime and elm-tree leaves, 
and whatever each could think of. And again other wicked men 
began to burn the good people's houses, where they suspected that 
there was rye; and so they plundered their property. Instead of 
repentance for our wickedness, we became more prone to wickedness 
than before, though seeing before our eyes the wrath of God: the 
dead in the streets and in the market-place, and on the great bridge, 
being devoured by dogs, so that they could not bury them. They 
put another pit outside at the end of Chudinets Street, and that 
became full, and there is no counting [the number of bodies in it]. 
And they put a third at Koleno beyond the Church of the Holy 
Nativity, and that likewise became full, there was no counting the 
bodies. And seeing all this before our eyes we should have become 
better; but we became worse. Brother had no sympathy with 
brother, nor father with son, nor mother with daughter, nor would 
neighbour break bread with neighbour. There was no kindness 
among us, but misery and unhappiness; in the streets unkindness 
one to another, at home anguish, seeing children crying for bread 
and others dying. And we were buying a loaf for a grivna and 
more, and a fourth of a barrel of rye for one silver grivna. Fathers 
and mothers gave away their children into servitude to merchants 
for bread. This distress was not in our land alone; but over the 
whole Russian province except Kiev alone. And so has God 
rewarded us according to our deeds. 

A.D. 1231. A.M. 6739. A fire broke out, starting from the house of 
Matvei Vyshkovits and the whole of the 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 77 

Slavenski quarter^ nearly to the Kholm quarter beyond St. Ilya^ 
was burned. But God watched over the holy churches, although 
the fire was so fierce that it seemed to burn on the water, passing 
over the Volkhov in the sight of all ; and several people were drowned 
in the Volkhov. The same year, God showed His mercy towards us 
sinners. He did His mercy quickly. The Neniisy'^ came from 
beyond sea with corn and with flour, and they did much good, for 
this town was already near its end. 

The same autumn, Yaroslav marched with an army to the Cherni- 
gov district, with the men of Novgorod and with all his force against 
Mikhail, and burned Sherensk; and after camping near Mosalsk 
he turned back again, having destroyed many crops. And there, 
too, near the town they shot the commander [of the troops] Oldan, 
and they went away without peace. The same year the Posadnik 
of Novgorod, Vodovik Vnezd died in Chernigov. 

A.D. 1232. A.M. 6740. Boris Negotsevich, Mikhal with his brother 
Peter Vodovikovits, Gleb the brother of 
Smen, Misha Borisovich with the Knyaz Svyatoslav [Trubetskoi, 
came in mid-Lent from Chernigov, and reached the village of 
Buitsa, the village of St. Georgi, and thence they turned back again] 
into Russia, on finding that these men had lied to them. And they 
pushed on to Pleskov, seized Vyacheslav, and after beating him, 
put him in chains. Meantime, in Novgorod, there was a great 
tumult, for Knyaz Yaroslav was not there, he was then in Pereyas- 
lavl. And on his arrival from Pereyaslavl he seized the men of 
Pleskov and imprisoned them in the Veche chamber in the Goro- 
dishche and he sent to Pleskov, saying: " Let my men go and show 
those the road, whence they came." They, however, stood 
staunchly for them, but said: " Send their wives and goods to them, 
then we will let go Vyacheslav; otherwise we to ourselves and you 
to yourselves." And so all the year they were without peace; 
and the Knyaz did not let merchants go to them ; and they were 
buying salt at seven grivnas a berkovets'^ ; and they let go Vyacheslav. 
And the Knyaz let the wives of Boris, Gleb and Misha go to them ; 
but he did not take peace. And it happened in the winter the men 
of Pleskov came to the Knyaz and did obeisance to him: " Thou 
art our Knyaz," and they asked Yaroslav for his son Fedor, but he 
did not give them his son, and said: " Lo, I give you my brother- 

^ Slavno. 

* Elias. 

3 cf . p. 34. * Ten puds. 



78 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

in-law, Gyurgi, that is your Knyaz." They took him and led him 
to Pleskov, and they showed the road to the sons of Boris, with 
their wives ; and they went to Medvezhya Golova. 

The same year, Svyatoslav Mstislavich, grandson of Roman, 
took Smolensk by assault with the men of Polotsk, on Boris Day, 
cut to pieces the people of Smolensk, and took his seat on the throne. 

Vladyka Anton died on October 8 of the same year. This blessed 
Vladyka Anton before his exile had sat on the Bishop's chair eight 
years after Mitrofan, and [was] in exile six years; he then came from 
Peremyshl to Novgorod and sat two years, and became dumb on St. 
Olex Day; he was in that illness six years and seven months and 
nine days; and so he died, and they laid him in the porch of St. 
Sophia in the presence of Knyaz Yaroslav Vsevolodits and of 
Vladyka Spiridon. 

A.D. 1233. A.M. 6741. The people of Izborsk drove out the children 
of Boris together with Knyaz Yaroslav 
Volodimirits and the Nemtsy.'^ But the men of Pleskov sur- 
rounded Izborsk, captured the Knyaz and killed the Nemets^ Danila, 
and the rest fled; and they delivered them to the great Yaroslav 
who imprisoned them in Pereyaslavl. 

The same year Knyaz Fedor, the eldest son of Yaroslav, died, 
on June 10, and he was laid in the monastery of St. Georgi; he was 
still young. And who would not pity him? The wedding was 
arranged; the mead was brewed, the bride was brought, the Knyazes 
invited. And in place of merriment there was weeping and grieving 
for our sins. But 0, Lord, glory to Thee, heavenly ruler; since this 
was Thy will ! But rest be to him with all the righteous ! 

The same year the Church of St. Fedor at the gates of the Nerev 
quarter was founded. 

The same year died the blessed Metropolitan of Kiev and of all 
Russia, by name Kyuril, he was by birth a Greek, and had been 
brought from Nikeya.^ 

The same year, the Nemtsy drove out Kyuril Sinkinits from Tesov 
and led him to Medvezhya Golova and he sat in chains from 
our Lady's Day until Lent, Knyaz Yaroslav not being in Nov- 
gorod, but he had gone away to Pereyaslavl. And the Knyaz 
having come set him free with the aid of God and St. Sophia, 

1 cf. p. 34. 

2 German. 
•" Nicaea. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 79 

and he brought his troops in great numbers to Novgorod, intending 
to go against them. 

A.D. 1234. A.M. 6742. Knyaz Yaroslav with the men of Novgorod 
and with the whole district, and with his 
own forces, went against the Nemtsy towards Yurev, and the 
Knyaz halted before he had reached the town with his forces, and 
he let his people ravage the land. But the Nemtsy issued out of 
the town, some staying to guard Medvezhya Golova, and fought 
with them right up to the main force. And God helped Knyaz 
Yaroslav with the men of Novgorod ; and they drove them down to 
the river, and several of the best Nemtsy fell there; and when 
the Nemtsy were crossing the river Omovyzh^ they broke through 
and many were drowned; and some of the wounded escaped to 
Yurev, others to Medvezhya Golova. And they laid much of 
their land waste, and destroyed many of their crops about Yurev 
and Medvezhya Golova. And the Nemtsy did obeisance to the 
Knyaz, and Yaroslav took peace with them on his own terms, and 
the men of Novgorod returned all well, but some men of the Low 
country- fell. 

The same year the Church of St. Luke in the L3mdin quarter 
was burned down from thunder in the evening of June 10. 

The same year the Lithuanians drove the men of Russa nearly 
as far as the market place and the men of Russa halted ; and [there 
was] an ambuscade; and the citizens and body-guard and some of 
the merchants and traders drove them out of the town^ again, 
fighting in the field, and here they killed several of the Lithuanians, 
and four of the men of Russa: the priest Petrila, Paul Obradits, and 
two other men. And they pillaged the whole monastery of St. 
Saviour, and the whole church they stripped, the images and the 
altar, and four monks they killed, and retired to Klin. Then the 
news came to Novgorod to Knyaz Yaroslav, and the Knyaz with the 
men of Novgorod taking to the boats, and others on horse-back, 
went after them up the Lovot. And when they came to the village 
of Moravin the boatmen turned back thence to the town; and the 
Knyaz let them go because they had not enough bread, and he 
himself with the mounted men went after them and overtook them 

1 Embach. 

2 Niz, Nizovskaya zemlya, sc. the basin of the Volga, and the country S.E. of 
Moscow generally. 

3 Posad. 



80 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

at Dubrovna, a village in the Toropets district, and there he fought 
with the accursed and godless [Lithuanians]. And there God 
[helped them] and the Holy Cross and the Holy Sophia, the Mighty 
Wisdom of God, helped Knyaz Yaroslav and the men of Novgorod 
over the pagans, and they took from them 300 of their horses with 
their goods and they fled into the woods, having thrown down their 
arms and shields and lances and everything from themselves; and 
others fell here dead. And of the men of Novgorod they killed 
there ten men : Feda Yakunovich the Tysyatski, Gavrilo the shield- 
maker, Negutin from Lubyanitsa, Nezhila the silversmith, Gostilets 
of Kusma-Demyan Street, Fedor Uma of the Knyaz's household, a 
townsman, and three other men. And may God grant peace to their 
souls in the kingdom of Heaven, who spilt their blood for St. Sophia 
and for Christian blood. 

A.D. 1235. A.M. 6743. The accursed and all-destroying devil, who 
from the beginning wished no good to the 
human race, raised discord among the Russian Knyazes, that 
men might not dwell in peace; for this reason too the evil one 
rejoices in the shedding of Christian blood. Knyaz Volodimir 
Rurikovich with the men of Kiev, and Danilo Romanovich with the 
men of Galich went against Mikhail Vsevolodich the Red, to Cherni- 
gov, and Izyaslav fled to the Polovets people, and laid much waste 
around Chernigov, and burnt villages. And Mikhail came out 
from Chernigov and having devastated much around Chernigov 
went away again. And Mikhail having practised deceit on Danilo 
killed many of the men of Galich, even without number, and Danilo 
barely escaped. And Volodimir having come back again, he sat 
in Kiev. And not even thus was there enough of evil, but Izyaslav 
with the pagan Polovets people in great strength, and Mikhail with 
the men of Chernigov came to Kiev, and took Kiev. And the 
Polovets men having taken Volodimir and his Knyaginya led them 
away to their own country, and did much harm to the people at 
Kiev. And Mikhail took his seat in Galich, and Izyaslav in Kiev. 
And then again the Polovets men let Volodimir and his wife go for 
ransom, and the Knyazes took ransom from the Nemtsy. 

A.D. 1236. A.M. 6744, Knyaz Yaroslav went from Novgorod to 

[take] the throne in Kiev, taking with him 

some of the best men of Novgorod: Sudimir of Slavno, Yakim 

Vlunkovich, and Kosta Vyacheslavich, also 100 men from Novi- 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 81 

torg. He set his son Olexander in Novgorod and having arrived 
in Kiev he took his seat on the throne, and having kept the men of 
Novgorod and of Novi-torg for one week and having bestowed gifts 
on them he let them go; and they all returned well. 

The same year the godless Tartars having come, they captiired all 
the Bolgar Land^ and took their great city, and they slew all, both 
wives and children. 

A.D, 1237. A.M. 6745. There was a sign in the sun on August 3, 
the Day of the commemoration of the Holy 
Fathers Dalmat, Faust, and Isak, at mid-day. The sign was of 
this kind: there was a darkness on the western side of the sun; 
it became like a moon of five nights ; and on the eastern side it was 
light, then again on the eastern side there was darkness, like a moon 
of five nights, while on the western side it was hght; and thus it 
became full again. 

The same year the Nemtsy came in great strength from beyond 
the sea to Riga and all united there; both the men of Riga and all 
the Chud Land, and the men of Pleskov from themselves sent a 
help of 200 men, and they went against the godless Lithuanians; 
and thus for our sins they were defeated by the godless pagans,^ 
and each tenth man came back to his home. 

The same year a Metropolitan by name Esif, a Greek, came to 
Kiev from Nikeya. 

A.D. 1238. A.M. 6746. The wife of Semen Borisovich made a monas- 
tery at the Church of St. Paul. 
That same year foreigners^ called Tartars came in countless" 
numbers, like locusts, into the land of Ryazan, and on first coming 
they halted at the river Nuklila, and took it, and halted in camp 
there. And thence they sent their emissaries to the Knyazes of 
Ryazan, a sorceress and two men with her, demanding from them 
one-tenth of everything: of men and Knyazes and horses — of 
everything one-tenth. And the Knyazes of Ryazan, Gyurgi,"^ Ing--' 
vor's brother, Oleg, Roman Ingvorevich, and those of Murom and 
Pronsk, without letting them into their towns, went out to meet 
them to Voronazh. And the Knyazes said to them: " Only when 
none of us remain then all will be yours." And thence they let 
them go to Yuri* in Volodimir, and thence they let the Tartars at 

^ Bulgaria on the Volga, the present Kazan, etc. 
- Lithuanians. 
3 I noplemennitsi. 
* George. 

G 



82 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Voronazh go back to the Nukhla. And the Knyazes of Ryazan sent 
to Yuri of Volodimir asking for help, or himself to come. But Yuri 
neither went himself nor listened to the request of the Knyazes 
of Ryazan, but he himself wished to make war separately. But it 
was too late to oppose the wrath of God, as was said of old by God, 
to Joshua the son of Nun, when leading them to the promised land, 
then he said: " I shall before you send upon them perplexity, and 
thunder, and fear, and trembling." Thus also did God before these 
men take from us our strength and put into us perplexity and thun- 
der and dread and trembling for our sins. And then the pagan 
foreigners surrounded Ryazan and fenced it in with a stockade.^ 
And Knyaz Yuri of Ryazan, shut himself in the town with his people, 
but Knyaz Roman Ingorovich began to fight against them with his 
own men. Then Knyaz Yuri of Volodimir sent Yeremei as Voyevoda 
with a patrol and joined Roman; and the Tartars surrounded them 
at Kolomno, and they fought hard and drove them to the ramparts. 
And there they killed Roman and Yeremei and many fell here with 
the Knyaz and with Yeremei. And the men of Moscow ran away 
having seen nothing. And the Tartars took the town on December 
21, and they had advanced against it on the 16th of the same month. 
They likewise killed the Knyaz and Knyagmya, and men, women, 
and children, monks, nuns and priests, some by fire, some by the 
sword, and violated nuns, priests' wives, good women and girls in 
the presence of their mothers and sisters. But God saved the Bishop, 
for he had departed the same moment when the troops invested the 
town. And who, brethren, would not lament over this, among 
those of us left alive when they suffered this bitter and violent 
death? And we, indeed, having seen it, were terrified and wept 
with sighing day and night over our sins, while we sigh every day 
and night, taking thought for our possessions and for the hatred of 
brothers. 

But let us return to what lies before us. The pagan and godless 
Tartars, then, having taken Ryazan, went to,..y5lodimir, a host of 
shedders of Christian blood. And Knyaz Yuri went~ouftrom Volodimir 
and fled to Yaroslavl, while his son VsevoloH" with his mother and the 
Vladyka, and the whole of the province shut themselves in Volodimir. 
And the lawless Ismaelites approached the town and surrounded the 
town in force, and fenced it all round with a fence. ^ And it was in the 
morning Knyaz Vsevolod and Vladyka Mitrofan saw that the town 

1 Ostrog. 
a Tyn. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 83 

must be taken, and entered the Church of the Holy Mother of God 
and were all shorn into the monastic order and into the schema,^ 
the Knyaz and the Knyaginya,'\'hQ\r daughter and daughter-in-law, 
and good men and women, by Vladyka Mitrofan. And when the 
lawless ones "had already come near and set up battering rams,^ 
and took the town and fired it on Friday before Sexagesima Sunday, 
the Knyaz and Knyaginya and Vladyka, seeing that the town was on 
fire and that the people were already perishing, some by fire and 
others by the sword, took refuge in the Church of the Holy Mother 
of God and shut themselves in the Sacristy. The pagans breaking 
down the doors, piled up wood and set fire to the sacred church; 
and slew all, thus they perished, giving up their souls to God. 
Others went in pursuit of Knyaz Yuri to Yaroslavl. And Knyaz 
Yuri sent out Dorozh to scout with 3,000 men; and Dorozh came 
running, and said: " They have already surrounded us, Knyaz." 
And the Knyaz began to muster his forces about him, and behold, 
the Tartars came up suddenly, and the Knyaz, without having been 
able to do anything, fled. And it happened when he reached the 
river Sit they overtook him and there he ended his life. And God 
knows how he died; for some say much about him. And Rostov 
and Suzhdal went each its own way. And the accursed ones having 
come thence took Moscow, Pereyaslavl, Yurev,^ Dmitrov, Volok,^ 
and Tver; there also they killed the son of Yaroslav. And thence 
the lawless ones came and invested Torzhok on the festival of the 
first Sunday in Lent. They fenced it all round with a fence as 
they had taken other towns, and here the accursed ones fought 
with battering rams for two weeks. And the people in the town were 
exhausted and from Novgorod there was no help for them; but 
already every man began to be in perplexity and terror. And so the 
pagans took the town, and slew all from the male sex even to the 
female, all the priests and the monks, and all stripped and reviled 
gave up their souls to the Lord in a bitter and a wretched death, 
on March 5, the day of the commemoration of the holy Martyr 
Nikon, on Wednesday in Easter week. And there, too, were killed 
Ivanko the Posadnik of Novi-torg, Yakim Vlunkovich, Gleb Boriso- 
vich, and Mikhailo Moisievich. And the accursed godless ones then\ 
pushed on from Torzhok by the road of Seregeri right up to Ignati's/ 

1 cf . p. 34. 

2 Porok. 

3 Yurev Polski, N.E. of Moscow. 
* Volok Lamsk. 

G2 



84 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

[cross, cutting down everybody like grass, to within 100 versts^ of 
Novgorod. God, however, and the great and sacred apostohc 
cathedral Church of St. Sophia, and St. Kyuril,^ and the prayers of the 
holy and orthodox Vladyka, of the faithful Knyazes, and of the very 
reverend monks of the hierarchical Veche, protected Novgorod. 
And who, brothers, fathers, and children, seeing this, God's in- 
fliction on the whole Russian Land, does not lament ? God let the 
pagans on us for our sins. God brings foreigners on to the land in 
his wrath, and thus crushed by them they^ will be reminded of God. 
And internecine war comes from the prompting of the devil: for 
God does not wish evil amongst men, but good; but the devil re- 
joices at wicked murder and bloodshed. And any land which has 
sinned God punishes with death or famine, or with infliction of 
pagans, or with drought, or with heavy rain, or with other punish- 
ment, to see whether we will repent and live as God bids; for He 
tells us by the prophet: " Turn to me with your whole heart, with 
fasting and weeping." And if we do so we shall be forgiven of all 
our sins. But we always turn to evil, like swine ever wallowing in 
the filth of sin, and thus we remain; and for this we receive every 
kind of punishment from God; and the invasion of armed men, too, 
we accept at God's command ; as punishment for our sins. 
A.D. 1239. A.M. 6747. Knyaz Olexander,'* son of Yaroslav, married 
in Novgorod, he took the daughter of Brya- 
cheslav of Polotsk ; and was wedded at Toropets and the feast was 
held both in Novgorod and in Toropets. 

In the same year Knyaz Alexander^ with the men of Novgorod 
built^ a town^ by the Shelon [river]. 

A.D. 1240. A.M. 6748. The Svei^ came in great strength with the 
Murman, Sum, and Yem people in very many 
ships.The Svei came with their Knyaz and with their bishops.and halted 
in the Neva at the mouth of the Izhera, wishing to take possession 
of Ladoga, or in one word, of Novgorod, and of the whole Novgorod 
province. But again the most kind and merciful God, lover of 
men, preserved and protected us from the foreigners since they 
laboured in vain without the command of God. For the news came 
to Novgorod that the Svei were going towards Ladoga, and Knyaz 

1 About 66 miles. 

^ Cyril. 

3 sc. the Russian people. 

* Oleksandr, Aleksandr. 

' Srubi — cut, because made of wood. 

^ Fort. ^ Swedes. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 85 

Olexander with the men of Novgorod and of Ladoga did not delay 
at all; he went against them and defeated them by the power of St. 
Sophia and the prayers of our Sovereign Lady the Holy Mother of 
God and eternally Virgin Mary on the 15th day of July, the Com- 
memoration Day of Saints Kyurik and Ulita, and the Day of the 
Veche of the 630 Holy Fathers of Khalkidon.^ And there was a 
great slaughter of Svei. Their Voyevoda, by name Spiridon, was 
killed, and some thought that their bishop was also killed there; 
and a very great number of them fell. And having loaded two ves- 
sels^ with their best men got away first to sea ; and the rest of them 
having dug a pit they threw into it without number; and many 
others were wounded; and the same night without waiting for the 
light of Monday they went away in shame. And of the men of 
Novgorod and Ladoga there fell there Kostyantin Lugotinits, 
Gyuryata Pineshchinich, Namest, Drochilo son of Nezdilo the 
tanner, twenty men in all with the men of Ladoga, or less, God 
knows. And Knyaz Alexander with the men of Novgorod and of 
Ladoga all came back in health to their own country, preserved by 
God and St. Sophia, and through the prayers of all the saints. 

The same year the Nemtsy^ with the men of Medvezhya [Golova], 
of Yurev, and of Velyad"* with Knyaz Yaroslav Volodimirich took 
Izborsk. And the news came to Pleskovthat the Nemisy had taken 
Izborsk and all the men of Pleskov went out and fought with them 
and the Nemtsy beat them. And there they killed the Voyevoda 
Gavrilo Gorislavich, and pursuing the men of Pleskov, killed many 
of them and others they caught with their hands. And having 
driven them up under the town, they burned the whole place, and 
there was much damage, churches, honourable ikons, books and 
Gospels were burnt, and they devastated many villages around 
Pleskov. And they stayed near the town a week, but they did not 
take the town. But the children of good men they took as hostages, 
and went away and so they were without peace. For the men of 
Pleskov had made treachery with the Nemtsy, and Tverdilo Ivanko- 
vich with others had got them to come and himself began to rule in 
Pleskov with the Nemtsy, ravaging the Novgorod villages. And 
some of the people of Pleskov fled to Novgorod with their wives 
and children. 

1 i.e. The Council of Chalcedon, a.d. 451. 

2 Korahl. 

^ cf . p. 34. 
* Fellin. 



86 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

In the winter in the same year Knyaz Olexander went out from 
Novgorod with his mother and his wife and all his court, to his father 
in Pereyaslavl, having quarelled with the men of Novgorod. 

The same winter the Nemtsy came against the Vod people with 
the Chud people, and ravaged them, and laid tribute upon them, and 
made a fort in the village^ of Koporya. Nor was this the only evil: 
but they also took Tesov and pushed to within thirty versts of 
Novgorod, attacking merchants, and hitherwards to Luga and up 
to [the village of] Sablya. 

And the men of Novgorod sent to Yaroslav for a Knyaz, and he 
gave them his son Andrei. And then the men of Novgorod having 
taken counsel sent the Vladyka with others again for Olexander; 
and the Lithuanians, Nemtsy and the Chud people invaded the Nov- 
gorod district and seized all the horses and cattle about Luga, and 
in the villages it was impossible for any one to plough and nothing 
to do it with, till Yaroslav sent his son Alexander again. 

A.D. 124L A.M. 6749. Knyaz Olexander came to Novgorod, and 
the men of Novgorod rejoiced. The same 
year Knyaz Olexander went with the men of Novgorod, and of 
Ladoga, and with the Korel and Izhera people against the town of 
Koporya, against the Nemtsy'^ ; and took the town and brought some 
Nemtsy to Novgorod and let others go free ; but the Vod and Chud 
traitors he hanged. 

A.D. 1242. A.M. 6750. Knyaz Olexander with the men of Novgorod 
and with his brother Andrei and the men of 
the Lower country went [in the winter in great strength against the 
land of the Chud people, against the Nemtsy, that they might not 
boast, saying: " We will humble the Sloven race under us," for lu^l 
Pskov was already taken, and its Tiuns- in-prison^: "Pirv^~ Knyaz 
Olexander occupied all the roads right up to Plesko v ; and he cleared 
Pleskov, seized the Nemtsy and Chud men, and having bound them 
in chains, sent them to be imprisoned in Novgorod, and himself 
went against the Chud people. And when they came to their land, 
he let loose his whole force to provide for themselves. And Domash 
Tverdislavach and Kerbet were scouring [the country] and the 
Nemtsy and Chud men met them by a bridge ; and they fought there, 
and there they killed Domash, brother of the Posadnik, an honest 
man, and others with him, and others again they took with their 

1 Pogost. 

2 Cf. p. 34. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 87 

hands, and others escaped to the troops of the Knyaz. And the 
Knyaz turned back to the lake and the Nemtsy and Chud men went 
after them. Seeing this, Knyaz Olexander and all the men of 
Novgorod drew up their forces by Lake Chud at Uzmen by the 
Raven's rock^; and the Nemtsy and Chud men rode at them driving 
themselves like a wedge through their army; and there was a great 
slaughter of Nemtsy and Chud men. And God and St. Sophia and 
the Holy Martyrs Boris and Gleb, for whose sake the men of Nov- 
gorod shed their blood, by the great prayers of those Saints, God 
helped Knyaz Alexander. And the Nemtsy fell there and the Chud 
men gave shoulder, and pursuing them fought with them on the 
ice, seven versts short of the Subol shore.- And there fell of the 
Chud men a countless number; and of the Nemtsy 400, and fifty 
they took with their hands and brought to Novgorod. And they 
fought on April 5, on a Saturday, the Commemoration Day of the 
Holy Martyr Feodul,^ to the glory of the Holy Mother of God. The 
same year the Nemtsy sent with greeting, in the absence of the 
Knyaz: " The land of the Vod people, of Luga, Pleskov, and Loty- 
gola, which we invaded with the sword, from all this we withdraw, 
and those of your men whom we have taken we will exchange, we 
will let go yours, and you let go ours." And they let go the Pleskov 
hostages, and made peace. 

The same year Knyaz Yaroslav Vsevolodich summoned by the 
Tartar Tsar Baty, went to him to the Horde. 

A.D. 1243. A.M. 6751. God's servant Varlaam, in the world Vyaches- 
lav Prokshinich, died at Khutin in the 
monastery of the Holy Redeemer, on May 4; arfd he was buried on 
the morrow the fifth, St. Irena's Day^15y Vladyka Spiridon and Igmnen 
Sidor in the presence of Knyaz Olexander. On the 18th of the same 
month, the Day of the Holy Martyr Alexander, there appeared a 
sign in the monastery Church of St. loan in Pleskov, from the image 
of the Holy Redeemer over the tomb of the Knyaginya of Yaroslav 
Volodimirovich, who was killed by her stepson at Medvezhya Golova; 
there came ointment from the ikon for twelve days, it filled four 
wax cups as into a glass vessel, and they brought two to Novgorod 
to be blessed and they kept two in Pleskov. But, O Lord, Glory to 
Thee, who gavest us Thy unworthy and sinful servants such a blessing ! 
In Thee, we hope, O Lord Almighty, who loving mankind dost 

' Voroni Kamen- 
- Of Lake Chud. 
^ Theodoulos. 



88 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

look with Thy abundant mercy upon us poor ones. The same year 
on August 16 died God's servant, Stefan Tverdislavich, grandson of 
Mikhail, Posadnik of Novgorod, on Sunday at 1 o'clock of the night, 
and he was buried on Monday the 17th, the Day of SS. Paul and 
Uliana, in the porch of St. Sophia where lie Vladykas Arkadi and 
Marturi, having been Posadnik thirteen years less three months. 

A.D. 1244. A.M. 6752. Ihe Knyaginya of Yaroslav died, having 
been shorn in the monastery of St. George; 
and there she was laid by the side of her son Fedor, on May 4, the 
Day of St. Irina ; her name was called Efrosinia. 

A.D. 1245. A.M. 6753. [Tsar Baty killed Knyaz Mikhail of Cher- 
nigov and his Voyevoda Fedor in the Horde 
on September 18. And the killing of them was like this. There 
was an invasion of pagan Tartars into the Russian Land; and 
these^ shut themselves in the towns. And envoys came from 
Tsar Baty to Mikhail, who then held Kiev; and he, seeing their 
words of deceit, ordered them to be killed and himself fled with his 
family to Hungary^ ; and some fled to distant parts ; and others hid 
in caves and forests, and few of them stayed behind ; and these after 
some time settled in the towns ; and they counted their number and 
began to levy tribute upon them. And Knyaz Mikhail having 
heard this, he brought back the people who had fled on all sides to 
strange lands, and they came to their own land. And the Tartars 
began to summon them with insistence to go to Baty, saying to 
them: " It is not meet for you to live in the land of the Khan and of 
Baty without doing homage to them." And many having gone 
bowed. And Baty had this custom of the Khan's: If any one came 
to do obeisance, he would not order him to be brought before him, 
but wizards used to be ordered to bring them through fire and make 
them bow to a bush and to fire ; and whatever anyone brought with 
him for the Tsar, the wizards used to take some of everything and 
throw it into the fire, and then they used to let them go before the 
Tsar with their gifts. And many Knyazes with their Boyars passed 
through the fire, and bowed to the bush, their idols, for the glory 
of this world, and each asked of them power and they used to 
give it them without dispute, that they might deceive them with the 
glory of this world. And the most reverend Knyaz Mikhail being 
then in Chernigov, and seeing many deceived by the glory of this 

1 sc. Mikhail and Fedor — Michael and Theodore. 

2 Ugry. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 89 

world, God sent grace and the gift of the Holy Spirit upon him; 
He put into his heart to go before Tsar Baty and to denounce his 
deceit with which he deceived Christians. And he came to his 
spiritual father and told him saying: " I wish to go to Tsar Baty." 
His spiritual father answered him: " Many having gone have done 
the will of the pagan Tsar Baty, deceived by the glory of this world ; 
went through the fire and bowed to the sun and to the bush, and 
destroyed their souls and bodies. And thou, my son, Mikhail, 
if thou wilt go, do not thus, as the others; go not through the fire; 
bow not to their idols, nor eat their food, nor take their drink be- 
tween thy lips; but confess the Christian faith, for it becometh not 
Christians to bow to any thing, but only to our Lord Jesus Christ." 
And Mikhail and his Voyevoda said to him: " By thy prayer, 
father, as God wills so be it ; I would like to pour out my blood for 
Christ and for the Christian faith." His Voyevoda Fedor spoke 
likewise. Their spiritual father said to them: "You two will 
be fresh holy martyrs in the present generation for the confirmation 
of faithful people, if you do thus." Mikhail and Fedor his Voyevoda 
promised to do thus and were blessed by their spiritual father. 
Then their father gave them the holy communion for the journey, 
calling it pre-sanctified and having blessed them, dismissed them 
and said to them: " May God give strength to you and may God 
for whom you are eager to suffer send you help." Then Mikhail 
came to his house, and took from his goods what he needed. And 
going through many lands they yet reached Tsar Baty. And they 
told Baty: " The Russian Veliki Knyaz Mikhail has come to bow to 
thee." And Tsar Baty ordered them to bring his wizards; and 
the wizards having come before the Tsar, the Tsar said to them: 
" As it is according to our custom, do to Knyaz Mikhail, and then 
bring him before me." And they having gone to Mikhail, saying 
to him: " The Tsar Baty summons thee." And he having taken 
his Voyevoda Fedor, went with him, and having reached the place 
where fire was laid on both sides, many pagans were going through 
the fire, and were bowing to the sun and to the idols. And the 
wizards led Mikhail and his Voyevoda Fedor through the fire. 
Mikhail said to them: " It does not become Christians to go through 
fire and to bow to the idols, to which these bow; such is the Christian 
rehgion, not to bow to any thing nor to idols, but to bow to the 
Trinity: to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost." And 
Mikhail said to his Voyevoda Fedor: " Better it is for us not to bow 
to the things to which these bow." And they having left them at 



90 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

the place to which they had been brought, went to tell Tsar Baty: 
•' Mikhail the Veliki Knyaz does not listen to thy command, does 
not go through the fire and does not bow to thy gods: he says, it 
does not become Christians to go through the fire, nor do they bow 
to things, neither to the sun nor to idols, but they bow to the 
Father who made all things, to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost." 
And Tsar Baty grew very angry, he sent one of his nobles, ^ his 
steward- named Eldega, and he said: " Why hast thou made nought 
of my command, and hast not bowed to my gods? but from this 
moment choose for thyself life or death ; if thou keepest my command 
thou shalt both live and shalt receive all thy princedom, but if thou 
wilt not go through the fire, nor bow to the bush and to the idols 
then thou shalt die by a cruel death." Then Mikhail answered: 
" To thee. Tsar, I bow, since God hath granted thee the sovereignty^ 
of this world, but to the things to which these bow I shall not bow." 
And Eldega, the Tsar's steward, said to him: " Mikhail, beware: 
thou art dead." And Mikhail answered him: " Indeed, I wish to 
suffer for Christ and to shed my blood for the true faith." Then 
said Boris, Knyaz of Rostov, to Mikhail with much weeping: " My 
lord father, do the Tsar's will." Then likewise the Boyars of Boris 
also said: " We will all receive public penance for thee with all our 
power." Then Mikhail answered: " Brothers, I do not wish to call 
myself a Christian by name only and to do the work of the pagans ; 
but on the contrary I believe in Christ the only God." When 
Mikhail had said this, his Voyevoda Fedor began to think in himself 
saying: " What if Mikhail should grow weak by the prayer of these 
men, remembering the love of his wife and the caresses of his child- 
ren ?" Then remembering the words of his spiritual father, Fedor said 
to Mikhail: " Dost thou remember the word of our spiritual father 
which he taught us from the holy gospels ? The Lord said : ' he 
that desireth to save his soul shall destroy it, and he that destroyeth 
his soul shall save it.' And again, he said: ' what shall it profit a 
man if he receive the sovereignty of all this world and lose his 
soul ? and what will he get in exchange for his soul ? for whosoever 
shall suffer shame for me and for my words and shall confess me 
before men, I too will confess him before my Father which is in 
Heaven, and whosoever shall deny me before men I also will deny 
him before my Father who is in Heaven ! ' " And Mikhail and Fedor 

1 Velmozha. 

2 Stolnik. 

3 Tsarstvo. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 91 

saying this, they began to pray them urgently, that they would 
listen to them. And Mikhail said to them : " I will not listen to you, 
nor will I destroy my soul." Then taking off his mantle Mikhail 
threw it to them, saying to them: " Receive the glory of this world 
if you desire it." And Eldega having heard that they were unable 
to persuade him, then went to inform the Tsar of what Mikhail had 
said; for there was a quantity of Christians and pagans in that place, 
and they were listening to what Mikhail answered to the Tsar. 
Then the blessed Mikhail and Fedor began to sing, and having 
finished singing they took holy communion, the body and blood of 
Christ, which their father had given them who had blessed them for 
this to suffer for Christ. And those who stood by said: " Mikhail, 
the executioners are coming from the Tsar to kill you ; bow, and you 
will live." And Mikhail and Fedor answered as with one mouth: 
" We will not bow, and will not listen to you, for the sake of the 
glory of this world," and began to sing: " Thy martyrs, O Lord, 
did not deny Thee, nor did they turn away from Thy command- 
ments, but rather suffered for Thy sake, O Christ, and endured many 
tortures and received perfect crowns in heaven," and so forth. 
And then the executioners having arrived, and having jumped off 
their horses, the}'" seized Mikhail, they stretched him out and holding 
his arms, began to strike him with their hands over the heart, and 
threw him prone on to the ground and struck him with their heels. 
And when he had been overpowered a certain man who had been a 
Christian and then become pagan having denied the Christian faith, 
and become a pagan transgressor of the law, named Doman, this 
man cut off the head of the holy Veliki Knyaz Mikhail, and hurled 
it away. And at that minute they said to Fedor: " Bow thou to our 
gods and thou wilt receive the whole Knyazdom^ of thy Knyaz." 
And Fedor said to them: " I do not desire the Knyasdom and do not 
bow to your gods; but I wish to suffer for Christ hke my Knyaz." 
Then again the}^ began to torture Fedor as before they had Mikhail, 
and then they cut off his honoured head too. Thus, these men 
thanking the Lord suffered for Christ, and gave over their holy 
souls to the Lord into the hands of God, new holy martyrs. And 
their holy bodies were thrown to the dogs to eat, but on the contrary 
the holy bodies having lain many days were by the grace of God 
preserved and in no way injured. And our merciful God the Lord 
who loves mankind glorifying His holy and obedient servants who 
had suffered for Him and for the Orthodox faith, a pillar of fire 
1 Knyazhenie — sovereignty. 



92 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

appeared from earth to heaven over their honourable bodies, shining 
with exceeding bright rays for the confirmation of Christians and for 
the conviction of the faithless who leave God and bow to things, and 
for the terrifying of the pagans. And their holy and honourable 
bodies were saved by some God-fearing Christians. The kilhng of 
them was on the 20th day of September ; through whose prayers and 
through the supplication of these sufferers of pain and martyrs, 
Mikhail and Fedor, we shall be worthy to find mercy and remission of 
our sins at the hands of our Lord Jesus Christ, in this and in the 
future life, together with the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost, 
now and for ever and ever. Amen.] 

The Lithuanians made ravages about Torzhok and Bezhitsy, and 
the men of Novi-torg with Knyaz Yaroslav Volodimirovich chased 
and fought them; and they took the horses from the men of Novi- 
torg, and beat the men themselves and went away with their plun- 
der. And Yavid and Erbet with the men of Tver and of Dmitrov, 
and Yaroslav with the men of Novi-torg, pursued them and beat 
them near Toropets, and the sons of their Knyaz took refuge in 
Toropets. 

The next morning Olexander came up with men of Novgorod 
and took away all the plunder, and slew more than eight of their 
Knyaz' s sons. And from there the men of Novgorod turned back; 
but the Knyaz pursued them^ with his own court^ and defeated them 
near [the village of] Zizech, and did not let a single man go, and 
there he killed the rest of the Knyaz' s sons. And he himself took 
his own son from Vitebsk and went with a small company and met 
another force at lake Vosvyat; and there God helped him, and he 
destroyed those two and himself returned well and his company 
also. 

A.D. 1246. A.M. 6754. [Knyaz Yaroslav Vsevolodits died in the 
Horde of the Khan.] Knyaz Olexander 
went to the Tartars. 

A.D. 1247. A.M. 6755. God's slave Kostyantin Vyacheslavich, 
whose monastic name was Ankyudin, died, 
and was honourably laid in [the Church of] Saint Saviour at 
Khutin. 

A.D. 1248. A.M. 6756. 

1 sc. the Lithuanians. 
* Dvor. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 9S 

A.D. 1249. A.M. 6757. Spiridon, Vladyka of Novgorod, died, and 
was honourably laid in St. Sophia. 

A.D. 1250. A.M. 6758. Knyaz Olexander returned from the Horde, 
and there was great joy in Novgorod. 

A.D. 1251. A.M. 6759. The Metropohtan Kyuril and the Bishop of 
Rostov, also named Kyuril, came to Nov- 
gorod, and established Dalmat as Vladyka of Novgorod. 

[At this time also Nevrui came against the land of Suzdal, against 
Knyaz Andrei; and Knyaz Andrei Yaroslavich fled beyond sea to 
the land of the Svei, and they killed him.] 

Heavy rains came the same year and took away all the ploughed 
fields and crops and hay; and the water carried away the large 
bridge over the Volkhov, and in the autumn a frost struck the crops, 
but a remnant was preserved. For the Lord God sends down on 
us for our sins at one time famine at another war and all other kinds 
of punishment; but, oh ! His mercy is great! And He is patient 
with us, awaiting repentance, as He Himself said: " I desire not the 
death of a sinner, but his conversion to life," and He leaves us 
remnants for our revival. 

A.D. 1252. A.M. 6760. Slavno was burnt down from St. Ilya^ up to 

Nutna Street. 

A.D. 1253. A.M. 6761. The Lithuanians ravaged the district of 
Novgorod and went off with captives, and 
the men of Novgorod with Knyaz VasiU overtook them at Toropets ; 
and so Christian blood was avenged on them. And they defeated 
them and took back the captives from them, and returned well to 
Novgorod. The same year the Neniisy came to Pleskov and burned 
the town^, but the men of Pleskov killed many of them. And the 
men of Novgorod went out to them in arms from Novgorod, and 
they ran away ; and the men of Novgorod having come to Novgorod, 
and having armed and prepared themselves, went beyond the 
Narova and laid waste their district ; and the Korel people also did 
much harm to their districts. And the same year they went with 
the men of Pleskov to ravage them, and they put out a force against 
them ; and the men of Novgorod with the men of Pleskov defeated 
them by the power of the honourable cross ; for they began it against 
themselves, the accursed transgressors of right; and they sent to 

^ Elias. 
2 Posad. 



94 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Pleskov and to Novgorod desiring peace on all the terms laid down 
by Novgorod and Pleskov. And so they made peace. 

In the winter of the same year Knyaz Yaroslav Yaroslavich fled 
from out of the Low Country, and they set him in Pleskov. 

A.D. 1254. A.M. 6762. It was well with the Christians. 

A.D. 1255. A.M. 6763. The men of Novgorod led out Yaroslav 
Yaroslavich from Pleskov and set him on 
the throne, and they drove out Vasili. And having heard this, 
Vasili's father, Olexander, went with an armed force against Nov- 
gorod; and Olexander as he was going along with a large force, and 
with the men of Novi-torg, Ratishka met him with treacherous 
information: "Advance, Knyaz, thy brother Yaroslav has fled." 
And the men of Novgorod put a force in the quarter [of the church] 
of the Nativity of Christ; and those who were a-foot, took up a 
position opposite the Gorodishche beyond St. Ilya's; and at a 
Veche at St. Nicholas' the lesser men said: " Brothers, lo, how the 
Knyaz says: " ' surrender me my enemies.' " And the lesser men 
kissed the cross how that all should stand in life or death for the 
rights of Novgorod, for their patrimony. And among the greater 
men there was an evil counsel, how to overcome the lesser and 
to bring in the Knyaz on their own terms. And Mikhalko hastened 
out of the town to St. Georgi's how he might with his force strike 
our side and crush the people. And Anani having learned of this, 
wishing him well, sent Yakun secretly after him. And the common 
people having learned of this, went in chase of him, and tried to 
get into his house; and Anani prevented them: " Brothers, if you 
are going to kill him, kill me first." For he did not know that they 
had counselled an evil thought about him to seize him himself and 
to give the Posadnik-ship to Mikhalko. And the Knyaz sent Boris 
to the Veche: " Dehver Posadnik Anani to me; or if you do not, I 
am not your Knyaz, and shall come against the town in arms." 
And the men of Novgorod sent to the Knyaz the Vladyka and Klim 
the Tysyatski: " Come, Knyaz, to thy throne, and listen not to evil- 
doers, but forgive thy anger to Anani and to all the men of Nov- 
gorod." And the Knyaz did not listen to the request of the Vladyka 
and Klim. And the men of Novgorod said: " Brothers, inasmuch 
as our Knyaz has thus taken counsel with our transgressors of the 
Cross,^ they have God and St. Sophia ; but the Knyaz is without sin." 
And the whole force stood three days for its rights, and on the 
* sc of the oath. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 95 

fourth day the Knyaz sent saying thus: " If Anani is deprived of the 
Posadnik-sh.\Tp \ will forgive you my anger." And Anani was de- 
prived of the Posadnik-sh\-p , and they took peace on all the terms of 
Novgorod. And the Knyaz entered the town and Vladyka Dalmat 
met him at Prikupovich's Court with all the hierarchy, and with the 
crosses; and all were filled with joy, and the evil-doers were covered 
with darkness; because it was joy for Christians, and perdition for 
the devil, for that there was not great shedding of Christian blood. 
And Knyaz Olexander took his seat on his throne. And the same 
year they gave the Posadnik-shvp to Mikhalko Stepanovich. 

A.D. 1256. A.M. 6764. There came Svei and the Yem and Sum 
people, and Didman with his province, and a 
quantity of armed men, and they began to make a town on the 
Narova. And the Knyaz was not then in Novgorod, and the men of 
Novgorod sent to the Low Country to the Knyaz for armed men, 
and themselves sent throughout their province, thus gathering armed 
men. And they, accursed ones, having heard, fled beyond the sea. 
Knyaz Olexander arrived in the winter of the same year, and the 
Metropolitan with him ; and the Knyaz took the road together with 
the Metropolitan, and the men of Novgorod did not know where he 
was going, some thought that he was going against the Chud people. 
And having reached Koporya, Olexander went against the Yem 
people ; but the Metropolitan returned to Novgorod, and many other 
men of Novgorod turned back from Koporya. And the Knyaz 
went with his own force and with the men of Novgorod. And the 
road was bad, so that they saw neither day nor night, and it was 
perdition to many of those on foot, but God spared the men of Nov- 
gorod. And he came to the Yem land ; some they killed, and others 
they captured. And the men of Novgorod with Knyaz Olexander 
returned all well. And then the Kny azvf ent to the Low Country, he 
took with him the Novgorod envoys, Eleuferi and Mikhail Pinish- 
chinich, and set his son Vasili on the throne. 

A.D. 1257. A.M. 6765. Evil news came from Russia, that the 
Tartars desired the tamga^ and tithe on 
Novgorod; and the people were agitated the whole year. And at 
Lady-day Posadnik Anani died, and in the winter the men of Nov- 
gorod killed Posadnik Mikhalko. If any one does good to another, 
then good would come of it; but digging a pit under another, he 
falls into it himself. 
1 A Customs- tax: properly, a seal on merchandise. 



96 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

The same winter Tartar envoys came with Olexander, and 
Vasih fled to Pleskov; and the envoys began to ask the tithe and 
the tamga and the men of Novgorod did not agree to this, and gave 
presents to the Tsar, and let the envoys go with peace. 

And Knyaz Olexander drove his son out of Pleskov and sent him 
to the Low Country, and punished Alexander and his company. 
He cut off the noses of some, and took out the eyes of others, of 
those who had led Vasili to evil ; for evil every man shall perish evilly ! 

The same winter they killed Misha. The same winter they gave 
the Posadnik-shi^ to Mikhail Fedorovich, having brought him out of 
Ladoga, and they gave the post of Tysyatski to Zhirokha. 

A.D. 1258. A.M. 6766. The Lithuanians with the men of Polotsk 
came to Smolensk and took [the town of] 
Voishchina by assault. The same autumn the Lithuanians came to 
Torzhok, and the men of Novi-torg issued out. For our sins the 
Lithuanians ambushed them; some they killed, others they took 
with their hands, and others barely escaped; and there was mucl> 
evil in Torzhok. The same winter the Tartars took the whole 
Lithuanian land, and killed the people. 

A.D. 1259. A.M. 6767. There was a sign in the moon; such as no 
sign had ever been. The same winter 
Mikhail Pineschinich came from the Low Country with a false mis- 
sion, saying thus: " If you do not number yourselves for tribute 
there is already a force in the Low Country." And the men of 
Novgorod did number themselves for tribute. The same winter 
the accursed raw-eating Tartars, Berkai and Kasachik, came with 
their wives, and many others, and there was a great tumult in 
Novgorod, and they did much evil in the province, taking con- 
tribution for the accursed Tartars. And the accursed ones began to 
fear death; they said to Olexander: " Give us guards, lest they kill 
us." And the Knyaz ordered the son of the Posadnik and all the sons 
of the Boyars to protect them by night. The Tartars said: " Give 
us your munbers for tribute or we will run away."^ And the common 
people would not give their numbers for tribute but said: " Let us 
die honourably for St. Sophia and for the angelic houses."^ Then 
the people were divided: who was good stood by St. Sophia and by 
the True Faith; and they made opposition; the greater men bade 
the lesser be counted for tribute. And the accursed ones wanted to 

^ Presumably "and return in greater strength." 
» sc. churches. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 97 

escape, driven by the Holy Spirit, and they devised an evil counsel 
how to strike at the town at the other side, and the others at this 
side by the lake; and Christ's power evidently forbade them, and 
they durst not. And becoming frightened they began to crowd 
to one point to St. Sophia, saying: " Let us lay our heads by St. 
Sophia." And it was on the morrow, the Knyaz rode down from 
the Gorodishche and the accursed Tartars with him, and by the 
counsel of the evil they numbered themselves for tribute; for the 
Boyars thought it would be easy for themselves, but fall hard on the 
lesser men. And the accursed ones began to ride through the streets, 
writing down the Christian houses ; because for our sins God has 
brought wild beasts out of the desert to eat the flesh of the strong, 
and to drink the blood of Boyars. And having numbered them for 
tribute and taken it, the accursed ones went away, and Knyaz 
Olexander followed them, having set his son Dmitri on the throne. 

The same year, on the eve of Boris Day, there was a great frost 
throughout the province; but the Lord did not wish to leave this 
place of St. Sophia waste. He turned away His wrath from us and 
looked down on us with the eye of His mercy, pointing us to repen- 
tance; but we sinners return hke dogs to our vomit, unmindful of 
God's punishments which come upon us for our sins. 

A.D. 1260. A.M. 6768. There was quiet all the year. 

A.D. 126L A.M. 6769. Vladyka Dalmat of Novgorod covered the 
whole roof of St. Sophia with lead. The 
same year, on November 8, the Feast of St. Michael, the Church of 
St. Vasih and thirty big houses were burnt down, and on the morrow 
the Church of St. Dmitri in Slavkov Street was burnt down, and 
fifty big houses. 

A.D. 1262. A.M. 6770. The men of Novgorod built the town afresh, 
and took peace with the Lithuanians. The 
same year the Church of the Holy Martyrs, Boris and Gleb, was 
burnt down from thunder; and it was very large and beautiful. 
In the autumn of the same year the men of Novgorod with Knyaz 
Dmitri Alexandrovich went in large force to Yurev. And at the 
same time Knyaz Kostyantin, brother-in-law of Alexander, was 
there, and Yaroslav, Alexander's brother, with their own men, also 
Knyaz Tovtivil of Polotsk with 500 men of Polotsk and of the Lithu- 
anians, and of the Novgorod force a countless number, God alone 
knows. The town of Yurev was strong, of three walls, and a quan- 



98 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

tity of people in it of all kinds; and they had constructed strong 
defences, but the power of the Holy Cross and of St. Sophia always 
overthrows those who are wrong. And so this town, its strength 
was for nothing, but by the aid of God it was taken by single as- 
sault, and many of the people of that town were killed, others were 
taken alive, and others were burnt by fire, and their wives and 
children; and they took countless booty and captives, and they shot 
many good men from the town, and they killed Peter Myasnikovich- 
And Knyaz Dmitri with all the men of Novgorod returned to Nov. 
gorod with much booty. The same year the monk Vasili built 
the Church of St. Vasili ; but God knows whether he did this with his 
own [means] or with those of Boris Gavshinich ; but the Lord grant 
them both remission of their sins, and St. Vasili. The same year 
Knyaz Olexander went to the Tartars; and Berka kept him, not 
letting him back to Russia; and he wintered with the Tartars and 
fell ill. 

A.D. 1263. A.M. 677 L Knyaz Olexander came back from the Tar- 
tars in very bad health, in the autumn; 
and he came to Gorodets^ [monastery] and was shorn on November 
14, the day of the holy Apostle Philip; and he died the same night 
and they took him to Volodimir and laid him in the monastery of 
the Nativity by the Church of the Holy Mother of God. And the 
Bishops and Igumens having come together with the Metropolitan 
Kyuril and all the hierarchy and monks and with all the people of 
Suzdal, they buried him honourably on the 23rd of the same month, 
Friday, the Day of St. Amfilokhi. Grant him, O merciful Lord, 
to see Thy face in the future age, for he laboured for Novgorod and 
for all the Russian land. 

The same year there was a tumult amongst the Lithuanians, God 
sending down his wrath upon them; they rose themselves against 
themselves and the Veliki Knyaz Mindovg^ was killed by his own 
relatives, who conspired without anybody's knowledge. The same 
year the murderers of Mindovg having quarrelled over his goods they 
killed the good Knyaz Tovtivil of Polotsk, and put the Boyars of 
Polotsk in chains and called on the people of Polotsk to kill Tov- 
tivil's son, too; and he escaped to Novgorod with his men. Then the 
Lithuanians set their own Knyaz in Polotsk; and let go the men of 
Polotsk whom they had taken with their Knyaz and took peace. 

1 sc. Radilov, on the Volga. 

' Mindvog, Grand Prince of Lithuania. 1247-63. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 99 

A.D. 1264. A.M. 6772. The men of Novgorod having taken counsel 
with Posadnik Mikhail drove out Knyaz 
Dmitri Alexandrovich, because the Knyaz was still young. And 
they sent to Tver the son of the Posadnik and the better Boyars 
for Yaroslav the brother of Alexander. 

A.D. 1265. A.M. 6773. They set Knyaz Yaroslav Yaroslavich on 
the throne in Novgorod on Januarv 27. 
The same year there was a great tumult amongst the Lithuanians 
by God's infliction on them, for our Lord God could not bear to look 
upon the unrighteous and pagan seeing them shedding Christian 
blood like water and others scattered by them over strange lands; 
then the Lord will repay them according to their works. Knyaz 
Mindovg of Lithuania had a son named Voishelg ; him the Lord chose 
as champion of the true faith; for having gone to Mount Sinai, 
away from his father and his kindred, and from his pagan faith, he 
acknowledged the true Christian religion, and was baptized in the 
name of the Father, and Son, and H0I3' Ghost, and studied the 
sacred books, and was shorn into the monastic order on the Holy 
Mount ; and having remained there three years, he went to his own 
country to his father. And his father being a pagan tried to per- 
suade him to renounce the Christian faith and the monastic order, and 
to take up his rule. But he, armed with the power of the Cross, 
would not even listen to his father's persuasion and feared not his 
threats, but having gone away from his father built himself a mon- 
astery among Christians and remained there, glorifying the Holy 
Trinity, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. But after the 
murder of his father, though undesirous to do so, but God inflicting 
him on them, the pagan Lithuanians, for the Christian blood, laid 
it in his heart, and he taking off from him his gown, vowed himself 
to God for three years, when he should resume his gown, and did not 
leave the monastic order. He gathered about him his father's 
soldiers and friends, and having prayed to the honourable Cross, he 
went against the pagan Lithuanians and defeated them, and stayed 
in their country all the year. Then the Lord repaid the accursed 
ones according to their works; for he took the whole of their country 
captive by force of arms, and there was joy everywhere throughout 
the Christian land. Then about 300 Lithuanians escaped into 
Pleskov with their wives and children, and Knyaz Svyatoslav with 
the priests and people of Pleskov baptized them; and the men of 
Novgorod wanted to slay them, but Knyaz Yaroslav would not give 
them up, and they were not slain. H2 



100 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

A.D. 1266. A.M. 6774. The men of Pleskov set as their Knyaz, 
Dovmont, Knyaz of Lithuania. The same 
year God laid his grace into the heart of Dovmont to fight for St. 
Sophia and the Holy Trinity, to avenge the Christian blood, and he 
went with the men of Pleskov against the pagan Lithuanians, and 
they ravaged much and took Gerden's Knyaginya and two young 
Knyazes. And Knyaz Gerden collected about him the Lithuanian 
forces and pursued them. And when the men of Pleskov learned 
of the pursuit, they sent away their captives and stood firmly against 
them on this side of the Dvina. And the Lithuanians began to ford 
over to this side; then the men of Pleskov engaged them, and God 
helped Knyaz Dovmont with the men of Pleskov and they slew a 
great quantity of them, others they drowned in the river; only 
Knyaz Gerden alone escaped with a small Druzhina. And the men 
of Pleskov returned all well. 

In the winter of the same year the men of Pleskov again went 
against the Lithuanians with Knyaz Dovmont. 

The same year Knyaz Yaroslav came to Novgorod with the forces 
of the Low Country, wishing to go against Dovmont to Pleskov; 
but the men of Novgorod forbade him, saying: " Surely thou canst 
not go against Pleskov, Knyaz, after consulting with us." And the 
Knyaz sent away his men. 

A.D. 1267. A.M. 6775. For our sins on May 23 a fire broke out in 
Kuzma-Demyan Street before evening ser- 
vice and the whole of the Nerev quarter was burnt down. Alas, 
my brothers ! the fire was so fierce, that the flames went over the 
water, and much good merchandise was burnt in the boats on the 
Volkhov, and several heads^ were burnt; in a single hour every- 
thing was burnt. And many from that grew rich, but many others 
were made beggars. 

The same year the men of Novgorod with Eleferi Sbyslavich and 
with Dovmont and the men of Pleskov went against the Lithuanians, 
ravaged much of theirs and returned all well. 

A.D. 1268. A.M. 6776. The men of Novgorod consulted with their 
Knyaz Yuri, they wished to go against the 
Lithuanians, while others [wished to go] against Poltesk-, and others 
beyond the Narova. And when they reached the village of Dub- 
rovna there was a quarrel; and they went back and went beyond 

1 People. 
- sc. Polotsk. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 101 

the Narova to Rakovor/ and made great havoc in their land, but 
did not take the town ; and they shot the good man Fedor Sbyslavich 
from the town, and six others ; and they returned all well. The same 
year the men of Novgorod having taken counsel with Posadnik 
Mikhail, called Knyaz Dmitri Alexandrovich to come with a force 
from Pereyaslavl, and they sent envoys from Yaroslav. And in 
place of himself Yaroslav sent Svyatoslav with a force. And they 
sought out competent men and began to make the battering rams 
in the Vladyka's Court. And the Nemtsy sent their envoys, the 
men of Riga, Velyad and Yurev, and from other towns with deceit, 
saying: " We have peace with you; deal with the people of Kolyvan 
and of Rakovor as you can, we shall not join with them; and we 
kiss the Cross." And the envoys kissed the Cross. And Lazor 
Moisievich having gone there led them all to the Cross ; the Bishops 
and godly courtiers, not to assist the people of Kolyvan and of 
Rakovor; and they took into their own hands a good man 
Simeon from Novgorod, having kissed the Cross. And all the 
Knyazes having assembled in Novgorod : Dmitri, Svyatoslav, 
his brother Mikhail, Kostyantin, Yuri, Yaropolk, Dovmont of 
Pleskov, and some other Knyazes, they went to Rakovor on January 
23. And as they entered their country they separated along three 
roads, and fought a very great number of them. And there they 
came upon an impenetrable cave into which a large number of Chud 
people had clambered, and it was impossible to take them, and they 
stood (before it) three days. Then the expert with the ram cun- 
ningly turned the water on to them, and the Chud people ran away 
of themselves, and they slew them, and all their goods the men of 
Novgorod gave to Knyaz Dmitri. And thence they went on to 
Rakovor, and when they reached the Kegola river they found there 
a force of Nemtsy in position, and it was like a forest to look at; 
for the whole land of the Nemtsy had come together. But the men of 
Novgorod without any delay crossed the river to them, and began 
to range their forces: and the men of Pleskov took stand on the 
right hand, and Dmitri, and Svyatoslav took stand also on the 
right higher up; on the left stood Mikhail, and the men of Novgorod 
stood facing the iron troops opposite to the great wedge; and so 
they went against each other. And as they came together there 
was a terrible battle such as neither fathers nor grandfathers had 
seen. And there a great evil befell; they killed Posadnik Mikhail 
and Tverdislav the Red, Nikifor Radyatinich, Tverdislav Moisievich^ 
1 Wesenberg. 



102 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Mikhail Krivtsevich, Ivach, Boris Ildyatinich, his brother Lazor, 
Ratsha, Vasili, Voiborzovich, Osip, Zhiroslav, Dorogomilovich, 
the usher Poroman, Polyud, and many good Boyars, and countless 
other common men; and of others there was nothing known, the 
Tysyatski Kondrat, Ratislav Boldyzhevich, Danil Mozotinich and 
many others, God knows, and men of Pleskov also, and of Ladoga. 
And Knyaz Yuri turned shoulder, or there was treachery in him, 
God knows. But as regards that, brothers, God punishes us for our 
sins and takes from us good men, that we may repent; as the 
Scripture says: " Wonderful weapons are prayer and fasting," and 
again: " Charity combined with fasting saves a man from death," 
and again let us remember the Prophet Isaiah saying: " If ye be 
willing to listen to me, ye shall eat the blessings of the earth: but 
if ye be unwilling and do not listen to me, the sword shall devour 
you, and thus shall one cut down 100 of you, and by 100 shall 1,000 
of you perish." Yet we, seeing this terror, not in the least do we 
repent of our sins, but turned more to evil, brother seeking to devour 
brother through envy and one man another, kissing the Cross and 
again transgressing it not knowing what is the power of the Cross, 
for by the Cross are the enemies and the powers of the devils 
vanquished; the Cross helps Knyazes in battles; protected by the 
Cross faithful people conquer their foes; for whoever transgresses 
the Cross receives punishment here, and in the next world eternal 
torment. 

But let us return to the foregoing. 

Now that great encounter having taken place and the laying 
down of the heads of good men with their heads for St. Sophia, the 
merciful Lord speedily sent His mercy, not wishing utter death 
to the sinner; punishing us, and again pardoning. He turned away 
his wrath from us, and regarded us with His merciful eye: by the 
power of the Honourable Cross and through the prayers of the Holy 
Mother of God our Sovereign Lady, the Immaculate Mary, and 
those of all the Saints, God helped Knyaz Dmitri and the men of 
Novgorod on February 18, on the Saturday before Quinquagesima, 
the Day of the Holy Father Leo; and they pursued them fighting 
them, as far as the town, for seven versts along the three roads, so 
that not even a horse could make its way for the corpses. And so 
they turned back from the town, and perceived another large force 
in the shape of a great wedge which had struck into the Novgorod 
transport; and the men of Novgorod wished to strike them, but 
others said: " It is already too near night; how if we fall into con- 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 103 

fusion and get beaten ourselves." And so they stood near together 
opposite each other waiting dayhght. And they, accursed trans- 
gressors of the Cross, fled, not waiting for the light. And the men 
of Novgorod stood on the field of battle three days, and returned to 
Novgorod, and brought their dead; and they laid PosadnikMikha.il 
in the Church of St. Sophia. Grant, O most merciful God, lover of 
mankind, that they may stand in the next world at Thy right hand, 
together with all the Saints who have pleased Thee in the ages, 
who shed their blood for St. Sophia, having given their life hon- 
ourably. And they gave the Posadnik-ship to Pavsha Ananinich; and 
the office of Tlvsya^skt they gave to no one, in case Kondrat were alive. 

A.D. 1269. A.M. 6777. The Nemisy came in great force to Pleskov 
in All Saints week and attacked the town 
and did not effect anything, but suffered great hurt and stood ten 
days. And the men of Novgorod with Knyaz Yuri pursued them, 
they went off some on horseback and others in boats, in haste ; and 
when the Nemtsy learned about the Novgorod force, they fled across 
the river.i And the men of Novgorod reached Pleskov and took 
peace across the river on all their own terms. 

The same year Knyaz Yaroslav came to Novgorod and began to 
complain: " My men and my brothers, and yours also, are killed, 
and you have engaged in war with the Nemtsy for Zhiroslav Davido- 
vich and Mikhail Mishinich and Yuri Sbyslavich, wishing to deprive 
them- of their districts." But the men of Novgorod stood for 
them; so the Knyaz was about to go out from the town. But the 
men of Novgorod bowed to him: " Knyaz, forgive them thy anger, 
and do not go from us "; for they had not yet made good their peace 
with the Nemtsy. But the Knyaz did not listen to that, and went 
away. And they sent the Vladyka and the greater men with re- 
quest, and brought him back from Broninitsa.^ Then they gave 
the office of Tysyatski to Ratibor Kluksovich by wish of the Knyaz. 

In the winter of the same year Knyaz Yaroslav having consulted 
with the men of Novgorod, sent Svyatoslav to the Low Country to 
collect forces, and he collected all the Knyazes, and armed men with- 
out number, and brought them to Novgorod. And there was there 
the great Baskak* of Vladimir, named Amragan, and they wished to 
go to Kolyvan. And the Nemtsy having learned this, sent envoys 

1 sc. the " Great " river, reka Velikaya, on which Pskov is situated. 

2 sc. the Nemtsy. 

' The village of Bronnitsy, on the river Msta, E. of Xovgorod. 
^ Tartar olhcial, tax-gatherer. 



104 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

with the request: " We bow to all your terms, we withdraw from the 
whole of the Narova; but do not you shed any blood "; and so the 
men of Novgorod having taken counsel, took peace on all their own 
terms. But the Knyaz wanted to go against the Korel people, 
and the men of Novgorod persuaded him not to go against the 
Korel people, and the Knyaz sent his force back. 

A.D. 1270. A.M. 6778. Varlam, Igumen of St. George's, and 
Archimandrite of Novgorod, died. In the 
same year there was a tumult in Novgorod ; they set about driving 
Knyaz Yaroslav out of the town, and they summoned a Veche in 
Yaroslav's Court and killed Ivanko, and others escaped into the 
Church of St. Nikola; and on the morrow the Tysyatski Ratibor, 
Gavrilo Kiyaninov and other of his friends fled to the Knyaz to 
Gorodishche; and they took their houses for plunder and divided up 
their dwellings, and sent to the Knyaz in the Gorodishche having 
written out a document^ with all his faults: " Why hast thou taken 
up the Volkhov with snarers of wild ducks, and taken up the fields 
with catchers of hares ? Why hast thou taken Olex Mortkinich's 
homestead? Why hast thou taken silver from Mikifor Manush- 
kinich and Roman Boldyzhevich and Varfolomei ? And another 
thing, why dost thou send away from us the foreigners who dwell 
among us? and many faults of this kind. And now, Knyaz, we 
cannot suffer thy violence. Depart from us; and we shall think of a 
Knyaz for ourselves." And the Knyaz sent Svyatoslav and Andrei 
Vorotislavich to the Veche with greeting: " I renounce all that, and 
I kiss the Cross on all your terms." But the men of Novgorod ans- 
wered: " Knyaz, go away, we do not want thee; else we shall come, 
the whole of Novgorod, to drive thee out." And the Knyaz went 
out of the town against his will. And the men of Novgorod sent 
for Dmitri Alexandrovich, but Dmitri dechned, saying thus: " I do 
not wish to take the throne before my uncle." And the men of 
Novgorod were sad. And Yaroslav began to collect forces against 
Novgorod, and he sent Ratibor to the Tartar Tsar asking for help 
against Novgorod. And Knyaz Vasili Yaroslavich having heard this 
sent envoys to Novgorod saying thus: " I bow to St. Sophia and to 
the men of Novgorod ; I have heard that Yaroslav is going against 
Novgorod with all his force, and Dmitri with the men of Pereyaslavl, 
and Gleb with the men of Smolensk; I am sorry for my patrimony," 
and he himself went to the Tartars, taking with him Petrila Rychag 
1 Gramota. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 105 

and Mikhail Pineshchinich, and he turned back the Tartar forces, 
saying thus to the Tsar: " The men of Novgorod are right, and 
Yaroslav is to blame." 

For the Tsar had already sent off an army against Novgorod 
according to Ratibor's false word, for Ratibor said to the Tsar: 
" The men of Novgorod do not listen to thee; we demanded tribute 
for thee, but they drove us out; and others they killed, and plun- 
dered our houses, and dishonoured Yaroslav." And the men of 
Novgorod raised a stockade^ about the town on both sides and 
brought the merchandise into the city. And Yaroslav's scouts 
pushed almost up to the Gorodishche, and the whole town, great 
and small, went out armed to the Gorodishche, the foot soldiers 
stood two days behind the Zhilotug,''^ and the mounted men 
behind the Gorodishche. Yaroslav having learned this, went by 
the other side to Russa and halted in Russa, and sent Tvorimir 
into Novgorod: " I forego all that caused your displeasure with me,, 
and all the Knyazes will stand security for me." But the men of 
Novgorod sent to him Lazor Moisievich: " Knyaz, thou hast taken 
counsel against St. Sophia; come on, that we may die honourably 
for St. Sophia. We have no Knyaz, but God and the truth and St. 
Sophia; and we do not want thee." And into Novgorod there were 
collected the whole Novgorod district, the men of Pleskov, of 
Ladoga, the Korel, Izhera, and the Vod people, and great and small, 
all went to Golino, and stood a week at the ford, and Yaroslav's 
force stood on the opposite side. And the Metropolitan sent a 
document to Novgorod, saying thus: " God has entrusted me with 
the Archbishopric in the Russian Land, you are to listen to 
God and to me; shed no blood; Yaroslav foregoes all anger, and for 
that I am guarantee; and if you will kiss the Cross, I will do pubhc 
penance and answer for that before God." And God did not allow 
the shedding of Christian blood. And Yaroslav sent greeting to the 
Novgorod army, and they took a peace on all the terms of Nov- 
gorod ; they set Yaroslav and led him up to the Cross. 

In the winter of the same year Knyaz Yaroslav went to Volodimir,, 
and thence he went to the Horde, and left in Novgorod Andrei 
Vorotislavich, and gave Knyaz Aigust to the men of Pleskov. 
A.D. 127L A.M. 6779. The sun grew dark on Wednesday morning: 
in the fifth week of Lent, and then agaia 
filled out and we rejoiced. 

> Ostrog. 
2 Stream. 



106 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

In the same year Fedor Hotovich erected the Church of St. Sava; 
they erected another in Kholop Street to the SS. Kosma and 
Demy an. 

A.D. 1272. A.M. 6780. The Veliki Knyaz of Novgorod, Yaroslav 
Yaroslavich died among the Tartars, and 
they laid him in Tver in the Church of SS. Kosma and Demyan. 
And Knyaz Dmitri sent his envoys to Novgorod with greeting, 
wishing to take his seat in Novgorod. And Vasih Yaroslavich also 
sent with greeting, wishing to take his seat on the throne. And 
both envoys lodged in Yaroslav 's Court. And the men of Novgorod 
with Posadnik Pavsha declared for Dmitri, and sent for him. Knyaz 
Dmitri Alexandrovich came the same year to Novgorod and took 
his seat on the throne on October 9.^ 

[The same year Knyaz Vasili came to Torzhok and burned the 
dwellings and installed his own Tiiin^ and went back to Kostroma. 
And Svyatoslav with the men of Tver began to ravage the Novgorod 
district: Volok, Bezhitsy, and Vologda. Bread was dear in Nov- 
gorod, and they seized the merchandise of Low Country merchants. 

The same winter Knyaz Dmitri with the men of Novgorod and the 
whole district went to Tver, and they sent Smen Mikhailovich, 
Lazor Moisievich and Stephen Dushilovich to Vasili: " Give back 
to us those Novgorod districts which thou hast taken, and take 
peace with us." And Vasili let go the envoys with honour, but 
did not give peace. And while the men of Novgorod were at Tor- 
zhok the people rose and wished for Vasili. And Dmitri retired from 
the throne voluntarily and went away with love. And they then 
took the Posadnik-shi-p from Pavsha, and he fled to Dmitri with 
Roman, and thence they went to Vasili and bowed to him. And 
they gave the Posadnik-ship to Mikhail Mishinich, and sent for 
Vasili, and at Torzhok kissed the picture of the Lord that they would 
all be at one with the Posadnik Mikhail. 

Knyaz Vasili Yaroslavich took his seat on the throne in Novgorod. 
And the same year they took the Posadnik-ship from Mikhail and 
gave it again to Pavsha having brought him from Kostroma.^ 

' From this point there are several missing sheets of the original, and the "> 
continuation up to the year 1299, as published, is borrowed from another ^ 
text. 

» Bailiff. 

3 No record for 1273. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 107 

A.D. 1274. A.M. 6782. Dalmat, Vladyka of Novgorod, died on 
Saturday, October 21, at 1 at night, and was 
honourably buried in the morning of Sunday. God grant com- 
phance with his holy prayers for those kneeling at his tomb ! 

The same winter Pavsha Posadnik of Novgorod died, and Knyaz 
Vasili came to Novgorod, they again gave the Posadnik-shx^ to 
Mikhail Mishinich. Before the death of Dalmat the Posadnik 
Pavsha with the elder men had beat with their foreheads^ to Dalmat : 
" Whom wilt thou bless as our shepherd and teacher in thy place ? " 
And Dalmat named two Igmnens: loan of St. Georgi and his 
own spiritual father, Kliment. " I will bless whomever you prefer." 
The Posadnik went to loan's house, and called the men of Novgorod 
together, and told them Dalmat 's words. And all preferred Kliment 
nominated of God, and Dalmat blessed him with his hand; and on 
the death of Dalmat they sent Kliment to Kiev for confirmation. 

A.D. 1275. A.M. 6783. A fire broke out by night in the Knyaz's 
Court next to the court of the Nemtsy,'^ 
and the market place was burnt, hitherwards and up to Slavno 
and hitherwards as far as Rogatitsa Street : seven wooden churches 
were burnt down and four stone churches were damaged by fire, and, 
fifth, the Church of the Netntsy.'^ 

A.D. 1276. A.M. 6784. The wall of St. Sophia fell to its foundation, 
at the Nerev end, at mid-day on May 9. 

In the winter of the same year Kliment returned from Kiev to 
his bishopric and he was established Vladyka of Novgorod. And 
they installed him honourably in St. Sophia, and all Novgorod met 
him honourably with crosses and chants on Sunday the second day 
of August. 

In the winter of the same year the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Yaroslavich 
died, and he was laid in the Church of St. Fedor in Kostroma. And 
the men of Novgorod sent for Dmitri Alexandrovich. 

A.D. 1277. A.M. 6785. Knyaz Dmitri arrived in Novgorod and they 
set him on the throne on All Saints' Sunday. 

A.D. 1278. A.M. 6786. Knyaz Dmitri with the men of Novgorod 
and with the whole of the Low Country, 
chastised the Korel people and took their country by conquest. 

' ie. Petitioned. 

* Nemeiski, German. 



1Q8 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

A.D. 1279. A.M. 6787. Knyaz Dmitri obtained permission from 
Novgorod to build a town^ at Koporya for 
himself; and having gone, built it himself. 

A.D. 1280. A.M. 6788. The. V eliki KnyazT)rmix\ going WithPosadnik 
Mikhail and with the greater men encircled 
the town of Koporya with stone. The same year Knyaz Dmitri 
and the men of Novgorod took away the Posadni k-shiY) from Mikhail 
Mishinits, and gave it to Smen Mikhailov having brought him from 
Ladoga. And after three months Mikhail Mishinits died, on Novem- 
ber 9, the day of St. Paul the Confessor. 

A.D. 1281. A.M. 6789. Knyaz Dmitri began to make war on the 
men of Novgorod; and the men of Novgorod 
sent the Vladyka with entreaty; and he did not listen to him. In the 
winter of the same year Knyaz Dmitri came to Novgorod with an 
armed force and did much harm to the district of Novgorod and 
having halted on the Shelon he made peace and withdrew. 

The same winter Kyuril, the Metropolitan of all Russia, died in 
Pereyaslavl on December 6; his remains were taken to Kiev to 
St. Sophia. 

A.D. 1282. A.M. 6790. Knyaz Andrei Alexandrovich with Smen 
Tolignevits beat with their foreheads- 
to the Tsar against his brother Dmitri, and raised the Tartar 
forces and took Pereyaslavl by assault. And Kjtyaz Dmitri rode 
out with his men and court and passed by Novgorod making for 
Koporya. And the men of Novgorod went out in full force against 
him to the Ilmer^ lake. And the Knyaz retired from Koporya and 
the men of Novgorod showed him the wa}^ and they did not seize 
him, but his two daughters and his Boyars with their wives and 
children they brought to Novgorod as hostages: " If thy men retire 
from Koporya, then we will let them go free "; and they went each 
his own way on January 1. On the same day Domont drove the 
Ladoga men out of Koporya and they seized all the goods of Knyaz 
Dmitri, and seizing also Ladoga goods they took them into Koporya 
on Vasili day. And the men of Novgorod sent for Knyaz Andrei and 
themselves went to Koporya. Dmitri's men went out from the 
town because the men of Novgorod had showed them the road, 
and they plundered the town. The same winter Knyaz Andrei 

> Or fort, gorod. 

* sc petitioned. 

* sc Ilmen. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 109 

Alexandrovich came to Novgorod, and they set him honourably on 
the throne in Quinquagesima week. And then Knyaz Andrei taking 
with liim the Novgorod men Smen Mikhailovich and other elder 
men, went out from Novgorod and went to Volodimir and from 
Volodimir he let the men of Novgorod go back, and himself went to 
Gorodets.^ And Smen Mikhailovich came to Torzhok, and he 
sat in ambush at Torzhok not letting Dmitri's lieutenants enter 
Torzhok, and he sent all the crops to Novgorod in boats; for in 
Novgorod bread was dear. 

A.D. 1283. A.M. 6791. The men of Novgorod went to Pereyaslavl 
against Dmitri, as also did Svyatoslav with 
the men of Tver, and Danilo Alexandrovich with the men of Mos- 
cow. And Dmitri came out against their army with all his forces, 
and halted at Dmitrov; and the men of Novgorod halted five versts 
short of Dmitrov and they stood five days near each other, sending 
to each other envoys; and they made peace on all the terms of 
Novgorod, and withdrew. The same year the N'emtsy^ came up 
into lake Ladoga by the Neva with an armed force ; they killed the 
Obonezh^ merchants of Novgorod ; and the men of Ladoga entered 
the Neva and fought with them. 

A.D. 1284. A.M. 6792. Knyaz Andrei came to Torzhok, and sum- 
moned to him Posadnik Smen with all the 
Elders, and they concluded peace, and the Knyaz kissed the Cross, 
and the men of Novgorod did to him, how Andrei should not with- 
draw from Novgorod, and the men of Novgorod should not seek 
another Knyaz; in life or in death the men of Novgorod with Andrei. 
And the Knyaz let the men of Novgorod go back, and he himself 
went to the Low Country, and having gone there he ceded the 
Novgorod throne to his brother Dmitri. 

The same year the Nemetski Voyevoda Trunda entered lake 
Ladoga up the Neva in sailing vessels and boats^ with an armed 
force, intending to take tribute from the Korel people. And the 
men of Novgorod with Posadnik Smen and with the men of Ladoga 
going out halted at the mouth of the Neva, and having waited, 
killed them, and the rest ran away, on September 9, the Day of the 

1 sc Radilov, on the Volga. 

* cf. p. 34. 

3 i.e. from the shores of lake Onega, N.-E. of Novgorod. 

* Loiva, shnek. 



110 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Righteous Akim^ and Anna. In the winter of the same year Knyaz 
Dmitri came to Novgorod with his brother Andrei with an armed 
force, and with Tartars and with the whole of the Low Country, and 
they did much harm and burned the districts; and having come 
they halted at the [river] Korichka and made peace; and Dmitri 
took his seat on his throne in Novgorod. 

A.D. 1285. A.M. 6793. The Metropolitan Maxim came to Novgorod. 
The same winter the Lithuanians ravaged 
the district. 

A.D. 1286. A.M. 6794. In the winter they took the Posadnik-sYn^ 
from Smen and gave it to Andrei Klimo- 
vich, and they took the office of Tysyatski from Ivan and gave it 
to Andreyan Olferevich.^ 

A.D. 1287. A.M. 6795. There was a great tumult in Novgorod 
against Smen Mikhailovich; all Novgorod 
rose against him without just cause, they went out against him 
from all the quarters, like a strong army, every man armed, in 
great strength, a pitiful sight ! and thus they went against his house 
and took his whole house with uproar. Semeon fled to the Vladyka 
and the Vladyka led him into St. Sophia; and thus God preserved 
him; and on the morrow they came together in love. But Semeon 
in a few days fell ill with an illness, and having lain some days, he 
died on Monday, July 16, the Day of St. Tikhon. 

A.D. 1288. A.M. 6796. 

A.D. 1289. A.M. 6797. Knyaz Dmitri went with an armed force to 
Tver, and summoned the men of Novgorod; 
the men of Novgorod went with Posadnik Andrei, and fired the 
district and took peace. 

A.D. 1290. A.M. 6798. The men of Novgorod took the Posfl^nz^-ship 
from Andrei Klimovich and gave it to Yuri 
Mishinich, during the Great Fast, towards the end of the eighth 
year. 

The same year they gave the Posadyiik-shi^ of Ladoga to Matvei 
Semenovich. The same fast, in Thanksgiving Week, they killed 
Samoila Ratshinich in the Vladyka's Court after morning service, 

1 loachim. 

* Eleferevich (Eleutherius). 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 111 

at the entrance to the Church of the Nativity of Christ. And the 
men of Novgorod rang together a Veche at St. Sophia and at St. 
Nikola, assembled in haste, took the Prussian Street, and plundered 
their houses and set fire to the whole street, and the Church of the 
Holy Mother of God was also burnt. 

A.D. 1291. A.M. 6799. The water was big in the Volkhov in the 
spring. The same year the Lord sent His 
punishment for our sins: the horses all died in Novgorod, and but 
few were left. The same year a frost attacked the crops throughout 
the whole of the Novgorod district. Thus God warns us, wishing 
from us repentance that we might leave from our wickedness. Yet 
we are not any more mindful of our sins ; but the Lord suffers long, 
awaiting our repentance. The same year rioters plundered the 
market, and the next day the men of Novgorod held a Veche and 
hurled two rioters from the bridge. The same year there was a 
tumult among the Tartars; Tsar Nogui killed Tsars Telebeg and 
Algui. 

A.D. 1292. A.M. 6800. Alexander, son of the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri, 
died among the Tartars. Kliment, Vladyka 
of Novgorod laid the foundations of the stone Church of St. Nikola 
in [the village of] Lipna. The same year they began to build the 
Church of St. Fedor which had collapsed. The same year some 
Novgorod braves^ with Voyevodas of the Knyaz went against 
the country of the Yem people and having ravaged it came back all 
well. In the same year the Svei, 800 of them, came in arms to 
ravage, 400 went against the Korel, and 400 against the Izhera 
people; and the Izhera people killed them, and the Korel people 
killed theirs, and others they took with their hands. 

A.D. 1293. A.M. 6801. The Svei having come put up a town in the 
Korel land. The same year Knyaz Andrei 
with other Knyazes beat with their foreheads to the Tartar Tsar 
with complaints against Knyaz Dmitri, and the Tsar sent his brother 
Duden with a numerous army against Dmitri. Oh, great was the 
harm done to Christians ! they seized unoffending towns ; Volodimir, 
Moscow, Dmitrov, Volok,^ and other towns, they laid waste the whole 
land. And Dmitri escaped to Pskov. And the men of Novgorod 
sent presents with Smen Klimovich to Tsar Duden to Volok: " Turn 
back the soldiers from Volok," and they sent with greetings for 

1 Molodets, pi. molodtsy. *. 

^ Volok Lamsk. 



112 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Andrei. Knyaz Andrei sent back the army and himself came to 
Novgorod and took his seat on the throne on Quinquagesima 
Sunday. 

The same Lent the Veliki Knyaz Andrei sent Knyaz Roman 
Glebovich with Yuri Mishinich and the Tysyatski Andreyan and a 
few men of Novgorod to the Sveiski Town ; they fought hard on Tues- 
day in the sixth week of Lent, and they shot the good man Ivan 
Klekachevich from the town, and many were wounded. The same 
night for our sins a thaw set in ; water covered all the land ; round the 
town was flooded, and there was no fodder for the horses. They 
retired, and came back all well, except for the wounded; and Ivan 
Klekachevich after being brought back, died of his wound. 

The same Lent Knyaz Andrei with Posadnik Andrei and with the 
greater men went to Torzhok to catch Dmitri, but Dmitri escaped 
from Pleskov to Tver; and sent into Torzhok the Vladyka of Tver 
with Svyatoslav, with greeting to his brother Andrei and to the men 
of Novgorod, sending envoys to each other they took peace, and 
Volok [was given] back to Novgorod. 

A.D. 1294. A.M. 6802. Knyaz Andrei sent the Posadnik from Tor- 
zhok to Novgorod, and himself went against 
the Low Country. The same year Knyaz Dmitri died in Volok; 
he had been shorn, and they took him to Pereyaslavl. The same 
year Titmanovich secretly put up a fort on this side of the Narova, 
and the men of Novgorod went and burned it down, and they took 
and burned down his big village. 

The same year they completed the Church of St. Fedor and 
Vladyka Khment consecrated it on October 18. 

A.D. 1295. A.M. 6803. The Svei under their leader, Sig, put up a 
town! in the Korel land, but the men of 
Novgorod went and plundered it, and killed Sig and let no man 
escape. 

A.D. 1296. A.M. 6804. Kliment, Vladyka of Novgorod erected a 
stone Church of the Holy Resurrection over 
the gates. 

A.D. 1297. A.M. 6805. The men of Novgorod put up the town of 
Koporya. The same year Igunien Kiril of 
St. Georgi erected the stone Church of the Holy Transfiguration over 
the gates of the Lyudin quarter. 
1 sc Keksholm. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 113 

A.D. 1298. A.M. 6806. In the winter the Nemtsy overran the 

country of Pleskov and did much harm; 

the town was burnt down, and in the monasteries they slew all the 

monks. 

And the men of Pleskov with Knyaz Dovmont, fortified by God 
and the Holy Mother of God, drove them away, giving them no 
httle hurt.Ji 

A.D. 1299. A.M. 6807. On Great Saturday, April 18, a fire broke out 
at 1 at night, in the Varangian Street, 
and for our sins a great evil happened; a storm arose with a hurri- 
cane, and soon the fire grew so strong that all, taking what little 
they could, ran out of their houses; all the rest the fire took. The 
fire leapt from the court of the Nemtsy to the Nerev quarter. It 
broke out in Kholop Street and there still more fiercely; and amongst 
the Nerev residents on the other side, and the fire took the Great 
Bridge. And thus there was a great calamity so that only God 
and the good people on earth stopped it, and evil men fell to plun- 
dering. What was in the churches they took all in plunder without 
fear of God, and knowing God's punishment instead of repentance 
they did worse evil: at St. loan's they killed the warehouse guard, 
at St. Yakov's the warehouse-guard was burnt. In the market 
quarter twelve churches were burnt; they had not time to bring 
out all the pictures, nor books. And in Christ Church several people 
were burnt, also two priests In the Nerev quarter ten churches 
were burnt with many embroideries in the churches, and the good 
man Elferi'^ Lazorevich was burnt. And on the morrow there was 
grief and lamentation in place of gladness. All this was for our 
sins; the prophecy of the prophet Isaiah was fulfilled who said: 
" I shall turn your feasting to tears and your merrymaking into 
lamentation." For thus, brethren, God punishes us for our sins, 
showing us the way to repentance, that we might abandon our 
wickednesses; though we may have sinned, yet do we not despair 
of Thy mercy; for thine Lord, is the power to punish and then to 
forgive. Having chastised us. Lord, be Thou merciful. 

The same year Vladyka Kliment of Novgorod died, at seven in 
the morning, on the twenty-second day of May, the day of the holy 
martyr, Vasilisk, Friday in the fourth week after Easter, having 
occupied the Bishopric twenty-three years, and he was taken from 
the Vladyka s court and laid in the porch of St. Sophia by the 

1 Here the original Synodal Text is resumed. 

* Eleutherius. 



114 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Archimandrite Kyuril and all the Igumens, the whole of the hier- 
archy, Posadnik Andrei and all the men of Novgorod. 

Dovmont, Knyaz of Pleskov died the same year; having borne 
much for St. Sophia and for the Holy Trinity. On Kliment's death 
the men of Novgorod after much consultation with Posadnik Andrei 
chose the appointed of God, the good and humble man Feoktist, 
Igmnen of the Holy Annunciation, and having rung together a 
Veche at St. Sophia, Knyaz Boris Andreyevich with all the men of 
Novgorod led him in with greeting, and set him in the Vladyka's 
court, until they should learn where the Metropolitan was. 

A.D. 1300. A.M. 6808. The Metropolitan Maxim came to Novgorod, 
also Semen, Bishop of Rostov, and Andrei, 
Bishop of Tver; and they established Feoktist as Vladyka of Nov- 
gorod. The Metropolitan and the Bishops and the most reverend 
Igumens appointed him in the Church of Holy Boris and Gleb, 
on June 29; in the same month on the day of the Holy Apostles 
Peter and Paul, they installed him in St. Sophia; and held a great 
festival ; and there was joy in Novgorod at their Vladyka. 

In the spring of the same year Novi-torg was burnt down. 

The same spring they founded the stone Church of St. Mikhail 
in Mikhail Street. In the same year they erected four wooden 
churches: those of the Holy Mother of God in the monastery in 
Zverinets,^ of St. Lazar, of St. Dmitri in Boyanya Street, and of the 
Holy Boris and Gleb in the Podol.^ 

The same year the Svei came from beyond sea in great strength 
into the Neva; they brought masters^ from their own land, and 
they brought a special master from great Rome from the Pope, and 
they estabhshed a town at the mouth of the river Okhta on the Neva 
and strengthened it with indescribable strength, and placed bat- 
tering rams within it. And the accursed ones boasted, calhng it the 
" Crown of the land." For they had a king's lieutenant with them 
named Maskalka; and having placed special men in it with the 
Voyevoda Sten, they went away, the Veliki Knyaz not being then in 
Novgorod. 

A.D. 1301. A.M. 6809. The Veliki Knyaz Andrei came with the 

forces of the Low Country and went with the 

men of Novgorod to that town, and came up to the town on May 

1 Near Novgorod, lit. an " enclosure for wild animals." 

* A part of Novgorod — " lower town." 

* sc. experts. 



THE CHRONICLE OE NOVGOROD 115 

18, the Day of St. Patriki, on the Friday before the Descent of the 
Holy Ghost, and they strove mightily. By the power of St. Sophia 
and by the help of the martyrs Boris and Gleb, that fortress came to 
nothing, for their pride, because their labours were in vain, without 
God's command. The town was taken ; some they beat to death and 
slew, and having bound others they led them out of the town, and 
they fired the town and sacked it. Grant rest. Lord, in Thy king- 
dom to the souls of those who laid their heads at that town for St. 
Sophia, and multiply the years. Lord, of the Veliki Knyaz Andrei 
with his men of Novgorod and of Ladoga. 

A.D. 1302. A.M. 6810. They founded a stone wall at Novgorod. 
The same year they founded the stone 
Church of Boris and Gleb, which had collapsed. 

The same year they sent envoys beyond sea to the Danish land, 
and they brought them back having concluded a peace. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Andrei went to the Tartars. 

The same year they completed the Church of St. Mikhail in 
Mikhail Street. May Saint Mikhail be a help to those who laboured 
for this church. 

A.D. 1303. A.M. 6811. They took the Posadnik-s\nY> from Semen 
Klimovich and gave it to his brother Andrei. 

The same year they built fi)ur wooden churches: St. Georgi in the 
market-place, St. loan Ishkov, the Holy Kosma and Demyan in 
Kholop Street, and St. Georgi in Borkov Street. 

The winter of the same year was a warm winter; there was no 
snow all through the winter. The people could not get corn, and 
prices were very high, great hardship and distress for the people. 
But we despair not of Thy mercy; correcting, punish us. Lord, 
but give us not over to death; for though we have sinned, yet have 
we not drawn away from Thee; having punished us, have mercy 
on us, O Lord, that lovest mankind not according to our wicked 
works, but according to Thy great mercy. Thou art our God, and 
we know no other God but Thee. 

A.D. 1304. A.M. 6812. The Veliki Knyaz Andrei Alexandrovich, 
grandson of the great Yaroslav, died on 
July 27, on St. Panteleimon's Day; he had been shorn into monk's 
orders, and was laid in Gorodets^; and his Boyars went to Tver. 
The two Knyazes, Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver and Yuri Danilovich 

1 sc. Radilov, on the Volga. 

12 



116 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

of Moscow disputed for the place of Veliki Knyaz, and both journeyed 
to the Horde. There was great commotion throughout the Suzdal 
land in all the towns; the people of Tver sent Mikhail's lieutenants 
to Novgorod with a force, but they did not receive them ; but the men 
of Novgorod went to Torzhok to guard Torzhok, and they united 
the whole land against them ; and sending envoys to each other they 
separated, having made peace till the arrival of the Knyazes. 

A.D. 1305. A.M. 6813. Semen Klimovich erected a church at the 
gates at the end of Prussian Street. The 
same year they made a new bridge over the Volkhov. The same 
year the Church of the Holy Martyrs Boris and Gleb was consecra- 
ted with the great consecration byFeoktist,^ Vladykaoi Novgorod, 
on December 29, the Conception of St. Anne, in the reign of the 
Christ-loving Knyaz Mikhail. 

A.D. 1306. A.M. 6814. 

A.D. 1307. A.M. 6815. 

A.D. 1308. A.M. 6816. The F^/z'^ii^Mjyaz Mikhail Yaroslavich, grand- 
son of the great Yaroslav Vsevolodich, took 
his seat on the throne in Novgorod on the Sunday of the Veche of 
the 630 Holy Fathers held in Khalkidon.^ 

In the winter of the same year Vladyka Feoktist^ went out from the 
Vladyka's Court on account of his ill health, having blessed Nov- 
gorod, and went into the monastery of the Annunciation of the 
Holy Mother of God, having chosen a silent life. And the men 
of Novgorod with all the Igumens and all the hierarchy chose his 
spiritual father David, the elected of God and of St. Sophia, and 
they set him with honour in the Vladyka's Court, and Feoktist^ 
blessed him in his place, and they sent him to the Metropolitan for 
confirmation. 

The same year Yakim Stolbovich's wife erected a stone church 
in the Knyaz's Court, to [the honour of] the 318 Holy Fathers at 
Nikia.3 

A.D. 1309. A.M. 6817. David, Vladyka of Novgorod was con- 
firmed in Volodimir by the Metropolitan 
Peter on June 5, St. Nikander's Day, and he came to Novgorod on 
July 20, on Ilya's Day, being met at the Church of St. Ilya by the 

* Theoktistos. 

2 The Council of Chalcedon, a.d. 451. 

3 i.e. the Council of Nicasa, a.d. 325. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 117 

Igumens and priests and all Novgorod with honour and with crosses ; 
and they set him on the throne, and the men of Novgorod were 
glad at their Vladyka. 

In the winter of the same year they gave the Posadnik-sYn'p to 
Mikhail Pavshinich. 

A.D. 1310. A.M. 6818. The men of Novgorod went in boats and in 
ships into the lake to the Uzerva river where 
they put up a new fort of wood by the rapids, having cleared away 
the old one. The same year the Archimandrite Kyuril built a stone 
church at Kolomtsy,^ to the Assumption of the Holy Mother of God, 
and they erected another of stone to the Intercession of the Holy 
Mother of God at Dubenka,- by the efforts of God's servant the 
monk Oloni [surnamed Shkila ; and the monastery was a refuge to 
Christians]. The same year in the winter they plundered the villages 
around Novgorod. The same year Feoktist Vladyka of Novgorod, 
died, on December 23, the Day of the Ten Martyrs in Crete, and he 
was laid in the church of the monastery of the Annunciation of the 
Holy Mother of God, honourably, by all the hierarchy. 

A.D. 1311. A.M. 6819. The men of Novgorod went in war over sea to 
the country of the Nemtsy,^ against the Yem 
people, with Knyaz Dmitri Romanovich, and having crossed the 
sea they first occupied the Kupets river, they burned villages, and 
captured people and destroyed the cattle. And there Konstantin 
the son of Ilya Stanimirovich was killed by a column that went in 
pursuit. They then took the whole of the Black river,* and thus 
following along the Black river they reached the town of Vanai and 
they took the town and burned it. And the Nemtsy fell back into 
the Detineis^: for the place was very strong and firm, on a high rock, 
not having access from any side. And they sent with greeting, 
asking for peace, but the men of Novgorod did not grant peace, 
and they stood three days and three nights, wasting the district. 
They burned the large villages, laid waste all the cornfields, and did 
not leave a single horn of cattle; and going thence, they took the 
Kavgola river and the Perna river, and they came out on the sea and 
returned all well to Novgorod. 

1 Kolmovo, near Novgorod. 

2 Near Novgorod. 

^ Nemetskaya Zemlya, here S.-W. Finland. 

* Chernayareka. 

* Citadel. 



118 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

The same spring, on May 19, a fire broke out at night in Yanev 
Street, and forty less three houses were burnt and seven people. 
Then in the night of June 28 Glebov's house in Rozvazha Street 
caught fire, and the Nerev quarter was burnt, on one side so far as 
the fosse, ^ and on the other beyond Borkov Street; and the Church 
of SS. Kosma and Demy an was burnt, also that of St. Sava, and 
forty churches were damaged by fire and several good houses. Oh, 
woe, brethren, the conflagration was fierce, with wind and hurricane ! 
And wicked and bad men having no fear of God, seeing peoples' 
ruin, plundered other men's property. Then on July 16 a fire 
broke out at night in the Ilya Street, and here likewise was a fierce 
conflagration with a high wind, and crashing noise; the market place 
was burnt, and houses up to Rogatitsa Street, and the churches 
burnt were — seven wooden churches: St. Dmitri, St. Georgi, SS. 
Boris and Gleb, St. loan- Ishkov, St. Catherine, St. Prokopi, and of 
Christ ; and six stone churches were damaged by fire, and the seventh 
was the Varangian Church. And accursed men likewise having no 
fear of God, nor remembering the judgment of God, and having no 
pity for their fellows, plundered other peoples' property. Repay 
them. Lord, according to their deeds ! 

The same year they took the Posadnik-ship from Mikhail and gave 
it to Semen Klimovich. The same year Vladyka David erected a 
stone church at the gate of the Nerev quarter, to St. Volodimir. 

A.D. 1312. A.M. 6820. Knyaz Mikhail armed himself against Nov- 
gorod, and withdrew his lieutenants and cut 
off the corn from Novgorod, and he occupied Torzhok and Bezh- 
itsy and the entire district. And in the spring, when the roads were 
bad, the Vladyka David went to Tver and concluded a peace; the 
Knyaz opened the gates and sent his lieutenants into Novgorod. 

The same year the Vladyka David founded a stone church in the 
Nerev quarter in his own court, in the name of the holy Father 
Nikola. 

A.D. 1313. A.M. 6821. The Posadnik of Ladoga with the men of 
Ladoga went out to war, and for our sins 
the Nemtsy went all over lake Ladoga and burned it. 

In the same year the stone Church of St. Nikola in the Nerev 
quarter was consecrated, which Vladyka David built; and he made 
daily service in it, and attached monks to it. 

1 Greblva. 

2 John. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD !]'.> 

A.D. 1314. A.M. 6822. The Korel people killed the townsmen in 
the Korel town^ who were Russian and 
brought in Nemtsy to themselves. And the men of Novgorod with 
the lieutenant Fedor went against them, and the Korel people 
surrendered, and the men of Novgorod killed the Nenitsy and the 
Korel traitors. 

The same year Fedor of Rzhev came to Novgorod from Knyaz 
Yuri from Moscow; and seized the lieutenants of Mikhail and held 
them in the Vladyka's Court. And the men of Novgorod with 
Knyaz Fedor went to the Volga, and Knyaz Dmitri Mikhailovich 
came out from Tver, and halted on the opposite side of the Volga, 
and thus they remained until the frost ; Knyaz Mikhail being at that 
time in the Horde. After this they concluded a peace with Dmitri, 
and thence thev sent to Moscow for Knyaz Yuri, with reservation 
of all the rights of Novgorod; and they themselves returned to 
Novgorod. 

The same winter before the great Fast Knyaz Yuri came to Nov- 
gorod to the throne with his brother Afanasi,^ and the men of Nov- 
gorod were glad at their desire. 

Bread was dear in Novgorod in the same winter; in Pleskov bad 
men took to looting in the villages and the houses in the town and 
storehouses in the town; and the men of Pleskov killed about fifty 
of them; and then it became quiet. 

A.D. 1315. A.M. 6823. The Veliki Knyaz Yuri summoned to the 
Horde by the Tsar, went from Novgorod on 
Lazar Saturday, March 15, leaving his brother Afanasi^ in Novgorod. 
The same year Knyaz Mikhail came from the Horde into Russia, 
bringing with him Tartars of the accursed Taitemer. And the men 
of Novgorod with Knyaz Afanasi having heard, went out to Torzhok, 
and stayed about six weeks there gathering information. And then 
Knyaz Mikhail with all the people of the Low Country and with the 
Tartars went to Torzhok. And the men of Novgorod with Knyaz 
Afanasi^ and with the men of Novi-torg went out against them into 
the field. It was by the infliction of God : for both forces having met 
there was a terrible slaughter, and no little evil was done ; and there 
they killed many good men and Boyars of Novgorod: Andrei Klimo- 
vich, Yuri Mishinich, Mikhail Pavshinich, Silvan, Timofei Andrey- 
anov, son of the Tysyatski, Anani Meluyev, Afonasi- Romanovich 

1 sc. Keksholm. 
* i.e. Athanasius. 



120 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

besides many worthy merchants, and God knows how many other 
men of Novgorod and Novi-torg; the rest of them fled into the town 
and shut themselves in the town with Knyaz Afanasi. And Knyaz 
Mikhail sent word to the men of Novgorod in Torzhok: " Give up to 
me Knyaz Afanasi and Fedor of Rzhev and I will conclude peace 
with you." And the men of Novgorod said: " We will not deliver 
over Afanasi, but will all die honourably for St. Sophia." Then 
Knyaz Mikhail again sent: " Give up Fedor of Rzhev to me," and 
not wishing to give him up, they gave him up, and against their 
will paid for themselves 50,000 silver grivnas, and they concluded a 
peace and kissed the Cross. And after the peace, Knyaz Mikhail 
summoned to him Knyaz Afanasi and the Boyars of Novgorod, and 
seized them, and sent them as hostages to Tver; and the rest of the 
men in the town he began to sell for as much as each would fetch, 
and he took away all their arms and belongings. The battle was 
on February 10, the day of the Holy Martyr Kharlampi. And Knyaz 
Mikhail sent his lieutenants into Novgorod and they gave the 
Posadnik-s\\\'p to Semen Klimovich. 

A.D. 1316. A.M. 6824. The heutenants of Knyaz Mikhail left Nov- 
gorod, and Knyaz Mikhail went against 
Novgorod with the whole of the Low Country. And the men of 
Novgorod raised defences round the town on both sides, and the 
whole of the Novgorod district, the men of Pleskov, of Ladoga, of 
Russa, the Korel, and Izhera, and Vod people came together. And 
the Knyaz halted short of the town at the village of Usti^, and so 
not accepting peace, he withdrew, having accomplished nothing, 
but receiving great hurt, for in the retreat they lost the way among 
the lakes and swamps, and began to die of hunger. They even ate 
horse flesh, and others tearing off the leather of their shields ate it 
They burned and threw away their belongings and arms and cam^ 
back on foot to their homes, having suffered no little harm. 

The same year before Knyaz Mikhail had reached the town they 
seized Ignat Besk and beat him at a Veche, and then threw him from 
the bridge into the Volkhov, for they thought he had held traitorous 
communication with Mikhail ; but God knows. 

At that same time Danilo Pistsev was murdered on the meadow 
land^ by his own slave; for he had calumniated him before the 
citizens, saying thus: " He tried to send me with letters to Knyaz 
Mikhail." 

I sc. The Mouths; cf. p 12. 

* Rel, water-meadow, near Novgorod. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 121 

A.D. 1317. A.M. 6825. The men of Novgorod sent Vladyka David 
to Knyaz Mikhail seeking to ransom their 
brothers, who were with the Knyaz as hostages, but the Knyaz did 
not hsten to him. The same year the Nemtsy came into lake Ladoga, 
and killed many merchants of Obonezh.^ 

A.D. 1318. A.M. 6826. When the river was high the men of Nov- 
gorod went to war over sea, and ravaged 
much and took Lyuderev the town of the Sum Knyaz and Bishop 
and returned to Novgorod all well. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Yuri left the Horde with Tartars, 
and with all the men of the Low Country and went to Tver against 
Knyaz Mikhail, and sending Telebeg, summoned the men of Nov- 
gorod, and having come to Torzhok they concluded [an agreement] 
with Knyaz Mikhail not to side with either: because they did not 
know where Knyaz Yuri was ; and they returned to Novgorod. And 
Knyaz Yuri having come with a force to within forty versts of Tver, 
Knyaz Mikhail went out against him there from Tver; and they 
joined battle, and there was great slaughter, many heads fell on 
Knyaz Yuri's side; and they took his brother Boris and his wife, 
and brought them into Tver and there they put her to death. And 
he himself fled to Novgorod, and summoned the men of Novgorod 
after him, all Novgorod and Pleskov went with him, taking Vladyka 
David with him; and having come to the Volga they concluded 
peace with Knyaz Mikhail, both to go to the Horde, and to release 
Yuri's wife and brother. And all the men of Novgorod returned to 
Novgorod in the spring, and Knyaz Yuri went to Moscow and thence 
to the Horde. 

A.D. 1319. A.M. 6827. The Tsar killed Knyaz Mikhail of Tver in 

the Horde and gave the title of Veliki 

Knyaz to Yuri, and gave over to him Mikhail's son Kostyantin and 

his Boyars. And Knyaz Yuri sent his brother Afanasi to Novgorod. 

A.D. 1320. A.M. 6828. Knyaz Yuri went to war against Knyaz 
Ivan of Ryazan; and they concluded a 
peace. 

A.D. 1321. A.M. 6829. Knyaz Yuri went to war against Dmitri 
Mikhailovich of Tver and came to Pereyas- 
lavl with his forces. And Knyaz Dmitri sent thither the Vladyka 
1 i.e. from the shores of Lake Onega. 



122 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

of Tver, and they concluded a peace for 2,000 in silver and Dmitri 
not to take to himself the title of Veliki Knyaz. 

The same year, on June 26, there was a sign in the sun before 
morning service; the sky being clear, the sun suddenly grew dark 
for about an hour, and was like a moon of five nights; and there was 
darkness as on a winter night; and it filled out gradually and we 
were glad. 

A.D. 1322. A.M. 6830. Knyaz Yuri came to Novgorod, called by 
the men of Novgorod, and gave orders to 
repair the battering rams. 

At the same time the Nemtsy came to make war on the Korel 
town,^ and did not take it. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Yuri went with the men of Nov- 
gorod to Viborg, a town of the 'Nemtsy-; and they beat at it with six 
rams, for it was strong ; and they killed many Nemtsy in the town and 
hanged others, and others they led away to the Low Country. And 
having laid siege to it for a month they attacked it, and did not 
take it, but for our sins several good men fell. 

The same year Knyaz Afanasi, brother of Yuri, died; he had been 
shorn into the monastic order, and they laid him in the Holy 
Saviour's in the Gorodishche. 

The same year Knyaz Dmitri Mikhailovich went to the Horde, and 
obtained the title of Veliki Knyaz. 

The same year a powerful envoy came into Russia from the Horde, 
named Akhmyl, and he did much harm in the Low Country; he 
slew many Christians, and others he took away to the Horde. 

And Knyaz Yuri having come from Viborg went to the Low Coun- 
try, the men of Novgorod having much beseeched him to lead them 
there. And while he was at the [river] Urdoma, Knyaz Alexander 
Mikhailovich came from Tver, and there fell on him, so that Knyaz 
Yuri with a small party ran away and fled to Pleskov; and they 
plundered all his baggage. 

And the Lithuanian Knyaz Davidko was then in Pleskov, and the 
men of Novgorod called him from there according to their kissing 
of the Cross, and put him in the deacon Afanasi's Court. 

A.D. 1323. A.M. 6831. The men of Novgorod went with Knyaz 

Yuri and established a town at the mouth of 

the Neva on Orekhov^ island; and great ambassadors from the 

' sc. Keksholin, on lake Ladoga. 

- Nemetski gorod, on the north shore of the Gulf of Finland. 

•' Walnut island. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 123 

king of the Svei having come there, they concluded an everlasting 
peace with the Knyaz and with Novgorod, on the old terms. ^ 

The same year the Lithuanians ravaged the [valley of the] Lovot, 
but the men of Novgorod drove them out, and killed them, and some 
escaped. 

The same year the people of Ustyug* quarrelled with the men of 
Novgorod; they captured the men of Novgorod who had gone to 
the Yugra country,"^ and robbed them. 

A.D. 1324. A.M. 6832. The men of Novgorod with Knyaz Yuri 
went beyond the Volok-^ and took Ustyug* 
by assault, and came to the Dvina and there the Knyazes of Ustyug 
sent envoys to the Knyaz and people of Novgorod, and concluded 
a treaty of peace on the old terms. ^ And the men of Novgorod 
returned all well, and Knyaz Yuri went from Zavoloche to the Horde 
by the [river] Kama. 

The same year they completed Christ Church in stone, and Vladyka 
David consecrated it. 

The same winter David, Vladyka of Novgorod, died on February 
5, the Commemoration Day of the Holy Martyr Agafa, and they 
laid him in the porch of St. Sophia by the side of Kliment. Then 
the men of Novgorod with the Igumens, the priests and the monks 
and all Novgorod having consulted, chose Moisei, the appointed of 
God, former Archimandrite of St. Georgi. He had of his own free 
will gone out to his own monastery of the Holy Mother of God at 
Kolomtsy^; and they led him up to the threshold'' and set him in the 
Vladyka' s Court till the Metropolitan should summon him. 

A.D. 1325. A.M. 6833. Knyaz Olexander Mikhailovich came back 
from the Horde, and with him came Tartar 
collectors, and there was much hardship in the Low Country. 

The same j-ear Vladyka Moisei went to Moscow to be confirmed 
by the Metropolitan, and when he was there they brought [the body 
of] the Veliki Knyaz Yuri, son of Danilo, grandson of Alexander, 

> Poshlina, lit. duty, tariti. 

* See Introduction, p. x, etc 

* Fo/o A' = portage; sometimes called Volok Dvinsk in contrast to Volok 
Lamsk:" Zavoloche ":="beyond the Volok," sc. the basin of the N. Dvina, and 
N.E. Russia generally; cf. Introduction pp. ix-xi, etc, and Index. 

* i.e. " Yugmouth," a town on the N. Dvina, at its junction with the Yug. 

* Poshlina. 

* Near Novgorod. 

' ,\ platform thus called {s^«/= threshold, or porch), specially placed in the 
interior of churches for ceremonies of consecration. 



124 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

from the Horde, and the MetropoHtan Peter, Moisei, Varsonofi, 
Bishop of Tver, Prokhor, Bishop of Rostov, and Grigori, Bishop of 
Ryazan, buried him on Saturday of the first week in Lent; and 
Knyaz Ivan deeply lamented him and all the people with great 
lamentation, both great and small; for Knyaz Dmitri Mikhailovich 
had killed him in the Horde without the Tsar's word, and it was not 
well for himself ; for as a man sows so shall he reap. 

A.D. 1326. A.M. 6834. Vladyka Moisei came to Novgorod on Tues- 
day in Palm week, confirmed. On August 
23 of the same year a fire broke out in Boyanya Street and all was 
burnt up to half the Rogatitsa Street ; and the Slavkov Street was 
burnt from St. Dmitri up to the field, and the Church of St. Khment 
was burnt. 

The same year the Tsar killed Knyaz Dmitri Mikhailovich in the 
Horde. 

The same winter the Metropohtan Peter of all Russia died in 
Moscow, and they laid him in the Church of the Holy Mother of 
God which he himself had begun to build in stone. Through his 
prayers God performed miracles at his tomb. 

The same year envoys arrived from Lithuania, the brother of 
Gedimin, Knyaz of Lithuania, Voini, Knyaz of Polotsk, Vasili, 
Knyaz of Minsk, and Fedor Svyatoslavich, and they concluded a 
peace with Novgorod and with the Nemtsy. 

A.D. 1327. A.M. 6835. There was a tumult in Novgorod, and they 
plundered the house of Ostafi^ Dvoryaninets 
and entirely burned it. 

The same year Vladyka Moisei erected the Church of the Nativity 
of the Holy Mother of God in the Desyatina."^ 

The same year on the day of the Assumption of the Holy Mother of 
God Knyaz Alexander Mikhailovich killed a great many Tartars in 
Tver and in other towns, and he killed some merchants of Khopyl. 
For an important envoy named Shefkal had come from the Horde 
with a large number of Tartars, and Knyaz Olexander sent envoys 
to the men of Novgorod, wishing to flee into Novgorod ; but they did 
not receive him. 

The same year Knyaz Ivan Danilovich sent his lieutenants to 
Novgorod, and himself went to the Horde. 

^ Eustaphi, Eustathius. 
'In Novgorod. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 125 

The same winter a very great force of Tartars came, and they 
took T\'er and Kashin and the Novi-torg district, and to put it 
simply, laid waste all the Russian Land, God and St. Sophia pre- 
served Novgorod alone, and Knyaz Olexander fled to Pleskov, and 
his brother Kostyantin and Vasili to Ladoga. And the Tartars 
sent envoys to Novgorod, and the men of Novgorod gave them 2,000 
in silver, and they sent their own envoys with them, with numerous 
presents to the Voyevodas. 

And then, too, the Tartars killed Kjiyaz Ivan of Ryazan. 

A.D. 1328. A.M. 6836. The Veliki Knyaz Ivan Danilovich with 
Kostyantin Mikhailovich, and with Fedor 
Kolesnitsa sent by the men of Novgorod, went to the Tsar to the 
Horde. And the Tsar let them go, commanding them to seek out 
Knyaz Alexander. And Knyaz Ivan sent his own envoys to Knyaz 
Alexander in Pleskov, and the men of Novgorod on their own part 
sent Vladyka Moisei and the Tysyatski Avram,^ bidding him go to 
the Horde ; and he did not obey. 

The same year Yurev of the Nemtsy- was burnt down, with all its 
churches, and the houses of stone crumbled and fell; and 2,000 and 
500 and thirty Nemtsy perished in the fire, and four Russians. 

A.D. 1329. A.M. 6837. The F^/Z^ji^wya^ Ivan Danilovich, grandson 
of Olexander, 3 came to the throne in Nov- 
gorod on March 26, the festival of the Archangel Gabriel. And the 
Knyazes Kostyantin and Vasili of Tver and Olexander of Suzdal, 
besides many other Russian Knyazes, were with him. 

The same year they killed in Yurev an honourable man, Ivan 
Sypa, the Novgorod envoy. 

The same year the Metropolitan named Feognast, a Greek by 
birth, came to Novgorod. 

The same j'ear Knyaz Ivan, with all the Knyazes and with Nov- 
gorod, went to war on Pleskov; and hearing this the men of Pleskov 
turned out Olexander from amongst them, and sent envoys to 
Knyaz Ivan and to the men of Novgorod to Opoka with greeting, 
and concluded a peace. 

The same winter the Knyazes of Ustyug killed the men of Nov- 
gorod who had gone against the Yugra country. 

The same year in the absence of the Knyaz and of the men of Nov- 

1 Abraham. 

2 Yurev Nemetski, German Dorpat, on the river Embach, a tributary of 
Lake Chud, near Pskov, as opposed to Yurev Polski, near Moscow. 

3 sc. Alexander Nevski. 



126 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

gorod a fire broke out at Ondreshek's house in the Carpenters' 
quarter^; the fire extended to St. Fedor's; and on the same Sunday 
nearly the whole of Ilya Street was burnt, also the Lyubyanitsa 
Street, and the Churches of St. Saviour and St. Luke were burnt. 

A.D. 1330. A.M. 6838. Vladyka Moisei was shorn into the schema^ 
of his own will; and the men of Novgorod 
with all Novgorod respectfully entreated him to retain his seat on 
the throne, but he did not listen, but blessed them and said: " Select 
from among yourselves a man worthy of such a thing, but I bless 
you." And the men of Novgorod having dehberated much were 
without a Vladyka for about eight months ; and all Novgorod and the 
Igumens and priests chose Grigori Kaleka^ nominated of God, a good 
and humble man, a priest of the Church of Holy Kosma and 
Demyan in Kholop Street, he was shorn in the holy angelic fashion 
in January, and was named Vasili and they put him in the Vladyka' s 
Court until they should send him to the Metropolitan. The same 
winter Fedorko and Semenko arrived from Volynia as envoys from 
the Metropolitan in Passion Week, summoning Vasili for confirma- 
tion. 

A.D. 1331. A.M. 6839."* The same year Vasili was confirmed in 
Volynia for Novgorod. The same year on 
November 30, the day of the Apostle St. Andrew, there was a 
darkening of the sun lasting from one to three. 

[The same year Vladyka Vasili laid the foundation of a stone wall 
extending from St. Volodimir to the Church of the Holy Mother of 
God, and thence to that of Boris and Gleb. 

The same year on the day of the Birth of St. loan, in the month 
of June, Vasili departed to Volynia for confirmation, and with him 
went the Boyars Kusma Tverdislavl and Valfromei^ Ostafiev, the 
son of the Tysyatski, and they arrived in Volodimir of Volynia, by 
the providence of God and the help of the Holy Spirit, and they 
celebrated the great festival of the Holy Mother of God, and they 
confirmed him on the Day of the Apostle St. Titus. A sign then 
appeared in the heavens: a bright star over the church. He was 
confirmed by the Metropolitan Feognast, by birth a Greek, and the 

1 Plotniki. 

2 cf. p. 34. 

3 i.e. the cripple. 

* For this year the record in different handwritings stands as follows ; that in 
brackets is supplied from another text. 
5 Varfolomei, Bartholomew. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 127 

Vladykas: Grigori of Polotsk, Afanasi of Volodimir, Fedor of Galich, 
Marko of Peremyshl, and loan of Kholm. 

At that same time envoys came to the Metropohtan from Knyaz 
Alexander, from Pleskov, and from Gedimin, and from all the 
Lithuanian Knyazes, bringing with them Arseni desiring to appoint 
him to the Vladyka-ship in Pleskov, thinking Novgorod of no 
account they had puffed themselves with their pride. But God 
and St. Sophia always lay low presumptuous thoughts, for the men 
of Pleskov violated their kissing of the Cross to Novgorod, they had 
set up Knyaz Alexander on their throne by Lithuanian hands; 
so Arseni with the men of Pleskov went disgraced from the Metro- 
politan from Volynia to Kiev. Vladyka Vasili left the Metropolitan 
on the Day of Simon Stylites^; as he approached Chernigov, there 
Knyaz Fedor of Kiev at the prompting of the devil set upon him 
murderously with a Baskak and fifty men. And the men of Nov- 
gorod were aware in time and halted to defend themselves; only by a 
little was it not a disaster for them, and the Knyaz was disgraced 
and rode away, though he did not escape punishment from God: 
his horses all died. 

And thence the Vladyka went to Bryansk and reached Torzhok 
on the day of the holy Martyr Akepsim.^ And the people of Novi- 
torg were glad of their Vladyka; but they were sad in Novgorod, 
because there was no news, for the report had spread, that the 
Lithuanians had taken the Vladyka and had killed his children. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Ivan went to the Horde with 
Knyaz Kostyantin. 

The same year Vladyka Vasili, Vladyka of Novgorod arrived in 
Novgorod from Volynia in the month of December on a Sunday, 
the day of the holy Father Patapi, having received the sacred 
dignity from the Metropolitan Feognast ; and the men of Novgorod 
were glad of their Vladyka; and this was under Knyaz Ivan, Posadnik 
Valfromei and the Tysyatski Ostafi.] 

A.D. 1332. A.M. 6840. Turbulent men rose in Novgorod, and took 
the Posadnik-shi-p from Fedor Ahmyl and gave 
it to Zakhari Mikhailovich, and they plundered the house of Semen 
Sudokov, and they plundered the villages of his brother Senefont.=* 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Ivan returned from the Horde 
and threw upon Novgorod his v/iath, asking from them silver for the 

1 September 13. 

' November 16. 

3 Xenophon. 



128 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

country beyond the Kama, and in addition seized Torzhok and 
Bezhitsy against his kissing of the Cross. 

The same year they took the Posain/^-ship from Zakhari and gave 
it to Matvei Koska. 

A.D. 1333. A.M. 6841. Knyaz Ivan came to Torzhok with all the 
Knyazes of the Low Country and of Ryazan, 
and sent into Novgorod and removed the lieutenants; and himself 
sat in Torzhok from Epiphany till the second week of Lent, despoil- 
ing the district of Novgorod. And the men of Novgorod sent envoys 
to him calhng him to Novgorod: the Archimandrite Lavrenti, Fedor 
Tverdislavich and Luka Valfromeyev; but he did not accept their 
prayer, and did not listen to them, and he did not grant peace, and 
went away. 

The same year Vasili, Vladyka of Novgorod, raised the stone 
walP in two years, and the Archimandrite Lavrenti of St. Yuri- 
raised the walls of St. Yuri forty sazhens,^ with embrasures. 

[1333]^ The same year Vladyka Vasili covered the 

side of Saint Sophia with lead and renewed 
the great cross on St. Sophia and took off the coverings at the side 
and put up a stone wall by the help of God, in two years. And 
give him. Lord God and Saint Sophia in this world and in the next 
remission of his sins, him and his children, the people of Novgorod ! 
The same year the men of Novgorod sent Vladyka Vasili to the 
Veliki Knyaz Ivan with a request, and he came to him to Pereya- 
slavl with Terenti Danilovits and Danil Mashkovits and they offered 
him five hundred roubles^ if he would renounce his privileges, ac- 
cording to the kissing of the Cross; and the Vladyka requested him 
much, that he would take peace, and he did not listen. 

The same year Vladyka Vasili having come from the Veliki 
Knyaz Ivan, went to Pleskov, and the people of Pleskov received 
him with great honour, because a Vladyka had not been in Pleskov 
for seven years, and he christened Knyaz Olexander's son Mikhail. 

1 sc. and finished it in two years. 

2 George. 

•'' One sazhen= \\ fathom. 

* At this point the Sj'nodal text as a continuous whole comes to an end ; 
what follows is borrowed from a text called " Continuation of the Annals of 
Novgorod " which belongs to the Archaeographical Commission; the Synodal 
text has small records for 1337, 1345 and 1352, but as these are the same 
in the " Continuation " they have not been printed separately. 

* cf. Appendix. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 129 

The same year God put into the heart of the Lithuanian Knyaz 
Narimont, called in baptism Gleb, the son of Gedimin, Veliki Knyaz 
of Lithuania, and he sent to Novgorod, wishing to bow down to Saint 
Sophia; and the people of Novgorod sent Grigori to Olexander 
for him, and called him to them; and he arrived at Novgorod, wish- 
ing to worship, in the month of October; and they received him with 
honour, and he kissed the Cross to Great Novgorod^ as for one man. 
And they gave him Ladoga, and Orekhov, the Korel town^ and the 
Korel land and half Koporya for patrimony and heritage and to his 
children. The same year the Metropolitan Feognast came back 
to Russia having been at Tsargrad'^ and in the Horde. 

A.D. 1334. A.M. 6842. Second of the Indiction. Vladyka Vasili 
went to the Metropolitan in Volodimir. 
The same year the Vladyka put the top on the stone wall. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Ivan Danilovich came back from 
the Horde, and the men of Novgorod sent Valfromei Yurevich to 
him, and he received them with love. 

The same winter the Veliki Knyaz Ivan Danilovich came to 
Novgorod in Sexagesima Week, on Thursday, February 16, the day 
of the holy Martyr Pamphil. 

A.D. 1335. A.M. 6843. Vladyka Vasih founded a Church to the 
Holy Mother of God in Zverinets,* and 
Vladyka Moisei founded a stone monastery Church of the Holy 
Resurrection by the river Derevyanitsa. The same year Vladyka 
Vasih with his children, with Posadnik Fedor Danilovich and the 
Tysyatski Ostafi and with all Novgorod, laid the foundations of a 
stone fortification on the opposite side, from St. Ilya to St. Paul, 
under the Veliki Knyaz Ivan Danilovich. 

The same year, for our sins, there were great fires in Russia; 
Moscow, Vologda, Vitebsk were burnt, and Yurev of the Nemtsy 
was entirely burnt down. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Ivan wished to go with the 
men of Novgorod and with the whole of the Low Country against 
Pleskov, and he had a friendly conference with the men of Nov- 
gorod, and they deferred the march; but they did not grant peace to 
the men of Pleskov. 

1 Veliki Novgorod. 

2 sc. Keksholm, on lake Ladoga. 
' Constantinople. 

•• Near Novgorod. 



130 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

The same year Vladyka Vasili completed the Church of the Holy 
Mother of God in Zverinets, and Moisei the other of the Holy 
Resurrection, of stone. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Ivan having come to Torzhok 
from Novgorod, the Lithuanians ravaged the district of Novi-torg, 
while there was peace, and the Veliki Knyaz having sent [a force] 
burned the Lithuanian town of Osechen and Ryasna, and many 
others. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz called to him the Vladyka, the 
Posadnik and the Tysyatski to Moscow, as well as the leading Boyars, 
to be honoured; and Vladyka Vasili went, and saw much great 
honour. 

The same autumn ice and snow drifted into the Volkhov, carrying 
away fifteen stays of the great bridge ; God knows whether this was 
in punishment or in mercy. God did not allow any bloodshed among 
the brethren : the people stood on either side of the Volkhov having 
taken up arms against each other at the prompting of the devil, 
but God guarded [against it] and they united in love. 

A.D. 1336. A.M. 6844. Vladyka Vasili, Vladyka of Novgorod, 
founded a stone church, [in honour of] the 
entrance of our Lord Jesus Christ into Jerusalem, on June 25, St. 
Fevronia's Day, where a small palace^ had stood. The same year 
they completed the new bridge over the Volkhov. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Ivan went to the Horde. 

The same year the God-loving Vladyka Vasili fenced St. Sophia 
with a new fence^ and put up gilded brass doors in St. Sophia. 

The same year Pleskov was entirely burnt down; all the houses 
within the wall, and the churches. 

A.D. 1337. A.M. 6845. At the instigation of the devil the common 
people rose against the Archimandrite Esif, 
and they held a Veche, shut Esif in the Church of St. Nikola, and 
the rioters sat round the church night and day keeping watch on 
him. 

The same winter the Veliki Knyaz Ivan quarrelled with the men 
of Novgorod, and he sent a force to the Dvina^ beyond the Volok,^ 
not remembering the kissing of the Cross, and there by the power of 

1 Terem. 

* Tyn. 

3 sc. the N. Dvina. 

*cf. p. 123. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 131 

the Cross they were disgraced and beaten. Whoso diggeth a pit 
for another shall fall into it himself. 

The same year Vladyka Vasili went on his visitation to Pleskov, 
but the men of Pleskov would not grant him jurisdiction, so the 
Vladyka left having cursed them. 

The same year the whole of Moscow was burnt down; and then 
there came heavy rain and flooded everything; both in the cellars 
and in the squares wherever anything had been carried out. 

The same year Toropets was burnt down and flooded. 

The same year Knyaz Olexander went from Pleskov to the Horde, 
having been in Pleskov ten years. 

The same year the Church of the Entrance of our Lord Jesus 
Christ into Jerusalem was completed, and it was consecrated by 
the most reverend Vladyka Vasili, on September 21, the day of the 
Holy Martyr St. Kondrat; and it was a refuge to Christians. It 
was nine weeks in building. 

The same winter the Korel people having fetched the Nemtsy, 
killed many Russians of Novgorod and of Ladoga, who were trading 
amongst them, and all the Christians who lived amongst them, 
and they themselves fled into the town of the Nemtsy^ and then slew 
many Christians from the town of the Nemtsy. 

A.D. 1338. A.M. 6846. The water was big in the Volkhov as it 
never had been before, three weeks after 
Easter Day on Wednesday, and it carried away ten stays of the great 
bridge ; at the same time it carried away the bridge over the stream 
Zhilotug, and much harm was done. 

The same year Vladyka Vasili ordered the Church of the Entrance 
of Our Lord Jesus Christ into Jerusalem to be painted by Isaia 
a Greek, with others, on May 4, the Day of the Holy Martyr Selivan; 
they began to paint it the same day. 

The same spring the men of Novgorod went with Posadnik Fedor 
to the Neva, and stood before Orekhov, conversing through envoys 
with the Nemetski Voyevoda Sten; and there was no peace; and sa 
the men of Novgorod returned to Novgorod. The Nemtsy warred 
much with the Korel people around lake Onega, and afterwards, 
having come up, they set fire to the town^ at Ladoga but did not 
take the fort.^ 

After that the brave men of Novgorod went with their Voyevodas 

1 Nemetski Gorod, sc. Viborg, on the N. shore of the Gulf of Finland. 

2 Posad. 3 Gorod. 

K2 



132 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

and ravaged the districts round the Nemetski a.nd Korel towns^ and 
devastated their country considerably, burning their crops and 
kilHng their cattle ; and they returned all well with captives. 

The same year the Nemtsy came from their town^ to ravage the 
[town of] Toldoga, and from there they wished to go to the country 
of the Vod people, but they took nothing; for they^ had taken pre- 
cautions. But the men of Koporya issued out with Fedor Vasile- 
vich and beat them; and here they killed Mikhei of Koporya, a 
good man, and wounded Fedor's horse under him, but he himself 
suffered no harm ; for they had gone out in a small body. 

And Knyaz Narimont remained in Lithuania; and they sent 
urgently for him, but he would not come; he even withdrew his 
son Alexander from Orekhov, leaving only his lieutenant. 

The same year the damaged bridge was repaired by order of 
Vladyka Vasili; for he urged on the work himself; he began and 
finished it with his own men; and he did much good for the Chris- 
tians. 

And Knyaz Alexander was made a grant by the Tsar and he 
came away from the Horde to his own patrimony^ in Tver, and 
having sent to Pleskov, he had his wife and children brought to 
him. 

The Archimandrite Lavrenti of St. Georgi died this same year, 
and they installed Esif. 

The same winter they sent envoys to Novgorod from the Nemetski 
town Viborg from Voyevoda Petrik concerning peace, saying: 
" The Knyaz of the Svei knows not that a rupture had occurred 
with Novgorod; but the Voyevoda Smen^ had done it of his own 
mind." And the men of Novgorod sent Kusma Tverdislavich and 
Olexander Borisovich on a mission, and they returned with a peace, 
having concluded a peace on the terms agreed upon with the Veliki 
Knyaz Yuri on the Neva; but concerning the Kohylich Korel® they 
agreed to ask the Knyaz of the Svei. 

A.D. 1339. A.M. 6847. The Veliki Knyaz Ivan went to the Horde. 

On his advice the Tartars summoned to the 

Horde Alexander and Vasili Davidovich of Yaroslav, and all the 

* In Finland. 
2 sc Viborg. 

' sc. the Vod people. 

* Otchina. 
' Sten ? 

* A part of the Korel country or people. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 133 

Knyazes. And Knyaz Alexander had first sent his son Fedor to 
the Horde, expecting news from there. And the Tsar sent for him, 
and he went to the Horde, and VasiH of Yaroslav against whom 
Knyaz Ivan, his father-in-law, put out 500 men to intercept him, 
but he beat them off. For Knyaz Ivan had already left the Horde 
and the men of Novgorod sent envoys to him. 

The same year, on August 13, there was a sign from the ikon of 
the Holy Mother of God in St. Lazar at evening service; tears as it 
were flowed from both its eyes, and two wax cups were placed under 
it ; the next morning the whole town learning about this, they and 
the Igumens and priests and readers in their gowns went with crosses 
to see it. 

The same year the men of Novgorod sent Kusma Tverdislavl and 
Olexander Borisovich with others, and the Vladyka on his part sent 
his nephew Matvei, beyond sea on a mission to the Knyaz of the Svei; 
they found him in Lyudovl town in the Murman country and con- 
cluded a peace with him on the terms of previous documents; and 
regarding the Korel people they spoke thus: " If ours escape to you, 
slay or hang them, if yours to us, we will do the same by them; that 
they make no treachery between us; but these we will not deliver, 
who have been baptised into our faith ; also there are but few of them 
left, the rest have all died by the wrath of God." 

And to Knyaz Ivan they sent Selivester Volosevich and Fedor 
Ovramov with the tribute.^ And the Knyaz sent his envoys re 
quiring another tribute: "and in addition give me the Tsar's 
demand, what the Tsar has demanded from me." And they said: 
" That has never been amongst us since the beginning of the world, 
and thou hast kissed the Cross to Novgorod on the terms of the old 
Novgorod dues and according to Yaroslav's Gramota."^ 

The same year they finished the painting of the Vladyka's Church. 

The same autumn, on October 5, the surrounding quarter from St. 
Volodimir was burnt. 

On the 29th of the same month the pagan Tartars killed Knyaz 
Olexander and his son Fedor in the Horde. For Tsar Ozbyak^ had 
summoned him with deceit, intending to kill him, saying thus: 
" The Tsar desires to make thee a grant." And they listening to the 
deceitful words of that pagan, and having gone, were both killed; 
and received a bitter and violent death. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Ivan Danilovich withdrew his 

1 Vykhod. 

' Charter. " Uzbeg. 



134 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

lieutenants from Novgorod, and he was not at peace with Nov- 
gorod. 

A.D. 1340. A.M. 6848. The Veliki Knyaz Ivan Danilovich died in 

Moscow, as a monk, and in the schema}; and 

all the Knyazes went to the Horde; his son Simeon, Vasili of Yaro- 

slav, Kostyantin of Tver, Kostyantin of Suzdal, with other Knyazes. 

And some adventurers having gone from Novgorod made an 
attack on Ustyuzhna and burned it; but going in pursuit of them 
they^ took back the captives and plunder from the boatmen ; and 
after that they ravaged the district of Belo-Ozero.^ 

The same year on Tuesday in Trinity week, on June 7, the day of 
the Holy Martyr Fedor, a fire broke out in Rozvazha Street, in the 
field beyond St. Fedor's; the Nerev quarter was burnt, even so far 
as St. Yakov, and hitherwards to Chudinets Street, and all the 
churches and houses; from there it flung itself into the town, and 
the Vladyka's Court was burnt and the Church of St. Sophia; and 
all the houses and churches in the town, and the Lyudin quarter, 
up to St. Alexis' Church, also churches and houses and hitherwards 
up to the Prussian Street : for so great and fierce was the fire, with 
storm and gale, that they thought it was the end [of all things]; 
the fire went burning over the water, and many people were drowned 
in the Volkhov; and the fire threw itself across the Volkhov to the 
other side'* and there by evening service time the whole of that side 
rapidly burned, from the Fedor stream into Slavno and up to the 
fields, * and. stone and wooden churches, and houses ; from many 
churches they had no time to carry out either images or books, nor 
from out of the houses; and whatever anyone brought out and laid 
either in the fields or in the gardens, or in the fosse or in boats or 
canoes, all was taken by the flames; and whatever else was brought 
out wicked men carried it off, who fear not God, nor expect the 
resurrection of the dead, /nor God's judgment, nor the repayment 
according to deeds; and it was not only that they robbed people, 
their own brothers and Christians, killing some who were guarding 
their goods, and taking it to themselves, but even in the sacred 
churches which every Christian ought to protect, even abandoning 
his own house. But instead of repenting, we rather commit greater 

1 cf. p. 34. 

« sc. the people of Ustyuzhna, on the river Mologa, a tributary of the 
Volga. 

3 The White Lake, in N. Russia. 

« sc. the E. or mercantile half of the town. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 135 

sin, even seeing the punishment of God on them: in the Church of 
the Forty Holy Martyrs which had been fitted out and adorned with 
ikons, paintings, and metalHc work and ikon-frames; shutting 
themselves in the church they plundered all the goods, whosesoever 
they were ; and they did not allow anyone to carry out the images or 
books, but when they themselves ran out from the church all was 
enveloped in fire; and they murdered two watchmen. In the 
Church of the Holy Mother of God in the market place a priest was 
burnt; though others say that they murdered him while guarding 
property; because this church was entirely burnt and the ikons 
and the books, but of this man the fire did not touch even a hair; 
but they plundered all the property; in the Church of the Holy 
Friday the watchman was burnt with his son; in consequence of 
that fire that church collapsed, also that of the Holy Martyrs Boris 
and Gleb in Podol^; and many people were burnt in their houses; 
for the fire took on rapidly; and the great bridge was burnt to the 
water's edge. And they had not time to carry the image out of St. 
Sophia, and there was much harm. The whole of Smolensk was 
burnt down in the same year, in the night of the Transfiguration. 
They made a new bridge again across the Volkhov the same year. 

The same year Knyaz Simeon came from the Horde, and sent to 
collect tribute in Torzhok, and began to act violently. And the 
Novi-torg people sent with greeting to Novgorod; and they sent 
Matvei Valfromeyevich, Terenti Danilovitch with his brother, and 
Valfromei, Posadnik Ostafi's son, and Fedor Avramov, with armed 
men; and having gone they came upon Torzdok unexpectedly and 
seized the lieutenants of Knyaz Mikhail Davidovich, Ivan Rybkin's 
son, and the son of the collector Boris Smenov; also their wives and 
children, and put them in fetters, and they stayed in Torzhok for a 
month and strengthened it. And they had previously sent Kusma 
Tverdislav to the Knyaz from Novgorod with complaints: "Thou 
hast not yet taken thy seat among us, yet thy Boyars are already 
doing violence." And they sent messengers from Torzhok to 
Novgorod that the men of Novgorod should take to horse and come 
to Torzhok, but the common people did not desire this. On this 
the people of Novi-torg, seeing that a force would not come from 
Novgorod, the common people rose against the Boyars crying out: 
" Why did you call in the men of Novgorod, and they have seized 
the Knyaz's men, and we shall perish for that," And putting on 
their armour they broke by force into the houses and took away from 

* The " Lower " town, a part of Novgorod. 



136 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

the captains the Knyaz's heutenants and the collectors with their 
wives, and turned the men of Novgorod out of the town. And the 
Novi-torg nobles fled to Novgorod with only their souls, those 
who could, and they plundered their houses and razed their dwell- 
ings, and killed Smen's grandson at the Veche, and then devastated 
their villages. 

In the winter of the same year, on December 6, Nikola Day, the 
people of Bryansk killed Knyaz Gleb Svyatoslavich ; at the same 
time the Metropolitan was there and he could not calm them, till he 
came out from the Church of St. Nikola. 

The same winter Knyaz Simeon came to Torzhok with a force, 
with the whole of the Low Country, and the men of Novgorod began 
to assemble the whole of the district in the town, and they sent the 
Vladyka and the Tysyatski Avraam with other Boyars to the 
Knyaz, and they concluded a peace according to the old charters on 
all the terms of Novgorod; and they kissed the Cross. And they 
gave the Knyaz a tax on the district, and on the Novi-torg people 
1,000 roubles; and the Metropolitan was also there; and the Knyaz 
sent a lieutenant into Novgorod. 

A.D. 1341. A.M. 6849. Vladyka Vasili covered St. Sophia with lead, 
which had been burnt, and painted the 
images and fitted up an image-case. 

The same winter the Metropolitan Feognast, a Greek by birth, 
came to Novgorod with many people; the feeding and the gifts 
weighed heavily on the Vladyka and the monasteries. 

The same year the pagan Tsar Ozbyak died. 

The same winter the pagan Veliki Knyaz Gedimin of Lithuania 
died. 

The same autumn the Vladyka built a large palace.^ 

The same winter the young Knyaz Mikhail Olexandrovich came 
from Tver to Novgorod to the Vladyka, his god-father, to be taught 
reading and writing. 

Bread was cheap this year, but horned cattle died, 

A.D. 1342. A.M. 6850. The men of Pleskov sent envoys with 
greeting to Novgorod: "A Nemetski- force 
fully armed is advancing against Pleskov; we bow to you, our 
masters, defend us." And making no delay, the men of Novgorod 
went quickly on Good Friday, others following on Easter Eve, 

1 Terem. 

2 " German," here. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 137 

having sealed up all their communal property; and when they 
reached Meletovo the men of Pleskov sent greeting: " We bow 
to you; there is no army coming against us; there is an army of 
Nemtsy, but they are building a fort^ on the border on their own 
land." And they wanted to go to Pleskov, and then they listened 
to their request, and came back to Novgorod all well. 

The same year Vladyka Vasili founded the Church of the Holy 
Annunciation in the Gorodishche [in place of the one] destroyed, 
by order of the Veliki Knyaz Semen Ivanovich, on Monday, May 27,. 
in St. Peter's Fast, the day of St. Kliment, establisher of the Canons. 

The same year Vladyka Vasili ordered a big bell to be cast for 
St. Sophia, and brought masters'- from Moscow, a good man named 
Boris. 

The same year the men of Pleskov gave themselves over to Lithu- 
ania, renouncing Novgorod, and the Veliki Knyaz. They fetched 
into their midst Knyaz Olgerd from Lithuania, son of Gedimin, 
with the Lithuanians ; they had first turned out Olexander Vsevolod- 
its. And Olgerd had his son baptised in the name of Andrei, and 
he set him in Pleskov, and himself departed to Lithuania. 

The same year the men of Pleskov beat the Nemtsy, pursuing them 
up to their town Novogrodek on the border, killing about 300 of 
them. And the Nemtsy came in great strength to Izborsk with 
battering rams, and stood before the town eleven days and nearly 
took it; but they killed many Nemtsy, and there also they killed 
Voinev, son of the Lithuanian Knyaz, and several Lithuanians and 
men of Izborsk fell ; and the Nemtsy withdrew. 

The same year a fire broke out in Novgorod in Danislav Street, 
extending along the bank to the fosse, and up the hill to the Churches 
of the Forty Saints and SS. Kuzma and Damian, and three churches 
were burnt, St. Nikola and the stone Church of St. Yakov; and a 
watchman also was burnt there, and the good man Esif Davidovich; 
the third was the Church of St. Georgi; and much evil was done. 
And the people took fright, and dared not dwell in the town, but 
over the fields, others settled on the water-meadows, others along 
the banks, in boats. And the whole town was to be seen in motion ; 
the people wandered about for a week and longer; people endured 
much harm and loss at the hands of miscreants who fear not God. 
And the Vladyka with the Igumens and priests ordained a fast, 
and visited the monasteries and churches throughout the town with 

^ Or town, Gorod. 
2 sc experts. 



138 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

crosses, praying to God and to His Immaculate Mother, that He 
might avert from us His just wrath. 

The same year Knyaz Simeon went to the Horde to the pagan 
Zyanibek who had taken his seat on the Tsar's throne after killing 
his two brothers, and the Knyaz came back into Russia. 

On October 25, the day of the Holy Martyrs Markyan and Marturi, 
the servant of God, the Posadnik of Novgorod Volfromei, son of Yuri 
Mishinich, died, and the Vladyka Vasili with the Igumens and priests, 
laid his body in his father's tomb in the Church of the Forty Saints. 
Grant, Lord, that his soul may rest in peace with all the Saints ! 

The same year Luka Valfromeyev not listening to Novgorod and 
the blessing of the Metropolitan and the Vladyka collected a party 
of peasant adventurers and went to the Dvina beyond the Volok, 
and put up the fort^ of Orlitsk; and gathering a number of the Yem 
people, he took by assault all the country beyond the Volok and the 
villages along the Dvina. And at the same time his son Ontsifor^ 
went off to the Volga, and Luka going out to fight with a party of 
200, was killed by the people beyond the Volok ; and the news came 
to Novgorod: " Luka has been killed! " and the common people 
rose against Ondreshko and Posadnik Fedor Danilov, saying that 
they had sent men to kill Luka, and they plundered their houses 
and villages, and Fedor and Ondreshko fled to the town of Koporya 
where they stayed all the winter until the Great Fast. And at that 
time Ontsifor came and beat with his forehead to Novgorod against 
Fedor and Ondreshko: " They sent men to kill my father," and the 
Vladyka and the men of Novgorod sent the Archimandrite Esif 
with nobles to Koporya for Fedor and Ondreshko; and they came 
and said: " We had not plotted the killing of our brother Luka, nor 
the sending of anyone against him." And Ontsifor with Matvei 
summoned a Vladyka Veche at St. Sophia, while Fedor and 
Ondreshko summoned another in Yaroslav's Court. And Ontsifor 
and Matvei sent the Vladyka to the Veche, but not waiting the 
Vladyka's return from that Veche, they attacked the Yaroslav 
Court and there seized Matvei Koska and his son Ignat, and put 
them in the church. And Ontsifor fled with his confederates. 
That was in the morning; and by mid-day the whole town was up 
in arms; this side for itself, and that side for itself, until Vladyka 
Vasili with his lieutenant Boris made peace between them. So the 
Cross was exalted and the devil disgraced. 

» Gorod. 

* Onesiphorus. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 139 

A.D. 1343. A.M. 6851. The men of Pleskov with Knyaz Ostafi, 
5,000 strong, went to war into the country 
of the Nemtsy to the town of Medvezhya Golova; and the men of 
Pleskov ravaged eight days and eight nights, and it happened on 
lake Ostrechno on the day of the Descent of the Holy Spirit, the 
Nemtsy came upon them and arrayed a force against the men of 
Pleskov. And the men of Pleskov stood their ground and there 
was a great battle. God aided Knyaz Ostafi and the men of Pleskov ; 
they killed their Knyaz and many men of Velnevik^ and Nemtsy. 
And of the men of Pleskov, they killed Posadnik Korman, Olufer 
and other Boyars. God give rest to their souls among the Saints ! 
And Posadnik Danila of Pleskov cut off his armour and ran. 

The same year the Metropolitan Feognast, the Greek, went to 
the Horde, to the pagan Tsar Zhenbek. And Kalantai maligned 
him to the Tsar and they robbed him, and took him and tortured 
him, saying: " Give the annual tribute." He would not agree to 
this, but put down six hundred roubles ransom, and he then re- 
turned safel}^ to Russia. The same year on August 8, the day of 
the holy Father Emelyan, Vasili, Vladyka of Novgorod, completed 
the stone Church of the Holy Annunciation in the Gorodishche, and 
it was consecrated on the 24:th of the same month, the day of the 
Holy Martyr Evtikhi. Grant him, Lord, many years of life in this 
world, and, in the next, place him at Thy right hand, who laboured 
much for Thy church ! 

A.D. 1344. A.M. 6852. There was a great tumult beyond the 
Narva. The Chud people attacked the 
Boyars of their country in the Kolyvan district and in the Rugodiv- 
district, killing 300 of them; then the men of Velnevik,^ with the 
men of Yurev rose against them and killed fourteen thousand of 
the Chud people, and the rest fled to the Island country^; and the 
men of Velnevik^ followed them up into the Island country,^ and 
did not take them, but themselves drew back defeated. 

A.D. 1345. A.M. 6853. The third of the Indiction. Vladyka Vasili 

founded the Church of the Holy Friday 

which had been destroyed in the great fire, by order of God's servant 

Andrei, son of the Tysyatski, and of Paul Petrilovits. The same day 

1 sc. Velyad, the town of Fellin, in Livonia. 

* sc. Narva. 

» Ostrovskaya zemlya. 



140 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Vladyka Vasili founded the Church of SS. Kuzma and Damian in 
Kuzma-Demyan Street, by order of God's servant Anani Kuritski, 
the second week after Easter. The same year at the instance of the 
Archimandrite Esif the Church of St. Georgi was renovated and 
roofed with new lead, under the Veliki Knyaz Simeon Ivanovich, by 
God's providence and with the help of Georgi the holy Martyr for 
Christ. The same year, on the day of the Holy Father Simon 
Stylites,^ the Church of the Holy Friday was completed. The same 
year, in the Autumn, on the day of SS. Kuzma and Demyan, the 
Church of SS. Kuzma and Demyan was completed. 

The same year a southerly wind arose, with snow, and drove the 
ice into the Volkhov, and carried away seven stays, the Posadnik 
had only just had time to cross to the Commercial Side at mid-day, 
with the whole of the Veche, on the day of the Archistrates[os 
Michael. 2 

Then they took the Posadnik-'^v^ from Ostafi Dvoryaninits and 
gave it to Matvei Valfromeyevich. By God's grace there was no 
ill-will between them. 

The same year there was great confusion in Lithuania; the town 
of Vilna expelled Olgerd with his brother Kestuti, and the Veliki 
Knyaz Evnuti flung himself over the wall and escaped to Smolensk, 
while Narimont went off to the Horde to the Tsar. Knyaz Evnuti 
took refuge in Smolensk and after being there a little, went to 
Moscow to the Veliki Knyaz Simeon, and here he was baptised in 
the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, by Knyaz 
Simeon, and his name was called loan. 

A.D. 1346. A.M. 6854. Vladyka Vasih went to Moscow to the 
Knyaz and to the Metropolitan to call the 
Veliki Knyaz to Novgorod, and there the Metropolitan Feognast 
blessed Vasili, Vladyka of Novgorod, and gave him a cross-covered 
vestment. 

The same winter Knyaz Simeon, great-grandson of brave Knyaz 
Alexander, came to Novgorod to the throne on the Festival of St. 
Fedor Sunday^ and took his seat on his throne ; and having remained 
in Novgorod three weeks he went to the Low Country on the Tsar's 
business. 

The same year the Lithuanian Knyaz Olgerd came with his brother 
Knyazes and with all the Lithuanian land, and halted in the Shelon 

' September 14. 

2 November 21. 

" 1st Sunday in Lent. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 141 

country^ at the mouth of the Pshaga river, caUing to the men of 
Novgorod: " I wish to meet you; your Posadnik Ostafi Dvoryaninits 
had abused me, he called me a hound." And he took Shelon and 
Luga- by assault, and he imposed a contribution on the towns of 
Porkhov and Opoka. And the men of Novgorod rode out against 
him to Luga, and having returned to the town, they summoned a 
Veche, and killed Posadnik Dvoryaninits at the Veche saying: 
"It is owing to thee that they have taken our district." 

A.D. 1347. A.M. 6855. Slavno was burnt from Smenov Beskov's 
house as far as Nutna Street. 

A.D. 1348. A.M. 6856. Magnush, King of the Svei, sent to the men of 
Novgorod saying: " Send your philosophers 
to a conference, and I will send my own philosophers, that they 
may discuss about faith; they will ascertain whose faith is the 
better; if your faith is the better, then I will go into your faith, but 
if our faith is the better, you will go into our faith, and we shall all 
be as one man. But if you do not agree to uniformity, then I will 
come against you with all my forces." And Vladyka VasiU and 
Posadnik Fedor Danilovich and the Tysyatski Avraam and all the 
men of Novgorod having taken counsel together, repHed to Mag- 
nush: " If thou wishest to know whose is the better faith, ours or 
yours, send to Tsargrad^ to the Patriarch, for we received the Ortho- 
dox faith from the Greeks; but with thee we will not dispute about 
the faith. As to what grievances there may be between us, we will 
send about that to thee to the conference." And the men of 
Novgorod sent to Magnush the Tysyatski Avraam, Kuzma Tverdis- 
lav, and other Boyars. And Avraam and the others arriving at 
Orekhovets wished to go to Magnush, but Magnush was then on 
Berezov* island with all his forces. And the men of Orekhov beat 
with their foreheads to Avraam not to leave their town, but Kuzma 
Tverdislav with others went to Magnush; and Magnush replied to 
Kuzma: " I have no grievance whatever against you "; but he said 
thus: " Adopt my faith, or I will march against you with my whole 
force "; and he dismissed Kuzma and the others. On their return 
to Orekhovets they all shut themselves in the town, and Magnush 
came up against the town with his whole force, and began baptizing 

1 West of lake Ilmen. 

2 The places in these districts. 
- Constantinople. 

* " Birch-tree." 



142 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

the Izhera people into his own faith, and let loose his troops among 
those who refused baptism. And hearing that the king had turned 
his force on the Izhera people, the men of Novgorod sent Ontsifor 
Lukinits, Yakov Khotov and Mikhail Fefilatov^ against them with a 
small company^ and through the prayers of the Holy Mother of God, 
and with the help of St. Sophia and of the holy Martyrs Boris and 
Gleb, God aided Ontsifor; they killed 500, and others they took 
alive, and executed the traitors, and the men of Novgorod returned 
all well, having lost only three men. 

And Posadnik Fedor Danilovich with the lieutenants of the 
Veliki Knyaz and all the men of Novgorod and of Pleskov, with the 
whole of the Novgorod district and a few men of Novi-torg went to 
Ladoga, and to Knyaz Simeon Ivanovich they sent envoys, saying : 
" Come to us, Sire,^ to defend thy patrimony according to thy 
kissing of the Cross ; the king oiihe Sveiis coming against us. " And the 
'Veliki Knyaz Simeon replied to the men of Novgorod: " I come 
gladly to you." And after long delay the Knyaz went to Novgorod; 
but on reaching [the village of] Sitno from Torzhok, he turned back 
to Moscow, and sent his brother Ivan to Novgorod. And Knyaz 
Ivan came to Novgorod but did not go to the men of Novgorod at 
Ladoga. In the meanwhile King Magnush captured the town of 
Orekhovets on Transfiguration Day, and he seized Avraam and 
Kuzma with eight other Boyars, and let all the others go out of the 
town, and himself went away from it, leaving a force behind in 
Orekhovets. And Knyaz Ivan hearing of the capture of Orekhovets, 
by the Nemisy, went back from Novgorod without the benediction 
of the Vladyka, and not listening to the petition of the men of 
Novgorod. And the men of Novgorod went from Ladoga, and 
halted by Orekhovets. 

At the same time, on the night of the death of loan the Theolo- 
gian, a fire broke out in Volosov Street which was partially burnt 
down, also a part of Dobrynya Street and a goodly part of Prussian 
Street; the Church of the Holy Mother of God was partially burnt, 
also Chudinets Street, as far as the field, and the Lyudgoshcha 
Street and four wooden churches; but before that, in the same 
autumn, the Church of St. Flor in Lyudgoshcha Street was burnt, 
and one church during dinner-time. 

The same year the God-loving Vasili, Vladyka of Novgorod, 
ordered the painting of the Church of the Holy Resurrection in the 

1 Theophylaktov. 

2 Druzhina. ' Gospodm. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 143 

Derevyanitsa Street, and it was completed on the day of the Con- 
ception of loan the Baptist. 

The same autumn the men of Novgorod halted by Orekhov, 
investing it from our Lady's Fast^ till the Great Fast [Lent] ; then 
on Monday before Easter they approached the town with siege- 
engines, and on the dawn of Tuesday in Passion Week they took the 
town by the grace of God and the mediation of St. Sophia, through 
the prayers of the Most Holy Mother of God our Sovereign Lady, 
and by the power of the Honourable Cross, in which we repose our 
trust, also with the aid of the sacred Martyrs Boris and Gleb, on 
Tuesday, the day of Commemoration of the discovery of the sacred 
and honourable Head of loan the Forerunner,^ and they slew the 
Nemtsy and took others alive, and set their brothers of Novgorod, 
Yakov Khotov and Olexander Borisovich in Orekhov. 

A.D. 1349. A.M. 6857. The King of Cracow^ with a large force 
seized the country of Volynia by deceit, and 
did much injury to the Christians, and he converted the sacred 
churches to the Latin service hated of God. 

A.D. 1350. A.M. 6858. The men of Novgorod went to war against 
the Nemtsy, with Boris the son of the lieu- 
tenant, Ivan Fedorovich the Tysyatski, the Voyevodas Mikhali 
Danilovich, Yuri Ivanovich, and Yakov Khotov; and came to the 
town of Viborg on Monday the 2ist day of March, and burned the 
whole of the town.^ On the next day the Nemtsy came out of the 
town^ and the men of Novgorod fell on them, and the Nemtsy 
fled into the town,^ and there they killed several Nemtsy, and 
ravaged and burned the district near the town^ and killed many 
Nemtsy, both women and children, and took others alive; and they 
returned to Novgorod all well. 

The same year the men of Novgorod went to Yurev,^ and made an 
exchange with the Nemtsy of the Swedish captives taken at Orekhov 
for Avraam and Kuzma, Alexander and Andrei and the company 
who had been over sea in the Swedish King Magnush's country. 
And they returned all well to Novgorod by the mercy of God, and 
by the power of the honourable Cross in which they trusted they 

1 In August. 

2 March 9. 

* Krakovsky, sc. Poland. 

* Posad. 

* Gorod. 

* sc. Dorpat. 



144 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

reached Novgorod on the 9th day of June, the day of the Holy 
Martyr Alexander. 

On the 16th day of the same month they took the Posadnik-ship 
from Fedor Danilovich and gave it to Ontsifor Lukin. 

The same year Vladyka Vasili erected a new stone palace in his 
own Court, next to [the church of] the Nativity [of Christ]. 

The same year the men of Novgorod drove Posadnik Fedor out 
of Novgorod, together with his brother Mikhail, and Yuri and 
Ondreyan; their houses they pillaged, and they plundered the 
whole of Prussian Street. And Fedor, Mikhail, Yuri and Ondreyan 
fled to Pskov, and after being there a short while they went to 
Koporya.^ 

A.D. 1352. A.M. 6860." The nobles and the common people of 
Novgorod beat with their foreheads to 
Vladyka Vasili, Vladyka of Novgorod, to go to Orekhov to establish 
the fort there; he went and established the fort and returned to 
Novgorod. Envoys arrived from Pskov praying Vladyka Vasili 
thus: " It has pleased God, the Holy Trinity, God hath spoken to 
thy children bidding the men of Pskov to live until thou, Sire,^ 
shouldest come to the [church of the] Holy Trinity and bless thy 
children the men of Pskov " And making no delay he went, taking 
with him the Archimandrite Mikifor, the Igumens and priests, and 
arrived at Pskov and performed a service in Holy Trinity, in [the 
churches of] the Holy Mother of God, on Sneta Hill, of St. Mikhail, 
of loan the Theologian, and again in that of the Holy Trinity; he 
went in procession round the town with crosses, and blessed all the 
men of Pskov his children. And leaving the town and reaching 
Proshchenek* on Sunday, he stopped in the evening one verst 
beyond Proschenek, by the Cherekha river, and here he was taken 
ill ; he was taken into the monastery of St. Mikhail at the mouth of 
the Uza river, on the Shelon; here he died on Tuesday, the day of 
the Holy Martyr Uakimf.^ And they brought him to Novgorod on 
Thursday, July 5, the day of the Holy Father Lampad, Vladyka 
Moisei, Vladyka of Novgorod, the Igumens and the priests and all 
Novgorod attending; and they laid him in the porch of St. Sophia.* 

1 No record for 1351. 

2 This is the last entry in the Synodal text. 

3 Gospodin. 

* A place near Pskov. 
' Hyacinth. 

" Here ends this last entry of the Synodal text ; all that follows is from the 
" Continuation of the Annals of Novgorod " text, of. p. 128. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 145 

There was a very great plague in Pleskov. The same year envoys 
arrived in Novgorod from Pleskov calling the Vladyka to Pleskov 
to bless the people. And the Vladyka heard their prayer and went 
and blessed the people of Pleskov, and on his way back to Novgorod 
going from Pleskov he was seized with a severe illness, and died at 
the Uza river on the 3rd day of July, Tuesday, at nine of the day, 
the day of the Holy Martyr Akinf.^ 

The same year Vladyka Moisei erected a stone church in the 
name of the Assumption of the Holy Mother of God in the Volotov 
[field]. ^ The same year they led Vladyka Moisei with prayers on 
to his own throne in St. Sophia. 

The same year there was a great plague in Novgorod; it came 
on us by God's loving kindness, and in His righteous judgment, 
death came upon people, painful and sudden, it began from Lady 
Day till Easter; a countless number of good people died then. 
These were the symptoms of that death: a man would spit blood 
and after three days he was dead. But this death did not visit 
Novgorod alone; I believe it passed over the face of all the land; 
and whom ever God commanded, that man died, and whomever 
he saved, him he admonished and punished, that the rest of our days 
we may live in the Lord virtuously and sinlessly. 

The same spring Feognast, Metropolitan of all Russia, died after 
a long illness. 

A.D. 1353. A.M. 6861. The Veliki Knyaz Simeon Ivanovich of all 
Russia, and his two sons died. 

The same year Vladyka Moisei of Novgorod sent his envoys to 
Tsargorod^ to the Tsar'^ and to the Patriarch, asking for their 
benediction, and for redress in improper matters brought upon him 
compulsorily by the Metropolitan. 

The same year the men of Novgorod sent Smen Sudokov as 
their own envoy to the Tsar^ to the Horde, asking for the bestowal 
of the title of Veliki Knyaz on Konstyantin Knyaz of Suzdal. 
And the Tsar refused, and bestowed it on Knyaz Ivan Ivanovich, 
and the men of Novgorod remained on hostile terms with the 
Veliki Knyaz for one year and a half; but there was no harm done. 
A.D. 1354. A.M. 6862. Ontsifor Lukin voluntarily relinquished the 
Posadnik-shi^ which they then gave to 

1 Hyacinth. 

2 Near Novgorod. 
' Constantinople. 

" sc. the Emperor. 

'^ sc. the Tartar Tsar (Khan of the Golden Horde). 

L 



146 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Bakun Tverdislavich, and Olexander the brother of Dvoryanintsov 
was appointed Tysyatski. 

The same year the envoys of Vladyka Moisei of Novgorod returned 
from Tsargrad and brought with them vestments ornamented with 
crosses and documents, with bestowal of great favour from the 
Tsar and from the Patriarch, and a gold seal. Ivan Kantakuzin 
was then the Greek Tsar, and the Patriarch was Filofei,^ previously 
Metropolitan of Iraclia.^ 

A.D. 1355. A.M. 6863. The Metropohtan Alexi arrived in Russia, 
having been appointed in Tsargrad. 

A.D. 1356. A.M. 6864. A stone church to the Annunciation of the 
Holy Mother of God was erected in Ilya 
Street. 

A.D. 1355. A.M. 6863. Vladyka Moisei erected a stone church to St. 
Mikhail in the Skovorodka.^ 

A.D. 1356. A.M. 6864. They erected a stone church to St. Georgi 
in the Lubyanitsa [Street] where formerly a 
wooden church had stood. The same year they erected a church 
to the Forty Saints, of stone; the previous one had also been of 
stone, but had collapsed from old age and from the great con- 
flagrations. The same year three wooden churches were built: 
St. Nikola in Yakov Street, St. Sava in Kuzma-Demyan Street, 
and St, Nikola in Lyatka.^ 

The same autumn the water was high. 

A.D. 1357. A.M. 6865. Vladyka Moisei erected the stone Church of 
the Holy Spirit and monastery. The same 
year Vladyka Moisei erected the Church of the Holy Mother of God 
in Radokovichi.* 

The same year there was a great thunder storm; the Igumen of 
St. Nikola in Lyatka was struck, and others; and in the Rogatitsa 
[Street] one was struck dead, while others by the mercy of God 
remained alive. 

A.D. 1358. A.M. 6866, They erected the wooden Church of the 
Twelve Apostles. 

* Philotheos. 
'■* Heraclea. 

3 Near Novgorod. 

* A part of Novgorod. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 147 

A.D. 1359. A.M. 6867. Vladyka Moisei erected the stone Church of 
St. Prokopi in the Knyaz's Court. 

The same year Lazuta erected the Church of St. loan of stone 
in the German Court. 

The same year Vladyka Moisei left his office of his own free will 
on the day of the Holy Father Moses, on account of his ill health; 
and all Novgorod implored him to remain, but he would not; but 
blessed them saying: " Choose a man for yourselves, whomever 
God gives you." 

And having deliberated much, the Posadnik and the Tysyatski, 
and all Novgorod and the Igumens and priests decided not to make 
choice of any man for themselves but decided to take advice from 
God and to trust to his mercy, whomever God and St. Sophia should 
choose, him let him^ point out. And they selected three men: 
Olexei, monk and almoner of the House of St. Sophia, Sava, Igumen 
of the Ontonov monastery, and Ivan, a priest of St. Barbara; and 
they placed three lots on the altar in St. Sophia, declaring: " Whom- 
soever God and St. Sophia, the Wisdom of God may desire, to have 
as servant at his altar, his lot will he leave on His altar." And God 
and St. Sophia chose for high priest of St. Sophia and as shepherd 
of his speaking sheep the good, intelhgent and all-discriminating 
monk Olexei, and left his lot on His altar; and all Novgorod led 
him honourably up to the threshold"-^ on the 15th day of September, 
the day of the martyr for Christ St. Nikita; and then seated him till 
the Metropolitan should summon him for confirmation. For the 
Metropolitan was at that time in Kiev, and they sent envoys to 
him. The same year Alexei, the itinerant monk, was appointed 
deacon and a priest in Tver by Fedor, Bishop of Tver. 

The same spring God inflicting it on account of our sins, and the 
devil acting with his help, and by the advice of wicked men, there 
was a great tumult in Novgorod; they took the Posadnik-ship from 
Ondreyan Zakharich, but not all Novgorod, only the Slavno quar- 
ter, and they gave the Posadnik-ship to Selivester Lentiev. And 
no small confusion arose in the Yaroslav Court and there was a 
fight : because the Slavno men had come up unexpectedly in arms, 
and dispersed the men from across the river^ who were without 
arms, and they attacked and robbed many nobles, and killed Ivan 
Borisov Likhinin. 

1 Sic. 

«cf. p. 123. 

" Zarechane. 

L2 



148 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

And then the two sides armed themselves against each other; 
the Sophia side sought to avenge the dishonour to its brothers, 
and the Slavno side fought for their hves and property. And they 
stood opposite to each other for three days, for the Slavno men had 
dismantled the bridge. And Vladyka Moisei came out from the 
monastery taking with him Olexei, and the Archimandrite and the 
Igumens, and blessed them, saying: " My children, do not cause 
strife among yourselves, exultation to the pagans, and devastation 
to the sacred churches and this place; engage not in battle." And 
they accepted his word, and dispersed; and they sacked Sehvester's 
villages, and many villages of the Slavno quarter were seized; 
and also many innocent people perished then. And they gave the 
Posadnik-'i\\\Y) to Mikita Matveyevich, and so they were reconciled. 
God did not suffer the devil utterly to exult, but Christianity was 
exalted to generation and generation. 

A.D. 1360. A.M. 6868. Olexei went to Volodimir to be confirmed as 
Vladyka, summoned by envoys from the 
Metropolitan, and there went with him the Novgorod Boyars, 
Posadnik Olexander and Yuri Evanov. 

And in the Vladyka s absence there was a fire in Novgorod; the 
Podol,^ and the Gornichar- quarter, and seven wooden churches 
were burnt. 

The same year there was a great tumult in the Horde ; many Tsars 
with their wives and children were killed, and the men of the ranks 
fought against each other. 

The same year Knyaz Dmitri Kostyantinovich of Suzdal returned 
to Volodimir from the Horde to asume the office of Veliki Knyaz. 

And Olexei was confirmed Archbishop of Novgorod in Volodimir 
in the most renowned Church of the Holy Mother of God of Vladimir 
by the most venerable Metropolitan of all Russia, Olexei, in the 
presence of the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri Kostyantinovich, on July 12, 
the day of the Holy Martyrs Golendukha and Prokl ; he returned to 
Novgorod, and was met by the Igumens and priests with the crosses 
at St. Ilya's, by the Posadnik and the Tysyatski and all Novgorod; 
and all rejoiced with a great gladness on that day. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri sent his lieutenants to 
Novgorod, and the men of Novgorod placed the Knyaz' s lieutenants 
amongst them, and gave them jurisdiction, having arrived at an 
agreement with the Knyaz. 
' Lower town. 
2 " Potters." 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 149 

The same year Semeon Ondreyevich with his pious mother founded 
a stone Church to St. Fedor in Fedor Street. 

The same year there was a great plague in Pleskov, and the men 
of Pleskov sent envoys to the Vladyka with prayer and beating of 
the forehead, that, having come, thou mightest bless us, thy chil- 
dren. And the Vladyka went and blessed them; and went round 
the town of Pskov with crosses and performed three liturgies and 
returned to Novgorod; and thenceforward the men of Pleskov were 
better deserving of God's mercy, and the plague ceased. 

The same year, in Philip's Fast,^ there was a sign in the moon; 
it appeared in the clear sky as if covered with a dark covering. 

The same year the Korel town^ was burnt unexpectedly, and 
much harm was done to life and property; and the people of the 
town had only their souls left. 

That spring, during Lent [it was] as though a fiery dawn appeared 
from the east ascending over the sky. 

A.D. 1361. A.M. 6869. They completed the stone Church of St. 
Fedor in Fedor Street. 

A.D. 1362. A.M. 6870. Vladyka Moisei erected a stone Church of 
the Holy Annunciation in Mikhail Street. 

The same year Alexei, Vladyka of Novgorod, erected the stone 
Church of the Holy Nativity at the threshold, and he himself con- 
secrated it, together with the Igumens and priests and with the 
choir of St. Sophia, on September 1, the day of the Holy Father 
Simon Stylites. 

The same year the men of Pleskov detained the Nemetski mer- 
chants and those from the sea coast^ and from over sea"*, saying: 
" The people of Yurev and of Velnev^ have taken from us our land 
and water." 

Moisei, Vladyka of Novgorod, died in the winter of the same year; 
and Vladyka Alexei assembled the Igumens and priests and all the 
church hierarchy and a multitude of Orthodox Christians, both 
men and women, and immediately took him honourably and laid 
him with his own hands into the tomb, in St. Mikhail's in the monas- 

1 In November. 

2 sc. Keksholm, on lake Ladoga. 
» Pomorski. 

* Zamorski. 

s sc. Velyad, or Fellin. 



150 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

tery at Skovorodka/ on January 25, the day of the Holy Father 
Grigori the Theologian. 

A.D. 1363. A.M. 6871. Nemetski envoys and others from Yurev and 
from Velnev^ came to Novgorod for settle- 
ment with the men of Pleskov; and the men of Pleskov also came 
to Novgorod, and having deliberated much, they departed without 
having concluded peace ; and Novgorod merchants were detained in 
Yurev. 

The same year the Church of the Holy Mother of God in the 
Volotov [field] in the Moisei monastery was painted by order of the 
God-loving Alexei, Vladyka of Novgorod. 

The same year Novgorod envoys, one Boyar from each quarter 
of the town, went to Yurev of the Nemtsy.^ And the Nemtsy agreed in 
love with the men of Pleskov, and there was peace between them; 
and the men of Pleskov released the Nemetski merchants, and the 
Nemtsy released the Novgorod merchants. 

A.D. 1364. A.M. 6872. They erected a stone Church in Torzhok in 
the name of the God-befitting Transfigura- 
tion of our Lord God the Saviour Jesus Christ, at the instance of 
God-fearing merchants of Novgorod, and with the aid of all Orthodox 
Christians; and in the winter Alexei, Vladyka of Novgorod, con- 
secrated it with the priests and deacons and all the choir of St. 
Sophia. 

A.D. 1365. A.M. 6873. Vladyka Alexei erected the stone Church of 
[Our Lady's] Meeting^ at the gates of the 
Ontonov monastery ; and in Lyatka^ Lazuta erected a stone Church 
to St. Nikola. The same year with the benediction of Vladyka 
Alexei they began to build in Pleskov a stone Church of the Holy 
Trinity, on the old foundations. 

A.D. 1366. A.M. 6874. Young men with the captains Esif Val- 
fromiyevich, Vasili Fedorovich and Olexan- 
der Obakunovich, went off to the Volga without the word of Nov- 
gorod. They all returned safely to Novgorod the same year; 
and for that the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri Ivanovich was angry and 

1 Near Novgorod. 

2 Velyad, or Fellin. 

' Yurev Nemetski, Dorpat. 

* i.e. St Mary's Meeting with Elizabeth (Luke i, 40, etc.) 

5 Near Novgorod. _ 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 151 

broke off peace with the men of Novgorod saying thus: " Why did 
you go to the Volga and rob many of my merchants? " In the 
winter of the same year men from the Knyaz seized Vasih Danilovich 
and his son in Vologda ; he was coming from the Dvina^ ; he knew 
not of this and was not on his guard. 

A.D. 1367. A.M. 6875. The men of Novgorod sent envoys to the 
Veliki Knyaz Dmitri Ivanovich and con- 
cluded a peace with him. And the Veliki Knyaz released Vasili and 
his son Ivan, and sent his own lieutenant into Novgorod. 

The same year, for our sins, there was no understanding between 
Pleskov and Novgorod; and a force of Nemtsy and men of Velnev'^ 
came and ravaged about Izborsk, all the Pleskov district as far as 
the Great river,^ and having forded the Great river they came to the 
town of Pleskov and burned the town"* around the fort^ and did 
much damage, and then retired, suffering no harm, because neither 
Knyaz Alexander nor the Posadnik Lenti,** nor any other good men 
were in the town at that time ; many were away in travel. And then 
the men of Pskov sent envoys to Novgorod with greeting and com- 
plaint : " Brothers, what care are you taking for us, your brothers ? " 
And at that time Novgorod merchants had been detained in Yurev and 
in other towns of the Nemtsy, and A'i?wf'/.y^z merchants were detained 
in Novgorod; only the kissing of the Cross of Novgorod with the 
Nemtsy had not been broken, and, therefore, the men of Novgorod 
did not hasten to occupy the land of the Nemtsy for the men of Pleskov. 
The same winter the men of Pleskov sent their Posadnik Anani, 
and Paul to Novgorod and beat with their foreheads to Alexei, 
Vladyka of Novgorod, to consecrate their Church of the Holy 
Trinity; and the Vladyka sent to them his spiritual father loan and 
his archpriest and archdeacon; and the Church of the Holy Trinity 
was consecrated with the benediction of Alexei, Vladyka of Nov- 
gorod, on January 30, the day of the Holy Martyr Popolit.''' They 
then sent Sava Kuprov as envoy to the Country of the Nemtsy. 

A.D. 1368. A.M. 6876. On May 12, the day of the Holy Martyr 
Epifani, there was a bad fire in Novgorod; 

1 sc. the N. Dvina. 
- Velyad, Fellin. 

3 Velikaya reka, on which Pskov is situated. 

4 Posad. 
^ GoYod. 

* Leontius- 
' Hippolytus. 



152 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

the whole Detinets-gorod^ was burnt, also the Vladyka's Court, and 
the Church of St. Sophia was partially burnt, and of the Nerev 
quarter half the streets up to Danislav Street, and all the Carpen- 
ters' quarter^ from St. Nikita to Radokovitsi,^ and churches were 
burnt and several people. 

And the same year the Nemtsy came with a large force ; the Bishop 
himself came, and the Meister and Commanders, to Izborsk. And 
the men of Novgorod went out against them and went as far as 
Pleskov; and the Nemtsy fled from Izborsk, having cut their bat- 
tering rams. 

The same winter Volodimir, brother of the Veliki Knyaz, came to 
Novgorod. 

A.D. 1369. A.M. 6877. The Slavno quarter was completely burnt 
from Nutna Street to St. Ilya. 
The same year they founded a stone church in Yarishev Street, 
and another of stone in Rogatitsa [Street], to St. Eupati. 

A.D. 1370. A.M. 6878. The men of Novgorod went with the men of 
Pleskov to Novogrodek of the Nemtsy, and 
they withdrew without taking it, because it was strong, and several 
people were shot from the town. 

The same year they completed the Churches of St. Vasili and St. 
Eupati, and Alexei, Vladyka of Novgorod, with the priests, con- 
secrated them. 

The same year Olgerd with the Lithuanians was near Moscow 
and burned the outer town.^ 

A.D. 1371. A.M. 6879. They erected a stone Church of St. Nikola 
' in Russa.^ 
The same year there was a fire which spread from Ilya Street to 
the Carpenters' quarter2; all the Podol^ was burnt and the quarter 
as far as Kilova Street. These many fires are because of our sins, 
that we might repent of our wickednesses; but we return to even 
greater. What is worse than this evil, namely, to take an oath 
falsely before God, to kiss the Cross and then violate it ? and that evil 

1 Citadel. 

2 Plotniki. 

» A part of Novgorod. 

■• Posad. 

5 At the S. end of lake Ilmen. 

5 Lower town. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 153 

is often done among us; and, therefore, God inflicts the most severe 
punishments on us according to our deeds. 

The same year Yuri Ivanovich, Posadnik of Novgorod, Selvester 
Lenteyevich,^ the Tysyatski Ohsei^ and Olexander Kolyvanov went 
to a conference and concluded a peace with the Nemtsy near Novo- 
grodek. 

The same year the town of Torzhok was completely burnt, for our 
sins; and here was not the end of the evil. 

A.D. 1372. A.M. 6880. The men of Novgorod went to Torzhok to 
build up the town; and they sent Mikhail's 
lieutenants away from Torzhok. And Knyaz Mikhail came with a 
force to Torzhok, and burned the whole town, and the Christians 
suffered great distress: some were burnt with fire in their houses 
with their property, others took refuge in St. Saviour's, and were 
there suffocated; very many were burnt, others escaping from the 
fire were drowned in the Tvertsa river. And good women and girls 
foreseeing their violation at the hands of the men of Tver, for they 
were stripping them to utter nakedness, as even the pagans did not 
do, from shame and grief drowned themselves in the river; monks 
and nuns were all stripped. First of all Olexander Obakunovich 
met them in the open, and there laid his bones for St. Saviour and 
for the wrongs of Novgorod ; and with him they killed Ivan Shakho- 
vich and another Ivan Timofeich, and Grigori Shchebelkov; and 
several others fell there, but some escaped. Others again were 
taken, and were led away captives to Tver, men and women, a 
countless number. They also took a great deal of property, what 
was left from the fire, and many of the silver frames from off the 
pictures. And who, my brethren, can help grieving over this? 
Those who remained ahve, seeing how those others suffered violent 
and bitter death, the churches burnt and the town utterly laid 
waste : for such wrong-doing had never been suffered even from the 
pagans. And they filled five pits with dead bodies of the killed, 
drowned and burnt; and others were burnt so that nothing was left, 
and others drowned without being heard of, and floated down the 
river Tvertsa. 

The same year they dug a trench around the Lyudin and the 
Nerev quarters and the outer parts of the town.^ 

' Leontievich. 
" Elisha. 
3 Zagorodie. 



154 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

A.D. 1373. A.M. 6881. Knyaz Volodimir came to Novgorod a week 
before the festival and stayed in Novgorod 
until Peter's Day,^ and went away. 

The same year the Volkhov flowed back for seven days.^ 

A.D. 1374. A.M. 6882. They erected the Church of Saint Saviour in 
stone in Ilya Street, and Alexei, Vladyka of 
Novgorod, consecrated it with the Igumens and priests and the choir 
of St. Sophia. 

A.D. 1375. A.M. 6883. There was a sign in the sun on the 29th day of 
July, a Sunday, the day of the holy Martyr 
Kalinnik. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri Ivanovich with all the 
Knyazes and with all the forces of Russia went against Knyaz 
Mikhail of Tver; and they stood near Tver four weeks and occupied 
the whole district, burned the town^ and took away to different 
parts a very great many captives; and they had raised stockades* 
around the town of Tver, and thrown two bridges across the Volga. 
And the Veliki Knyaz sent for the men of Novgorod, and the men of 
Novgorod upholding the honour of their Knyaz came quickly in 
three days to Tver. And Knyaz Mikhail seeing the force of Nov- 
gorod coming against him, sent Vladyka Eufemi to the Veliki Knyaz 
and surrendered to the Veliki Knyaz on all his terms. And the 
men of Novgorod stood four days before Tver, and concluded peace 
on all the terms of the Veliki Knyaz and of Novgorod. 

The same winter Vladyka Alexei resigned the Archbishopric 
voluntarily, retiring to Derevyanitsa,^ and Novgorod fell into great 
grief. After much deliberation they sent the Archimandrite Sava, 
Maxim Ontsiforovits with Boyars to the Metropolitan, that he should 
bless his son Vladyka Alexei into the House of St. Sophia, with the 
rank of sanctity proper to him. And the Metropolitan blessed his 
son, Vladyka Alexei, and he dismissed the Archimandrite Sava and 
the Boyars with great honour ; and they brought the blessing of the 
Metropolitan on Vladyka Alexei and on all Novgorod. 

And the men of Novgorod held a Veche in Yaroslav's Court, 
and from the Veche they sent Ivan Prokshinich, the lieutenant of 

1 July 11. 

2 sc. owing to floods lower down. 

3 Posad. 

* Osirog. 

* sc. the monastery on the river of this name. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 155 

the Veliki Knyaz, Posadnik Yuri, and the Tysyatski OHsei, together 
with many Boyars and good men to the Vladyka in Derevyanitsa,^ 
and the Vladyka accepted their petition ; and they elevated Vladyka 
Alexei in his own Archiepiscopal dignity into the House of St. 
Sophia on March 9, the day of the Forty Holy Martyrs, and the 
men of Novgorod were glad of the Vladyka. 

A.D. 1376. A.M. 6884. For the second time in three years the 
Volkhov flowed backwards,- seven days. 
The same spring the Metropolitan Mark from the Holy Mother of 
God, from Mount Sinai , arrived in Novgorod, seeking charity. After 
a while the Archimandrite Vnifanti^ from St. Michael came from 
Jerusalem also asking for charity. 

The same year Vladyka Alexei went to the Metropolitan, and 
with him the Archimandrite Sava, Yuri Ontsiforovich, Vasili 
Kuzminich, Vasili Ivanovich and many other Boyars, on the 13th 
day of August, the day of the Holy Confessor Maxim. And the 
Metropolitan received his son Vladyka Alexei with love, as did the 
Veliki Knyaz. And he stayed two weeks in Moscow ; and the Metro- 
politan dismissed him with a blessing, and the Veliki Knyaz and his 
brother Volodimir with great honour. And the Vladyka returned 
to the House of St. Sophia on the 17th of October, Friday, the day 
of the holy Prophet Osea. 

The same winter the Metropohtan Kiprian'* sent from Lithuania 
his envoys bringing documents^ from the patriarch to the Vladyka 
in Novgorod, and it said thus: " The Patriarch Filofei has blessed me 
for^ all the Russian Land." And Novgorod having heard the 
document^ gave them answer: "Send to the Veliki Knyaz; if the 
Veliki Knyaz accepts thee as Metropolitan for all the Russian Land, 
then also shalt thou be our Metropohtan." And having heard this 
reply from Novgorod the Metropolitan Kiprian"* did not send to the 
Veliki Knyaz in Moscow. 

A.D. 1377. A.M. 6885. Young men from Novgorod went off to 

Novogrodek of the N'eyutsy on the Ovla river, 

and they stood many days before the town, and took the whole outer 

town and ravaged the entire district and brought away many 

> sc. the monastery on the river Derevyanitsa. 

' sc. into lake Ilmen, owing to floods lower down. 

3 Boniface. 

^ Cyprian. 

^ Gramotas, Gramoty. 

* sc. to be over. 



156 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

captives to Novgorod, and themselves returning all well to Nov- 
gorod, with Voyevoda Ivan Fedorovich, VasiH Borisovich and Maxim 
Ananinich. 

The same spring there was a fire in Novgorod, it broke out in 
Lyudgoshcha Street and extended to Yakov Street, and seven wood- 
en and three stone churches were burnt. The same year the Church 
of the Holy Mother of God in the Mikhahtsa [Street] was struck by 
hghtning and burnt. 

The same year the Lithuanian Knyaz Olgerd died in Lithuania. 

The same year, on May 29, the day of the Holy Martyr Kalinnik, 
the Archimandrite Sava of Novgorod died, and he was followed 
[to the grave] by Vladyka Alexei of Novgorod, and by the Igumens 
and priests with lamps and candles, and they laid him in the Church 
of the Holy Mother of God in the Ontonov monastery. 

The same year they completed the stone Church of the Holy 
Martyrs Boris and Gleb in the Carpenters' quarter,^ and Vladyka 
Alexei, with the priests and the choir of St. Sophia, consecrated it. 

The same year the Tartars took Nizhni Novgorod.^ 

The same winter the Russian Metropolitan Alexei died in Moscow. 

A.D. 1378. A.M. 6886. They completed the stone Church of the 
Holy Effigy in Dobrynya Street; and 
Vladyka Alexei with priests and the choir of St. Sophia, on its 
festival day, consecrated it. 

The same year the Tartars went to the Suzdal Country against 
Knyaz Dmitri ; and the Knyaz sent out his son Knyaz Ivan with a 
force against them, and they fought on the Pyana river; and 
Knyaz Ivan was drowned here, and others were killed. 

The same winter Knyaz Ondrei Olgerdovich of Lithuania fled to 
Pskov, and kissing the Cross to the men of Pskov, he went through 
Novgorod to Moscow to the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri and the Knyaz 
received him. 

A.D. 1379. A.M. 6887. Eight streets were burnt down in Novgorod, 
the fire breaking out in Lukin Street, and 
twelve churches, the fire extending to Chudinets Street. 

The same year the Tartars came into the Russian Land, against 
the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri. And the Knyaz went out against them, 
and it was on the Ovozha river, and there both forces met and God 
aided the Veliki Knyaz, and the Tartars turned shoulder "and fled. 

1 Plotniki. ^ 

2 " Lower Newtown," on the Volga. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 157 

The same year they founded two stone churches: one to the 
Holy Mother of God in the Mikhahtsa [Street] and the other to the 
Holy Frola and Lavra^ in Lyudogoshcha Street. 

The same year the Lithuanian Knyaz Yuri Narimantovich came 
to Novgorod. 

A.D. 1380. A.M. 6888. All Novgorod beat with the forehead to 
their lord- Vladyka Alexei, that thou shouldst 
undertake to go to the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri Ivanovich; and the 
Vladyka received the petition^ of his children of all Novgorod, and 
went to the Low Country a week before Flower* Sunday, and with 
him went Yuri Ivanovich, Mikhail Danilovich, Yuri Ontsiforovich, 
lev Obakunovich, Ivan Fedorovich and many other Boyars and 
men of substance. And the Knyaz received them with love, and 
kissed the Cross to Novgorod on all the old rights of Novgorod and 
on the old charters. 

The same year, in the month of August, news came to the Veliki 
Knyaz Dmitri and to his brother Knyaz Volodimir from the Horde 
that the pagan race of Ishmaelites was rising against the Christians; 
for there was some weak man Tsar among them, and Knyaz Mamai 
was controlling all their affairs and he was savagely enraged against 
the Veliki Knyaz and all the Russian Land. 

And having heard this, that a great Tartar force was coming 
against him, the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri Ivanovich gathered many 
soldiers and went against the godless Tartars, trusting in the mercy 
of God and in His Immaculate Mother, the Mother of God, the 
eternal Virgin Mary, calling to his aid the honourable Cross. For 
he entered their country beyond the Don, and there was there a 
clean field^ at the mouth of the river Nepryadva, and there the 
pagan Ishmaelites had ranged themselves against the Christians. 
And the Moscovites, of whom many were inexperienced, were 
frightened and in despair of their lives at sight of the great numbers 
of Tartars, others turned to flight, forgetful of the Prophet's saying 
that one shall reap one thousand and two shall move ten thousand, 
if God does not abandon them. 

And the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri with his brother Volodimir ranged 
their troops against the pagan Polovets people, and raising their 

1 Florus and Laurus. 

2 Gospodin. 

^ Lit. forehead-beating. 

" sc. Palm. 

* sc. treeless country. 



158 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

eyes humbly to heaven, and sighing from the depth of their hearts, 
said, in the words of the psalm : " Brothers, God is our refuge and our 
strength." And both forces immediately met, and there was a 
fierce battle for a long time, and God terrified the sons of Hagar 
with an invisible might, and they turned their shoulders to wounds,^ 
and they were routed by the Christians, and some were struck down 
with weapons, and others were drowned in the river, a countless 
number of them. 

And in the encounter Knyaz Fedor Belozerski was killed, also his 
son Knyaz Ivan; and other Knyazes and captains went in pursuit 
of the aliens. The godless Tartars fell from dread of God and by 
the arms of the Christians; and God raised the right hand of the 
Veliki Knyaz Dmitri Ivanovich and of his brother Knyaz Volodimir 
Andreyevich for the defeat of the aliens. 

And this was because of our sins : the ahens take up arms against 
us, that we might renounce our wrong doings and hatred of our 
brethren, from our love of silver, and from wrong judging and vio- 
lence; but God is merciful and man-loving; He is not angry with us 
utterly, and is not at enmity for ever. 

The Knyaz gained this victory on September 8, on a Saturday, 
the day of the Birth of the Mother of God. And the Veliki Knyaz 
Dmitri with his brother Knyaz Volodimir halting over the bones of 
the Tartars and many Russian Knyazes and captains, glorified with 
supreme great praise the Immaculate Mother of God, having stoutly 
fought with the aliens for God's holy churches, for the Orthodox 
faith and for all the Russian Land; and he himself, preserved by God, 
came back to his own great capital city of Moscow, his patrimony, 
with his brother Volodimir. 

A.D. 138L A.M. 6889. They founded a stone church in Slavkov 
Street to St. Dmitri. 

The same autumn the Lithuanian Knyaz Skrigailo with an army of 
Nemtsy invested Polotsk, and they suffered much hardship and sent to 
Novgorod praying for Christian aid: " You should help us "; but 
they received no help from Novgorod, they only sent an envoy, 
Yuri Ontsiforovich, to the Lithuanian Knyaz Yagailo. And God 
and St. Sophia protected their house; and they went away and did 
not take the town. 

The same year there was a tumult in Lithuania, God inflicting 
on them His anger: they rose against each other, and killed the 

1 sc. fled. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 159 

Veliki Knyaz Kestuti Gediminovich and his Boyars, but his son 
Vitovt escaped to the Nenitsy.^ Much mischief was done to the 
Lithuanian country; for Kestuti had deprived Yagailo of the 
sovereignty. 

A.D. 1382. A.M. 6890. The Tartar Tsar Tektomysh came against 
the Russian Land with a large force, and 
ravaged much of the Russian Land; he took Moscow town and 
burned it; also Pereyaslavl, Kolomno, Serpukhov, Dmitrov, Volo- 
dimir and Yurev.- 

And the Veliki Knyaz seeing the enormous number of godless 
Tartars did not take stand against them; but retired to Kostroma 
with his wife and children, Knyaz Volodimir to the Volok,^ and his 
mother and his wife to Torzhok; the Metropohtan to Tver, and 
Gerasim Vladyka of Kolomna removed to Novgorod. And who of 
us, my brethren, would not be terrified by this, seeing such confusion 
in the Russian Land ? for as the Lord said through the Prophet : 
" If ye hearken unto me I shall put your fear into your enemies and 
ye shall enjoy the fruit of the earth; but if ye hearken not unto me, 
ye shall flee when none pursueth you; I shall send fear and dread 
on to you, and one hundred of you shall run from five, and from one 
hundred ten thousand." 

The same year they completed the stone Church of St. Dmitri in 
Slavkov Street, and Vladyka Alexei consecrated it with the Iguniens 
and priests and the choir of St. Sophia ; and in a few days it crumbled 
to pieces. 

The same year Vladyka Dionisi of Suzdal came to Novgorod from 
Tsargrad^ from the Patriarch Nil with a blessing and with charters, 
and by command of Vladyka Alexei he went to Pskov teaching the 
law of God, and strengthening the faith in the true Christian Ortho- 
dox religion, in order that God might establish the Orthodox faith 
in the last years untroubled by wicked men prompted of the devil. 

A.D. 1383. A.M. 6891. They dug a trench round the Sophia side, 
up to the old earthen wall. 
The same year they founded two stone churches: one to St. 
Phihp in Nutna Street and the other to St. loan in Radokovitsi,^ 
and they completed that of St. Dmitri in Slavkov Street. 

1 sc. the German parts of the Baltic provinces. 

2 sc. Yurev Polski, N.E. of Moscow. 

3 sc. Lamsk, N.W. of Moscow. 
^ Constantinople. 

* A part of Novgorod. 



160 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

The same year Knyaz Vasili, the son of the Veliki Knyaz, went to 
the Horde summoned by the Tsar. 

The same autumn Knyaz Mikhail of Tver went to the Horde, 
seeking the title of Veliki Knyaz. 

Knyaz Patriki Narimantovich came to Novgorod and was re- 
ceived by the men of Novgorod; and they gave him for his main- 
tenance the town of Orekhov, the Korel town/ and half of the town 
of Koporya, and Lusko village. 

A.D. 1384. A.M. 6892. The townsmen of Orekhov and of the Korel 
town came to Novgorod complaining of 
Knyaz Patriki: and Knyaz Patriki incited the Slavno quarter to 
rise; and caused confusion in Novgorod. And the Slavno people 
sided with the Knyaz and they held a Veche in Yaroslav's Court, 
while another Veche met at St. Sophia; and both were in arms as for 
battle, and they dismantled the great bridge; but God and St. 
Sophia preserved us from civil war. But they took away those 
towns from the Knyaz, and they gave him [the two towns of] Russa 
and Ladoga. 

The same year the men of Novgorod raised a stone wall on the 
road in Luga, by the grace of St. Sophia and the encouragement of 
the great Archistrategos Mikhail, and with the blessing of their 
father Vladyka Alexei, in only thirty and three days. 

The same year a fire broke out at St. Lazar's in the Nerev quarter, 
and the Church of St. Lazar and another, that of St. Peter, were 
burnt. 

The same year there was a darkness for many days and nights, 
and birds could not see whither to fly, and kept falling to the ground 
and into the water, and people dared not go on the lakes or on the 
rivers; and there was grief and trouble amongst Christians. This is 
God punishing us, brethren, for our sins, showing us the way to 
repentance, in order that we should repent of our wicked ways. 
Having punished us, have mercy on us, O Lord ! And there was 
light, and we were glad. 

The same autumn they completed the stone Church of St. Phihp 
in Nutna Street, and Vladyka Alexei consecrated it, and they com- 
pleted another to St. loan in Radokovitsi.^ 

A.D. 1385. A.M. 6893. The town of Pskov was entirely burnt down ; 
the church of the Holy Trinity was alone 

1 sc. Keksholm, on lake Ladoga. 
« A part of Novgorod. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 161 

preserved by God. The same year, in the month of June, on the 
14th day, in Peter's Fast, the day of the Holy Prophet Ehsei, the 
whole of the Commercial Side of Novgorod was burnt down and all 
the churches, God preserved only that of the Holy Mother of God 
in the Mikhalitsa [Street], through the prayers of the Holy Mother 
of God. And seventy persons were burnt; for the fire was very 
fierce. 

In the winter of the same year, on January 1, there was a sign in 
the sun, on the day of the Holy Father Vasili. 

A.D. 1386. A.M. 6894. The town of Orekhov was burnt down, and 
the end of Mikitin Street in Novgorod was 
burnt. The same year they completed the stone Church of St. 
Kliment in Ivorov Street. 

The same year the Lithuanians killed Knyaz Svyatoslav of 
Smolensk. The same winter the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri came to 
Novgorod with an army and with his brother Knyaz Volodimir, 
being angered against Novgorod on account of the Volga men. 
And he halted at [the village of] Yamny, and Vladyka Alexei went 
and concluded a peace on all the old terms; and for the guilty, for 
the Volga men the Veliki Knyaz took 8,000 roubles from Novgorod. 

The same winter Posadnik Fedor Timofeyevich, Timofei Yurievich 
and some Boyars' sons went beyond the Volok to get the 5,000 
roubles which Novgorod had imposed on the country beyond the 
Volok^ for it was the men from beyond the Volok who had been to 
the Volga. 

A.D. 1387. A.M. 6895. They raised an earth rampart round the 
commercial side. The same year Vladyka 
Alexei blessed all Novgorod to build up a town^ of stone at Porkhov ; 
and the men of Novgorod sent Ivan Fedorovich and Fatian Esifo- 
vich, and they built the town of Porkhov in stone. 

In the winter of the same year Knyaz Vasili Dmitrievich, son of 
the Veliki Knyaz, came away from the Horde. 

A.D. 1388. A.M. 6896. Vladyka Alexei resigned voluntarily the 
Archbishopric, retiring to the monastery of 
the Holy Resurrection on the Derevyanitsa on the Vladyka's 
mid- way festival^; having blessed his children, the Posadnik 
and Tysyatskis and all Novgorod, having sat in the House of St. 

1 Zavolochkaya zemlya, Dvinskaya zeinlya, sc. the basin of the N. Dvina, N.E. 
Russia generally. 
* sc. town-wall. 
^ i.e., half-way between Easter and Pentecost. 

M 



162 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Sophia thirty years short of one year and five months, and all 
Novgorod entreated him much to remain in the House of St. Sophia 
until they should know who would be Metropolitan of the Russian 
Land, but he did not listen to them, but blessed them, saying: 
" Select for yourselves three men [one of] whom God will give you." 
And the men of Novgorod did so. And after much deliberation the 
Posadnik and the Tysyatski and all Novgorod, and the Igumens 
and the priests would not make a choice for themselves from men, 
but decided to receive advice from God, and to trust in His mercy, 
and selected three men: loan, Igumen of St. Saviour from Khutin, 
Parfeni, Igumen of the Holy Annunciation, and Afanasi, Igumen 
of the Holy Nativity, and they placed three lots on the altar in St. 
Sophia, resolving thus: " Whomever God and St. Sophia shall 
desire to serve at Their altar, his lot will they leave on Their altar." 
And the priests began to sing the midday service, and the men of 
Novgorod held a Veche at St. Sophia, and at the end of the service 
the arch-priest Ismaelo brought out the lot of Afanasi, then that of 
Parfeni; and God and St. Sophia and God's altar chose the good, 
humble and meek loan, Igumen of St. Saviour, leaving his lot on 
their altar; and all Novgorod raised him to the threshold^ with 
honour on May 7, the day of the Ascension of our Lord, the com- 
memoration day of the Holy Father Pakhomi. There was at that 
time no Metropolitan in the Russian Land. 

The same autumn at midnight of October 26, a southerly wind 
arose and drove the ice from the lake into the Volkov, which broke 
away nine stays of the great bridge. 

Also God did not wish to see bloodshed between brothers at the 
prompting of the devil; for three of the quarters of the St. Sophia 
side rose against Posadnik Esif Zakharinich, and summoning a 
Veche at St. Sophia, they went like a large army, every one armed, 
to his dwelling, and took his house and demolished his rooms. And 
Posadnik Esif fled across the river to the Carpenters' quarter^ ; and the 
entire commercial side rose in his favour, and began to strip^ people, 
and to beat off the ferry-men from the shore, and to cut up the vessels, 
and so they were without peace for two weeks, and then they came to- 
gether in love. And they gave the Posadnik-ship to Vasili Ivanovich. 

The same autumn, on December 8, Vladyka Ivan* went to Moscow, 

icf. p. 123. 

* Plotniki. 
' sc. rob. 

* loan, John. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 163 

summoned by envoys of the Metropolitan, for confirmation in the 
Archbishopric, and with him went the Boyars of Novgorod: Posadnik 
Vasih Fedorovich, and the Tysyatski Efim Faleleyevich, Yev 
Obakunovich, Timofei Evanovich, and many other Boyars; and he 
arrived in Moscow on January 10; and Ivan was estabhshed Vladyka 
of Novgorod on January 17, on the day of the Naming of the Church 
of the Holy and Great Archistrategos Michael, on Sunday, the day 
of the Holy Father Antony, by the most reverend the Metropolitan 
Pimen of all Russia. And Vladyka Danilo of Smolensk and the 
Vladyka of Ryazan were at the confirmation. And they made 
high festival on that day with laudations and chants in the presence 
of the Veliki Knyaz Dmitri Ivanovich, and he returned to Novgorod 
on February 8, on Pharisees' Sunday, the day of the Holy Father 
Parfeni, and the Igumens and priests of the Slavno quarter, the 
Posadnik, the Tysyatski, and all Novgorod met him with crosses; 
and they rejoiced with great gladness on that day for their Vladyka. 

A.D. 1389. A.M. 6897. The Veliki Knyaz Dmitri Ivanovich died in 
Moscow on May 9, the day of the Holy 
Prophet Isaiah. 

And in that spring there was a great plague in Pskov, the symp- 
toms being in the glands. Vladyka Ivan went in the same spring to 
Pskov, and through his prayers the plague ceased in Pskov, and 
Vladyka Ivan returned to Novgorod, and all those with him, in 
good health. 

The same year Posadnik Grigori Yakunovich erected the stone 
Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God at the gate. 

The same year Knyaz Simeon Olgerdovich came to Novgorod on 
the day of the Assumption of the H0I3' Mother of God, and the men 
of Novgorod received him with honour. 

The same winter Alexei, Vladyka of Novgorod, died, on February 
3, on the day of St. Simeon, the Accepted of God. 

A.D. 1390. A.M. 6898. Knyaz Vasili Dmitrievich took his seat on 
the throne of the Veliki Knyaz, and the 
men of Novgorod took peace with him on the old terms. The same 
year the men of Novgorod went to a conference with the Nemtsy, 
but did not take peace. And the men of Novgorod went to war with 
Pskov, and the men of Pskov beat with their foreheads to Novgorod 
and took peace ; and they returned from [the village of] Soltsa. 
The same year they erected a stone church to Holy Tsar Kostvan- 

* M2 



164 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

tin and his mother Olena/ and Vladyka Ivan consecrated it; and 
they established a new monastery of St. Nikola at the end of 
Lyudgoshcha and Chudinets Streets by the cemetery. 

The same autumn there was a great plague in Novgorod; all this 
came upon us because of our sins; a great number of Christians died 
in all the streets. And this was the symptom in people : a swelling 
would appear, and having lived three days [the man] would die. 
Then they erected a church to St. Afanasi in a single day, and 
Vladyka loan, Vladyka of Novgorod, consecrated it, with all the 
Igumens and priests and with the choir of St. Sophia; so by God's 
mercy and the intercession of St. Sophia, and by the blessing of the 
Vladyka, the plague ceased. 

The same winter the Church of St. Dmitri in Danislav Street was 
burnt down with all the images, and books and all the church stores, 
and very much property was burnt, for the fire took on rapidly. 

A.D. 1391. A.M. 6899. There was a fire, and it went from Borkova 
Street up to the [stream] Gzen,^ and on the 
other side of the river from Mikitin Street to Rodokovitsi [street] ; 
eight wooden churches were completely and three stone churches 
partially burnt, and fourteen men, women and children perished 
on June 5, the day of the holy Martyr Dorofei. On the 21st of 
the same month, the day of the holy Martyr Ulyan, a fire broke out 
in Prussian Street at the Church of the Presentation of the Holy 
Mother of God, and the whole of the Lyudin quarter was burnt up 
to St. Alexei, when seven wooden churches were completely and four 
stone churches partially burnt. 

The same autumn the men of Novgorod sent envoys to a con- 
ference with the Nemtsy at Izborsk: Posadnik Vasili Fedorovich, 
Posadnik Bogdan Obakunovich, Posadnik Fedor Timofeyevich, the 
Tysyatski Esif Faleleyevich, Vasili Borisovich, and merchants; 
and the envoys of the Ne77itsy came from over sea from the town of 
Lubek, from the Goth coast, ^ from Riga, Yurev,^ Kolyvan,^ and 
from many other towns; then they took peace with the Nemtsy. 

The same winter the same envoys of the Nemtsy came to Novgorod, 
and took their merchandise; and kissed the Cross, and began to 

* Constantine and Helena. 
2 In Novgorod. 

* sc. Gothland. 

* Dorpat. 

* Yuvev Nemetshi or Revel. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 165 

build their court anew, because for seven years tliere had been no 
stable peace. 

The same winter the Metropolitan Kiprian came to Novgorod; 
and Vladyka loan met him at St. Saviour's in Ilya Street with crosses 
with the Igumens and priests, and with many Christians; and he 
stayed two weeks in Novgorod: he spoke much to Novgorod that 
they should tear up the charter^ which the men of Novgorod had 
concluded, not to be summoned by the Metropolitan to Moscow. 
And Novgorod did not accept his word, and they did not tear up the 
charter, and the Metropolitan departed from Novgorod, nursing 
great displeasure against Novgorod. 

A.D. 1392. A.M. 6900. Yuri Ontsiforovich erected a church to the 
Assumption of the Holy Mother of God and 
established a monastery. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Dmitrievich came away 
from the Horde, and took Nizhni Novgorod and took away the 
Knyazes and their wives as hostages. And Knyaz Simeon fled to 
the Horde. 

The same year some A'emisy- pirates came from over sea into the 
Neva, taking the villages on both sides of the river to within five 
versts of the town of Oreshek.^ And Knyaz Simeon with the towns- 
men coming upon them, killed some and scattered others and 
brought captive interpreters to Novgorod; and then he went to his 
kinsmen in Lithuania, abandoning the town. 

The same year they raised an earth rampart round the com- 
mercial side. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Dmitrievich went to the 
Horde summoned by the Tsar. 

The same year Posadnik Bogdan Obakunovich with his brothers 
and men of his street erected a stone Church to St. Simeon in 
Chudinets Street and it was consecrated on his festival day. 

The same year, in the month of June, Posadnik Vasili Fedorovich 
died after entering the monastic order, and they laid him in St. 
Nikola's. The same autumn Posadnik Mikhail Danilovich died, 
having entered the monastic order. 

A.D. 1393. A.M. 6901. The Veliki Knyaz Vasili Dmitrievich broke 
the peace with Great Novgorod'^ about the 

' sc. treaty, graniota- 

^ Here probably Swedish. 

3 Orekhov. 

* Veliki Novgorod. 



166 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

charter which Great Novgorod had written,^ not to be summoned 
by the Metropohtan to Moscow, saying thus: " that you send the 
charter back to the Metropohtan, and as regards your having kissed 
[the Cross] the Metropohtan will absolve you from the sin." And 
Great Novgorod would not have that, and the Veliki Knyaz took 
from Novgorod the neighbouring town of Torzhok and its dis- 
tricts, Volok-Lamsk, and Vologda, and ravaged many districts. 
And the men of Novgorod took the town of Ustyug, Ustyuzhna, 
and many other districts from the Veliki Knyaz, and there was 
much bloodshed at that time on both sides. And the men of Nov- 
gorod not wishing to see more bloodshed between Christians, sent 
envoys to the Veliki Knyaz with a petition for the old terms, and 
they sent the sworn charter to the Metropohtan, and the Metro- 
politan sent word: " I accept your sworn charter, and absolve you 
from your sin, and bless you." And the Veliki Knyaz received the 
petition of Novgorod and took peace on the old terms. 

They erected a stone church on the Lisitsa Hill- to the Holy 
Mother of God. 

Knyaz Vitovt Kestutievich took his seat as Knyaz in Lithuania, 
and the men of Novgorod took peace with him on the old terms. 

Knyaz Kost}'antin Belozerski came to Novgorod, and they 
received him. 

A.D. 1394. A.M. 6902. The people of Danislav [Street] erected a 
stone church to St. Dmitri and Vladyka 
Ivan consecrated it on his festival day. 

The same year the men of Novgorod went to war against Pskov 
and stood before the town for a week ; and during that time a fight 
occurred in a raid of the men of Novgorod on the men of Pleskov, 
and there they killed Knyaz Ivan of Koporya and Vasili Fedorovich, 
and God knows who else fell on both sides, and the men of Novgorod 
withdrew from the town, at enmity with the men of Pleskov. 

At that time the men of Novgorod took away the Posadnik-shv^ 
from Esif Zakharinich and gave it to Bogdan Obakunovich. 

The same autumn the Vladyka' s Court and adjacent premises 
were burnt down; and many streets outside the town were also 
burnt down; the top of St. Sophia was partly burnt; eight stone 
churches were partly, and two wooden churches completely burnt. 
They erected a wooden Church of St. Saviour at the end of Kuzma- 
Demyan Street, and estabhshed a monastery. 

1 sc. had concluded, and possessed. 

2 "Fox's hill." 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 167 

Knyaz Andrei arrived with envoys from Pskov, and left Novgorod 
without taking peace. Vladyka Mikhail of Bethlehem arrived from 
Tsargrad^ sent by the Patriarch Antoni, bringing to Novgorod two 
charters- of instructions for Christians. 

A.D. 1395. A.M. G903. The Metropohtan Kiprian came to Novgorod 
with the Patriarch's envoy during the Great 
Fast, and demanded the right of jurisdiction, but the men of Nov- 
gorod refused him. He stayed throughout the whole spring in 
Novgorod up to Peter's Fast,^ and Vladyka Ivan gave great honour 
to the Metropolitan and to the Patriarch's envoy. And the Metro- 
politan Kiprian on departing from Novgorod blessed his son the 
Vladyka loan and all Great Novgorod.* 

The same 3'ear Isak Onkifov^ erected a stone church to the Feast 
of St. Mikhail in the Arkadi monastery. 

Nemtsy Svea^ came to the new town of Yam" and retired; 
and Knyaz Kostyantin with the townsmen killed some of them; 
the rest took to flight. 

The same autumn Knyaz ^^itovt of Lithuania took the town of 
Smolensk and placed his lieutenant there, and Knyaz Yuri Svyatos- 
lavich fled to Ryazan. 

A.D. 1396. A.M. 6904. Vladyka Ivan went to Moscow to the Metro- 
politan Kiprian, summoned by the Metro- 
politan, and remained in Moscow two days, and the Metropolitan 
immediately let him go with his blessing and with honour, and he 
returned to Novgorod on Tuesday in Holy Week. 

The same year the Nemtsy came to the Korel country, and ravaged 
the Kyur and the Kyulola villages, and burned the church; and 
Knyaz Kostyantin pursued them with the Korel people and cap- 
tured the native interpreters and sent them to Novgorod. 

The whole Ontonov monastery was burnt, and the Church of the 
Holy Mother of God, which had been leaded, was destroyed by fire, 
also the Church of the Purification. 

There was a sign from the image of the Holy Sovereign Lady in St. 
Eupati'sin Shcherkova Street: wine appeared to flow from the ikon. 

1 Constantinople. 

2 Gramoty, sc. books. 

3 In June. 

* Veliki Novgorod. 

* sc. Akinf, Hyacinth. 

* Swedes. 

' Yamburg. 



168 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

By order of Vladyka Ivan they covered with lead the top of St. 
Sophia, which had been damaged by fire. The Church of St. loan in 
the Rostkin monastery was burnt, together with the images and 
books. 

The same year Knyaz Vitovt of Lithuania went against Ryazan 
and ravaged its districts. 

A.D. 1397. A.M. 6905. Isak Onkifov erected a stone Church of the 
Birth of the Holy Mother of God in the 
Desyatina. The same year envoys came from Pskov to Great 
Novgorod: Knyaz Grigori Ostafievicii, Posadnik Sysoi, Posadnik 
Roman, Philip Kozachkovich, with their friends, and they beat 
with their foreheads to the Lord^ Vladyka of the Great Novgorod, 
Vladyka loan: "That thou, Lord, shouldst bless thy children of 
Great Novgorod, that our Lord the Great Novgorod might forgive 
his displeasure, and receive us on the old terms." And Vladyka 
loan blessed Great Novgorod, his children: " That you, my children, 
accept my blessing and forgive the men of Pskov your displeasure, 
and receive back your younger brothers on the old terms; for you 
see, my children, the last days, you should all be as one brother in 
Christianity." And Posadnik Timofei Yurievich, the Tysyatski 
Mikita Fedorovich and all the Posadniks and Tysyatskis, the Boyars 
and the whole Great Novgorod received the blessing of their Lord 
Father Vladyka Ivan, and they withdrew their displeasure from the 
men of Pskov, and took peace on the old terms, on the 18th day of 
June, the day of the holy Martyr Lentei.^ Because there had not 
been peace for four years, and there was gladness and rejoicing 
among the Christians, and the devil seeing the good of the Chris- 
tians, lamented, seeing himself discomfited, and the foes of the 
Christians were obscured. 

After this Knyaz Vasili Ivanovich of Smolensk arrived in Nov- 
gorod and they received him. 

After this a fire broke out in Shcherkova Street opposite the 
[Church of the] Forty Saints; and the whole of Shcherkova Street 
along the quay was burnt, also the Yanev quay, except three 
houses, and the whole of Rozvazha quay, the whole of the Kuzma- 
Demyan quay, and as far as Kholop Street, on the day of the Holy 
Martyr Andrew Stratilat.^ 

The same autumn the Nenitsy came and took seven villages of the 

* Gospodin. 

* Leonti. 

* Stratelates, August 31. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 169 

Yam town^ and burned them. The Church of the Exaltation- was 
burnt with all the pictures and books. And then Posadnik Esif 
Faleleyevich died, having entered the monastic order. Knyaz 
Patriki Narimantovich arrived in Nov^gorod and they received him. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Dmitrievich sent his Boyars, 
Andrei Alberdov with others, to the whole Dvina colony'^ beyond the 
Fo/oA,* saying thus: " That you should give allegiance to the Veliki 
Knyaz and leave Novgorod; and the Veliki Knyaz will defend you 
against Novgorod and will stand up for you." And the men of the 
Dvina, Ivan Mikitin, the iJo^'ars of the Dvina, and all the people of the 
Dvina gave their allegiance to the Veliki Knyaz and kissed the Cross 
to the Veliki Knyaz; and the Veliki Knyaz against his kissing of the 
Cross to Novgorod seized Volok-Lamsk with its districts, Torzhok and 
its districts, Vologda and Bezhitsy ; and then put off from himself his 
kissing of the Cross to Novgorod and threw up the sworn charter. And 
the men of Novgorod put off from themselves their kissing of the 
Cross, and threw up the charter they had sworn to the Veliki Knyaz. 

And after this the Metropolitan Kiprian sent his bailiff Kliment 
to Great Novgorod to his son Vladyka Ivan, saying thus: " Come 
to Moscow, thy Father the Metropolitan summons thee on sacred 
business." And the Vladyka let the Metropolitan's Boyar go back 
to Moscow, and himself resolved to go to his Father the Metropoli- 
tan; and the Posadnik, \.]ieTysyatski,d,n6. the w'hole of Great Nov- 
gorod, beat with their foreheads to their Father the Lord Vladyka 
loan: " That thou give a good word and thy blessing to the Veliki 
Knyaz, for thy children, for Great Novgorod." 

And the men of Novgorod sent as envoys to the Veliki Knyaz 
Posadnik Bogdan Obakunovich, Kyuril Dmitrievich, and other men 
of substance, with their Father the Vladyka. 

And Vladyka loan gave to the Veliki Knyaz his good word and 
blessing, and the envoys from Novgorod a petition, saying thus: 
" That thou, my Lord and son, Veliki Knyaz, receive my benediction 
and good word, and the petition of Novgorod; that thou withdraw 
thy displeasure from thy free men of Novgorod, and receive them 
on the old terms; that there be no more shedding of blood among 
Christians, my son, during thy reign. And what thou hast taken 
from Novgorod against thy kissing of the Cross, the country beyond 

1 Yamburg. 

2 Of the Cross. 

3 Slohoda. 

* Volok Dvinsk, in N. Russia. See Introduction, pp. ix, x, etc. 



170 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

the Voloh}, Torzhok, Vologda and Bezhitsy, that thou give up all 
that, and that it come to Novgorod as of old. And as regards the 
common jurisdiction on the borderland, forego, my son, that, for 
that, Lord Veliki Knyaz, is not the old custom." 

And the Veliki Knyaz would not except the blessing and the good 
word of the Vladyka, nor the petition from the Novgorod envoys; 
and he did not withdraw from Novgorod his displeasure, anji he 
granted no peace, but the Metropolitan Kiprian dismissed his son 
Vladyka loan with honour and with his blessing. 
A.D. 1398. A.M. 6906. In the spring, after Easter, the men of 
Novgorod said to their Lord Father Vladyka 
Ivan: "We cannot. Lord Father, endure this violence of our 
Veliki Knyaz Vasili Dmitrievich; that he has taken the surround- 
ing villages and districts away from Novgorod, and from St. Sophia, 
which belonged to our fathers and grandfathers; but intend to 
recover the outlying parts and districts of St. Sophia which be- 
longed to our fathers and grandfathers." And they kissed the 
Cross to stand as one man how to recover the outlying parts and 
districts of St. Sophia and Great Novgorod. And Posadnik Timofei 
Yurievich, Posadnik Yuri Dmitrievich, Vasih Borisovich, the 
Boyars, the sons of Boyars, the men of substance, the sons of mer- 
chants, and all their soldiers beat with their foreheads: " Bless, O 
Lord Father Vladyka, our attempt to recover the outlying parts and 
districts of St. Sophia; we shall either recover our patrimony for 
St. Sophia and for Great Novgorod, or we shall lay down our heads 
for St. Sophia and for our Lord Great Novgorod.^" And Vladyka 
Ivan blessed his children and the Voyevodas of Novgorod and all the 
soldiers, and Novgorod sent forth its brothers, saying to them 
thus: " Go, seek the outlying parts and the districts of St. Sophia 
and our patrimony." And the Voyevodas of Novgorod, Posadnik 
Timofei, Posadnik Yuri, and Vasili and all the soldiers went off to 
the Dvina beyond the Volok, to Orlets town, and there met them 
coming from the Vel district the Vladyka's superintendent Isai, 
saying to them thus: " Sirs, Voyevodas of Novgorod, the Veliki 
Knyaz' s Boyar Andrei, with Ivan Mikitin and with the Dvina 
men, having invaded the Vel district of St. Sophia on Easter Day, 
they ravaged the St. Sophia district and levied a poll tax; and 
Knyaz Fedor of Rostov has come from the Veliki Knyaz with a 
column of troops to keep garrison on the Dvina to guard the town, 

1 sc. the country of the N. Dvina. See Introduction, p. ix, etc. 
* Gospodin Veliki Novgorod. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 171 

to hold judgment and to levy taxes on the Novgorod districts; and 
the captains of the Dvina, Ivan and Konon, with their friends, 
have divided the Novgorod districts and Boyars amongst them- 
selves." And the Voyevodas of Novgorod having heard this, 
said to their brother Voyevodas: " Since our Lord the Veliki Knyaz 
has done this in concert with the covenant-breaking Dyina.V oyevodas , 
better were it for us, brothers, to die for St. Sophia than to suffer 
wrong at the hands of our Veliki Knyaz." And they went against 
the Belo-Ozero^ districts of the Veliki Knyaz and took the Belo- 
Ozero districts by assault, after ravaging and firing them; and burnt 
the old town of Belozersk, and the Knyazes of Belozersk and the 
Voyevodas of the Veliki Knyaz came out from the new town, and 
beat with their foreheads to the Novgorod Voyevodas and all the 
soldiers, and they took from them a ransom of sixty roubles, and 
they took countless plunder and took a countless quantity of cattle; 
and ravaged the Kubensk districts and ravaged around Vologda, 
and ravaged and burnt the town of Ustyug, and they remained at 
Ustyug four weeks. 

And then the Voyevodas sent Dmitri Ivanovich, Ivan Bogdanovich, 
and with them sons of Boyars, and they ravaged the districts of the 
Veliki Knyaz to within one day of Galich,- and they ravaged and 
burnt the districts, and took a countless number of captives and 
they took ransom for the captives because their boats would not 
hold them, and other plunder they threw away. And thence they 
went along the Dvina to the town of Orlets, ravaging the districts of 
the Veliki Knyaz, and coming to Orlets town they stood before it 
four weeks, and set up battering rams, and invested the town, and 
began to batter with them. And the Dvina men came from out 
of the town and began to beat with their foreheads with lamenta- 
tion to the Voyevodas and to all the Novgorod soldiers. 

And the Novgorod Voyevodas and all the soldiers, at the word of 
their Lord Novgorod, accepted the petition of the Dvina men and 
forgave them their displeasure, and seized the Voyevodas of the 
country beyond the Volok, Ivan and Konon with their friends, and 
others they punished with death ; and they put Ivan and his brother 
Afanasi, Gerasim and Radivon in fetters who had led the Dvina 
country into evil. And from Knyaz Fedor of Rostov they took 
away the fines or taxes which he had used to raise, but gave him and 
his friends their lives. And from the merchants of the Veliki 

1 " White-Lake." 

2 Galich Meriazhshi, town in N. Russia. 



172 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Knyaz tliey took a ransom of 300 roubles per head, and from the 
people of the Dvina, for their defection and their fault, the Voyevodas 
and all the soldiers of Novgorod took 2,000 roubles, and 3,000 horses, 
for there were 3,000 of the men of Novgorod, or less. O merciful 
God ! to have traversed so much Russian Land, and at such a 
strong town as this, there was no harm done to the people^; one man 
alone was killed from the town : the young Boyar Levushka, son of 
Posadnik Fedor; but the town they plundered. 

Vladyka loan, Vladyka of Novgorod, erected a church of stone by 
the gates, to the Holy Resurrection, and consecrated it himself 
with the priests and the choir of St. Sophia. Mikhail Krupa 
erected a church of stone to St. Nikola in Chudinets Street in the 
Lyudgoshcha quarter. 

The same autumn with the blessing of Vladyka Ivan envoys went 
from Novgorod to the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Dmitrievich: the Archi- 
mandrite Parfeni, Posadnik Esif Zakharinich, the Tysyatski Anani 
Kostyantinovich, and the men of substance, Grigori and David, and 
they took peace with the Veliki Knyaz on the old terms. 

The same winter the Voyevodas of Novgorod, Posadnik Timofei, 
Posadnik Yuri, and Boyars and sons of Boyars and all the soldiers 
returned to Novgorod sound and well, and the men of Novgorod 
were glad of their brothers ; and they threw the traitor Ivan Mikitin 
from the bridge; and Gerasim and Radivon beat with their foreheads 
to their Lord Great Novgorod with lamentation, and Novgorod 
granted them their lives, and they had themselves shorn into the 
monastic order ; but Alfan- escaped on the way. 

A.D. 1399. A.M. 6907. KnyazViiovt Kestutievich of Lithuania sent 
to Novgorod a declaration of war saying 
thus: " You have dishonoured me; you were to have stood by me, 
and I was to have been your Veliki Knyaz, and I was to have pro- 
tected you; whereas you have not stood by me." And the men of 
Novgorod sent back the declaration of war from them to Knyaz 
Vitovt. 

The same year for our sins a fire broke out in the Lyubyanitsa 
[Street], and the Carpenters' quarter^ was burnt up to the Fedor 
stream; and the whole Slavno quarter was burnt, and twenty-two 
stone churches were partially burnt, and five side-chapels, and one 

^ i.e. " and to have suffered no harm in the siege of so strong a town." 
2 Or Anfailo. 
^ Plotniki. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 173 

wooden church, and how many persons were burnt God knows, and 
some were drowned in the Volkhov, on the day of the holy Martyr 
Memnon.^ So fierce was the fire, with a hurricane, that it swept 
burning over the water. 

Knyaz Andrei Dmitrievich, brother of the Veliki Knyaz Vasili, 
came to Novgorod on the day of the holy Father Osif, Vladyka of 
Selun,- and he stayed in Novgorod from Volodimir Day to St. 
Simon the Summer-speeder's Day,^ and he departed from Novgorod 
and the Vladyka loan, the Posadnik and the Boyars gave the Knyaz 
great honour. 

The Veliki Knyaz Mikhail Olexandrovich of Tver died, in the 
month of August, having taken the monastic order, and they laid 
him in the Church of St. Saviour. 

The same year the Vladyka of Novgorod, Vladyka loan, with his 
sons the men of Novgorod erected a church of stone of the Inter- 
cession of the Holy Mother of God, in Zverinets,* and Vladyka loan 
himself with the priests and the choir of St. Sophia consecrated it 
on October 1, the day of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God. 
O most Immaculate Sovereign Mother of God, Mother of Christ our 
God, keep Thy church steadfast in Thy name, O Lady, holy and 
indestructible to the end of the whole world ! Accept, Sovereign 
Lady, the prayer of Thy slave Vladyka loan, granting him Thy 
grace and Thy spiritual blessing as shepherd of Christ's talking 
flock; and grant him. Sovereign Lady, long life with all his children, 
the men of Novgorod, together with those who have served Thy holy 
house. Sovereign Lady; and in the world to come help. Sovereign 
Lady, to place him by Thy great mercy at the right hand of Thy son 
our God ! 

The same year the Tartar Tsar Temir Kutlui sent his envoys to 
Knyaz Vitovt Kestutievich of Lithuania saying thus: " Deliver to 
me our fugitive Tsar Takhtomysh; and whatsoever he may have 
about him, that is thine." And Knyaz Vitovt having heard this 
replied to the Tsar's envoy : " I will not deliver up Tsar Takhtomysh ; 
but I wish to meet the Tsar." And Knyaz Vitovt went with all his 
Knyazes and with all the forces of Lithuania against the Tsar 
Temir Kutlui ; and reaching the Vorskla he halted there in the Tartar 
country. 

1 September 1. 

2 Joseph, Bishop of Salonika, February 7. 

3 July 27- September 13. 
* Near Novgorod. 



174 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

And the Tsar, having heard of the arrival of Knyaz Vitovt, sent 
envoys to him with a last word: " Inasmuch as thou hast come to 
fight us, and hast refused to deliver up the fugitive Tsar, and we have 
not encroached on thy lands, nor taken from thee any of thy towns 
or villages; therefore, let God and the truth be for all of us."^ 

And so both armies came into conffict, and there was such a fierce 
battle as had never been between Lithuania and the Tartars. And 
no small disaster befell the children of Lithuania for their sins; and 
here they killed the Veliki Knyaz Andrei Olgerdovich and his brother 
Knyaz Mikhail Evnutievich in the encounter, and in all seventy- 
four noble Knyazes; and of Voyevodas and other Lithuanians who 
laid their bones there, only God knows the number; and Knyaz 
Vitovt seeing this turned and fled, and the Tartars followed in pur- 
suit of them for 500 versts,^ as far as the town of Kiev, and from the 
town of Kiev they took a ransom of 500 roubles, and set their own 
lieutenants there; and they took from the Pechersk monastery a 
ransom of thirty roubles. For thus did God bring the pagan 
Tartars upon the land of Lithuania because of the pride of their 
Knyaz; for God had given Vitovt to the land of Lithuania as its 
Veliki Knyaz, for the sins of the Christians. For Knyaz Vitovt had 
previously been a Christian, and his name was Alexander, but he 
renounced the Orthodox faith and Christianity, and adopted the 
Polish^ faith, and perverted the holy churches into service that is 
hateful to God, and he thought thus: he would conquer the Russian 
Land and Novgorod and Pskov, but he thought not of the Lord 
saying through the Prophet, how: " One shall reap a thousand; and 
two shall move ten thousand." If God be for the Christians, who 
shall come against us? And this battle was on the 5th day of 
August, on the eve of St. Saviour's, the day of the holy Martyr 
Eusegni. 

The same autumn there was a darkening of the sun; and there 
was darkness, and the sun disappeared, and the form of a scythe 
appeared in the sky, and then the sun appeared emitting blood-red 
rays with smoke, in the month of October, on the day of the holy 
Martyr Anastasia.* 

The same winter Vladyka loan went to Pskov on visitation, and 
the men of Pskov gave great honour to their Lord father Vladyka 

1 sc. judge between us. 

2 About 330 miles. 

3 Lyadskaya vera; Lyakh, a Pole. 

* November 11. • 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 175 

loan; and they gave him jurisdiction to judge for a month, as of 
old. And Vladyka loan left for Novgorod, and blessed his children, 
the men of Pskov. 

A.D. 1400. A.M. 6908. Vladyka loan laid the foundation of the 
Detineh^ wall from [the Church of] SS. Boris 
and Gleb in the month of July, on the Commemoration Day of the 
holy Martyr Golendukha [and the Church of] the Holy Resurrection 
at the gate was freshly painted by order of Vladyka loan. They 
erected a stone church in Yanev Street to Tsar Kostyantin and his 
mother Olena,^ and it was consecrated by Vladyka loan. 

The same autumn Klimenti Vasilievich, Posadnik's son, went as 
envoy from Novgorod to Lithuania to Knyaz Vitovt, and took 
peace on the old terms. 

A.D. 1401. A.M. 6909. Vladyka loan went to Moscow from Nov- 
gorod to the Metropolitan Kiprian, sum- 
moned by him on ecclesiastical business, on Wednesday of the 
fourth week in Lent, March 6, and the MetropoHtan received him. 

The same autumn the Vladyka s town at Molvotitsy was burnt. 

The same year against the peace and against their kissing of the 
Cross, by order of the Veliki Knyaz, Anfal Mikitin and Gerasim 
Rostriga with a force of the Veliki Knyaz came against the Dvina 
beyond the Volok; and took all the Dvina country by assault by 
surprise, on St. Peter's Day,^ hanged some of the Christians and 
slew others, and took their cattle and their belongings. They 
seized Ondrei Ivanovich and the Posadniks of the Dvina, Esip 
Filipovich and Naum Ivanovich. And Stepan Ivanovich, his 
brother Mikhail, and Mikita Golovna collecting around them the Vod 
people, and overtaking Anfailo and Gerasim fought them at Kol- 
mogory and recovered from them the Novgorod Boyars Andrei, 
Esif and Naum. At the same time the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Dmitrie- 
vich sent his Boyars Alexander Pol and Ivan Narin, with a body of 
300 men, against Torzhok; they seized Simeon Vasilievich and 
Mikhail Felilatov, against their kissing of the Cross, and took their 
property out of St. Saviour's. 

The same autumn the people of Smolensk accepted Yuri Svyatos- 
lavich as their Knyaz, and killed Knyaz Roman of Bryansk, lieu- 
tenant of Knyaz Vitovt. And Knyaz Vitovt came to Smolensk with 

1 Citadel. 

* Constantine and Helena. 

3 July 11. 



176 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

all the forces of Lithuania, and remained by the town for four weeks, 
and they beat on the town with guns [sic] and he withdrew from the 
town and took peace with Knyaz Yuri on the old terms. And the 
people of Smolensk with their Knyaz Yuri put to death those of 
their Boyars who had been in secret communication with Knyaz 
Vitovt. ^ 

A.D. 1402. A.M. 6910. There was a sign in the sky, a tailed star, 
having a bright ray in the west, which 
lasted all the month of March. 

Knyaz Roslav^ Olgovich of Ryazan ravaged the country of 
Lithuania, and Knyaz Simeon Olgerdovich attacked him, captured 
Knyaz Roslav and led him to Knyaz Vitovt, and destroyed his 
force and captured some of them. 

The men of Novgorod took peace with Knyaz Yuri of Smolensk. 
Knyaz Oleg of Ryazan died. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Vasili let Simeon and Mikhail, 
the two men of Novgorod whom he had seized, go from Moscow 
back to Novgorod. 

The Chudinets quarter erected a stone Church of the Decapitation 
of St. loan the Forerunner, and the Chernichinets quarter erected 
a stone church to St. Barbara, and the three sons of Posadnik 
Kyuril Ondreyanovich built a side chapel to St. Mikhail in Prussian 
Street. 

And this winter from St. Georgi's Day up to March, horses could 
go over the Volkhov. 

A.D. 1403. A.M. 6911. The Novgorod merchant-butchers erected 
in [the town of] Russa a stone church to SS. 
Boris and Gleb. The Carpenters' quarter^ as far as Slavkova 
Street was burnt, and Rogatitsa [Street] as far as St. Eupati, the 
Lyubyanitsa [Street] as far as St. Luke, and the entire Slavno quar- 
ter, and fifteen stone churches were partially burnt; the fire oc- 
curred on August 16, the Day of the Holy Effigy; but the Knyaz 
quay and the Gothic^ Court did not catch fire. 

Knyaz Simeon Olgerdovich took the towns of Smolensk and 
Vyazma, and he captured the Knyazes Ivan Svyatoslavich and 
Alexander Mikhailovich. 

The same year there was a plague with swellings in Pskov, and 

1 Rodislav. 

2 Plotniki. 

* i.e. Hanseatic. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 177 

the stone Church of St. Dmitri was burnt throughout; the ikotis 
and books and much property were burnt. 

A.D. 1404. A.M. 6912. Knyaz Vitovt of Lithuania came with all 
his forces up to the town of Smolensk and 
remained near the town three months, and withdrew. 

Vladyka loan arrived in Novgorod on the 15th day of July, having 
been with the Metropolitan Kiprian in Moscow three years and 
four months; and Igumens and priests and the choir of St. Sophia 
and all Novgorod met him in Novgorod at St. Nikola in Yaroslav 
Court with crosses; and there was great rejoicing over their Vladyka. 

The same year Knyaz Yuri Svyatoslavich went from Smolensk to 
Moscow to bow to the Veliki Knyaz Vasili that he might defend him 
from the Veliki Knyaz Vitovt; and at that time traitors delivered 
over the town of Smolensk to the Lithuanian Knyaz Vitovt; on 
hearing that his town was taken, Knyaz Yuri of Smolensk came to 
Novgorod and the men of Novgorod received him. 

A.D. 1405. A.M. 6913. In Yanev Street fifteen houses were burnt 
and six persons; and then the Lyudin quar- 
ter and Prussian Street as far as St. Mikhail's were burnt, and in the 
Detinets^ the lire extended to the Vladyka s Court; five wooden 
churches were burnt and two of stone were partially burnt, and the 
Church of Boris and Gleb was entirely burnt, also thirty people. 

Posadnik Vasili Ivanovich died, having entered the monastic 
order. 

The Lithuanian Knyaz Vitovt took the Pleskov settlement at 
Kolozhe against the peace, and halted at Voronats two days, 
ravaging many of the Pleskov districts, making surprise attacks, and 
killed many Christians, and took others into captivity. 

A.D. 1406. A.M. 6914. Knyaz Peter, brother of the Veliki Knyaz 
Vasili Dmitrievich, came to Novgorod and 
stayed in Novgorod a week and a half. The same year heavy 
ice came from the lake- and broke away a stay of the great bridge, 
on Easter Day, April 11. 

There was a fire in Novgorod in the Knyaz's Court, on the 
commercial side, and six persons perished; the fire extended from 
the Gothic^ Court to Pleskov Court. 

1 Citadel. 

* sc. Lake Ilmen. 

' Hanseatic. 



178 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

The town of Pskov^ was burnt down on the Day of the [Descent 
of the] Holy Ghost; only Dovmont's wall and the Krom- did not 
burn. 

The Metropolitan Kiprian died in Moscow. 

The men of Pskov went to war on Polotsk, and they nearly took 
the town, and after ravaging the districts of Polotsk, they with- 
drew. A Master of Riga,^ named Korto, came up to Pskov with all 
the forces of the Nemtsy, and retired after ravaging the districts. 

Three churches were erected: the Nativity of St. loan the Fore- 
runner, in the Rostkin monastery, SS. Peter and Paul in the Nerev 
quarter, and St. Nikita in the Carpenters' quarter. 

The same autumn Knyaz Yuri left Novgorod for Moscow. 

The same winter the men of Pskov went to ravage the country 
of the 'Nemtsy under the leadership of Knyaz Danilo Alexandrovich, 
lieutenant of the Veliki Knyaz, and the Nemtsy met them beyond 
Novogrodek. And they fought there, and God helped Knyaz 
Danilo and the men of Pskov against the pagan Nemtsy, and they 
pursued them fighting fifteen versts as far as Kiryapiva; they took 
some alive and brought them to Pskov. 

There was then a plague with glands in Pskov. 

A.D. 1407. A.M. 6915. Vladyka Feodul'* of Trebizond came to 
Novgorod from Tsargrad^ for alms. 

On the 6th day of June a great calamity befell : the Nerev quar- 
ter was burnt as far as the town wall, and St. Sophia was entirely 
burnt, and the Vladyka' s Court and Lyudgoshcha Street, and twelve 
churches of stone were partially burnt and six of wood were burnt 
down. 

The men of Pskov invaded the country of the Nemtsy, led by 
Kostyantin, brother of the Veliki Knyaz; and they took their town 
of Porkh, and after ravaging many villages, they went back to Pskov 
and Knyaz Kostyantin went away to Moscow. 

The same year Knyaz Simeon Olgerdovich came to Novgorod, 
and the men of Novgorod gave him the appanages which had been 
his previously. 

The Nemtsy entered the Pskov country and camped at Komen,* 

1 Pskov =rPleskov. 

- A part of Pskov. 

3 sc. of the German Order of Knights. 

■* Theodoulos. 

'•• Constantinople. 

« The town of Kamen-Bely — White Stone. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 179 

short of Pskov. And the men of Pskov coming out of the town 
attacked them, but the Nenitsy defeated the men of Pskov and 
killed three Posadniks of Pskov : Ephrem Kortats, Elentei^ Lubka, 
Penkrat, and many others fell on both sides. And the Nemtsy 
went away, having caused much evil to the Christians ; and there was 
lamentation and not gladness in Pskov. 

Vladyka loan erected a stone church on the [river] Verenda to 
the Transfiguration of St. Saviour and consecrated it himself, and 
he established a monastery. They erected a stone church to St. 
Vlas in the Lyudin quarter. The two cousins, Yuri Dmitrievich, 
the Posadnik, and Yakov, erected a wonderful stone church to 
Mikhail the A rchistrategos of Khony^ in the Arkadi monastery. 

A.D. 1408. A.M. 6916. Knyaz Kostyantin Dmitrievich came to 
Novgorod as heutenant from his brother 
the Veliki Knyaz Vasili. 

Vladyka loan covered St. Sophia with lead and built a large 
gold-topped cupola. 

The same winter Edegei, father-in-law of Shadebeg the Tartar 
Tsar, went with a great force to war against Moscow on November 
23; and the Tsar himself camped before Moscow, and spread his 
troops over the Russian Land, and they took the towns of Pereyas- 
lavl, Rostov, Nizhni-Novgorod, and Serpukhov, and they slew many 
Christians, and took others into captivity. And they ravaged as 
far as Khn, to the boundaries of Tver, cutting down Christians all 
the time like grass ; and took from the town of Moscow a ransom of 
three thousand roubles; and on leaving the Russian Land they took 
the town of Ryazan. 

A.D. 1409. A.M. 6917. Knyaz Danilo died in Pskov, and Posadnik 
Timofei Yurievich in Novgorod. 

Vladyka loan built a house of stone where they bless the water 
every month, also a bakery of stone. 

The same year the men of Pskov took peace with Lithuania and 
with the Nemtsy, having been at war with the Ne^ntsy three years. 

Posadnik Esif Zakharinich died. 

The same winter, on the 30th day of November, the Day of the 
Holy Apostle Andrew, there wa s_.a te rrifying wonder in the Church j 
of St. Mikhail at Skovorodka^^ : there'~wa.S a rloise m the^ome; and j 

* i.e. Leonti. 

2 Khony, near Hierapolis, in Phrygia. 

* Near Novgorod. 

N2 



180 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

the priests and monks of St. Mikhail heard this noise for two days 
and two nights. 

A.D. 1410. A.M. 6918. The Metropohtan Foti^ arrived in Novgorod 
from Tsargrad, appointed by the Patriarch 
Matvei under Tsar Manuel. 

Knyaz Volodimir Andreyevich died in Moscow, and Posadnik 
Yuri Dmitrievich in Novgorod. 

There was a sign from the image of the Holy Mother of God to 
which prayers were offered in the Church of St. Georgi at the end of 
Lubyanka^ Street. 

The same year on the 15th day of July there was a battle^ between 
King Yagailo Olgerdovich, named Volodislav, with the Veliki Knyaz 
Vitovt Kestutievich of Lithuania and the Prussian Nemtsy in their 
country of Prussia between the towns of Dubravna and Ostrod, and 
they killed the Master'* and the Morshold^ and the Kuntury,^ and 
defeated the entire army of the Nemtsy; and took the towns of the 
Nemtsy, only three towns did not surrender to the King and Vitovt. 
The same autumn the Poles^ and the Lithuanians had three battles 
with the Nemtsy, and thrice they defeated the Nemtsy; and in all 
these battles many Christians, both Lithuanians and Poles," were slain 
by the Nemtsy. And they stood before the fortified town of Marien^ 
eight weeks, and took two outlying forts of Marien, but the upper 
third fort they did not take; and they campaigned in the land of 
the Nemtsy eleven and a half weeks. 

The same yea.v Ktiyaz Danilei Borisovich, whose old patrimony was 
Nizhni Novgorod, seized the capital city of Volodimir, taking its 
people captive, and burning it ; and the Tartars stripped the gold- 
topped Church of the Holy Mother of God. 

The same year the Archimandrite Varlam erected a stone church 
in the gateway of Lisitsa monastery, in the name of the most right- 
eous Varlam, Igumen of St. Saviour of Khutin; and in Russa they 
erected two stone churches: to St. Georgi, and to the Annunciation 
of the Mother of God. 

The same year the men of Novgorod began to trade among 

1 Photius. 

* Lyubyanitsa. 

' The battle of Tannenberg. 

* sc. of the Order of Teutonic Knights. 
*• Marshal. 

* Commanders. 
' Lyakhi. 

* Marienburg near Danzig, the capital (since 1307) of the Teutonic order. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 181 

themselves in lopatses^ and Lithuanian groshes and Nemetski artugs,^ 
doing away with kunas,^ in the Posadnik-ship of Grigori Bogdano- 
vich and the Tysyatski Vasih Esifovich. 

On December 21 there was a sign from the image of the holy 
Martyrs Guri, Samon and Aviv, in the Church of St. Sophia. 

The same winter Posadnik Kiril Ondreyanovich died, having 
entered the monastic order, 

Yagailo and Vitovt again went to Marien town, and after defeating 
the forces of the Nemtsy, took peace. 

A.D. 1411. A.M. 6919. The Svei having come to make war took the 
Novgorod town of Tiversk; the men of 
Novgorod went quickly against the Svei only three days after this 
news, with Knyaz Simeon Olgerdovich; and having come to the 
Sveiski country they ravaged and burned their villages, and killed 
many Svei and captured others, and took and burned an outwork 
of Viborg on March 26, the day of the Festival of the Archangel 
Gabriel, and returned to Novgorod with a large number of captives. 
And the Voyevodas of the Novgorod troops were: Posadnik Yuri 
Ontsiforovits, Posadnik Foma Esifovits, Posadnik Alexander 
Fominits, Ivan Danilovits, Gregori Bogdanovits, Ofonos Esifov, 
Posadnik's son, Mikhailo Ivanovits, Posadnik's son, Andrei Ivano- 
vits, Ivan Fedorovits, Posadnik's son, Foma Troshcheikin, Dmitri 
Ivanovits, Esip Philipovits, Avram Stefanovits. 

And the Nemtsy at Viborg killed only one man: Paul of Nutna 
Street. 

Vladyka loan erected a miracle-working church of stone to the 
Holy Confessors. 

By order from Novgorod the Posadnik of the Dvina, Voyevoda 
Yakov Stepanovits went from the country beyond the Volok 
to make war against the Murman people, and ravaged their country. 

The same winter Vladyka loan went to Moscow to the Metropoli- 
tan Foti. 

A.D. 1412. A.M. 6920. They erected a stone church to St. Nikola 
at Porkhov, another of wood to St. Nikola 
by the bridge on the [river] Veryazh, in the monastery, and a third 
of wood to the Holy Trinity at Klopsko.* 

1 Properly lobtsi or lobki, skins of the little foreheads of squirrels, 

* A Swedish copper coin. 
' Squirrel skins. 

* Near Novgorod. 



182 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Lugven^ went away to Lithuania and withdrew the lieutenants 
from the Novgorod townships. 

And Knyaz Vasih of Moscow and Ivan of Tver went to the Horde 
to Tsar Zeleni-Sultan, the son of Takhtamysh. And King Yagailo 
and Vitovt and Lugven^ sent a challenge to Novgorod on January 2. 
And the King and Vitovt spoke thus: " You undertook to be on our 
side ; if the Nemtsy combine against us, you would combine against 
the Nemtsy; and that we should stand as one man together and 
strengthen ourselves on both sides against all chances if this should 
happen; but if this should not be necessary, then nothing would 
come of it; and we moreover sent our Boyars Nemir and Zinovi 
Bratoshich [to find out] whether you stand by the aforesaid word. 
And you replied to Nemir : ' Novgorod cannot do this ; we are at 
peace both with Lithuania and with the Nemtsy. We took over 
Knyaz Lugven^ from amongst you; and with the Nemtsy we have 
taken perpetual peace, and we are at peace with the Ugry people,^ 
and with all on our borders.' And you having forgotten your word 
have not kept it, to be on our side; and besides, your people have 
upbraided us, dishonoured us, and put us to shame, calhng us 
pagans; and above all, you have received our enemy Fedor, the son of 
Yuri Svyatoslavich." 

And Lugv-en^ spoke thus: " You kept me with you and fed me; 
but now it pleases not my elder brethren, the King and Vitovt, and 
it pleases me not because I am with them as one man; and I re- 
nounce the kissing of the Cross." 

And Knyaz Fedor said to the men of Novgorod: " Do not be at 
enmity with Vitovt on my account"; and he went off to the 
Nemtsy. 

A.D. 1413. A.M. 6921. Vladyka loan with the Voyevodas of Nov- 
gorod and their soldiers who had been in 
Viborg, and by Christian help, erected the stone Church of the 
Festival of the Archangel GavriP in Khrevkov Street, and he con- 
secrated it himself on his festival day. And Ivan Morozov erected 
a stone church to the Conception of St. loan the Forerunner in the 
Desyatina. 

Tver was burnt down. 

The same year in the patrimony of Knyaz Andrei Dmitrievich, 
ten versts beyond the town of Mozhaisk, abundant grace and pardon 

1 sc. Knyaz Simeon Olgerdovich. 

2 sc. Hungarians. 

3 £c. Gabriel. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 183 

to people appeared from the image of the Holy Mother of God; 
to the bhnd, the lame, the feeble, the deaf and the dumb; it is not 
possible to name or count them; the mind of man cannot express 
how great is God's love of man and how great is his mercy towards 
men. 

And Vladyka loan went to Pskov. 

A.D. 1414. A.M. 6922. The Metropohtan Foti went to Lithuania 
and Vitovt robbed him. 

The Vladyka s house in the monastery in the Derevyanitsa was 
burnt, and the stone Church of the Holy Mother of God was partially 
burnt, and a man was burnt. 

The same spring envoys from Novgorod went to Lithuania: 
Posadnik Yuri Ontsiforovich, Ofonos^ Fedorovich, Posadnik's 
son, and Fedor Tryablo; and they took peace with Vitovt on the old 
terms. 

There was a heavy sickness among the Christians. 

A fire broke out in the Nerev quarter on August 3, which extended 
from St. Volodimir to the [stream] Gzen; eight stone and five 
wooden churches were burnt. They completed the stone Church of 
St. Euphemia in the Carpenters' quarter- the same autumn. 

Vladyka loan was shorn into the schema."^ Posadnik Kiril Dmi- 
trievich died. The same winter on January 20, Vladyka loan 
retired from the Archbishopric, having occupied the Archbishopric 
thirty years less three. 

A.D. 1415. A.M. 6923. The water flowed backwards.^ 

The Tartars ravaged the country round 
Elets, and Moscow and Smolensk were burnt ; and there was a sign in 
the sun on June 7. 

Posadnik Fedosi Obakunovich died, in the monastic order. They 
erected a Church of the Holy Trinity in the monastery on the 
[river] Vidogoshch. 

The same year the men of Novgorod deliberating in Yaroslav's 
Court, and holding a Veche at St. Sophia, placed three lots with 
their names written on the altar: Samson, monk of St. Saviour at 
Khutin, Mikhail, Igmnen of St. Mikhail at Skovorodka,^ and Lev, 
Igumen of the Holy Mother of God at Kolmovo^; and at the end of 

1 Athanasius. 

2 Plotniki. 
2 cf. p. 34. 

* sc. into the lake, owing to floods lower down. 

* Near Novgorod. 



184 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

the holy service the old Archpriest Vasili brought out to the Veche, 
first Lev's lot, then Mikhail's, and Samson's remained on the altar; 
then Posadnik Ondrei Ivanovich and the Tysyatski Olexander 
Ignatievich with the men of Novgorod, raised Samson honourably 
to the threshold^ of the house of St. Sophia on Sunday, August 11, 
the day of the holy Martyr the Deacon Eupl. The same day the 
wooden Church of the Holy Resurrection of the Lord on Krasnaya 
Gorka- in the Carpenters' quarter was consecrated, and a monastery 
was established. The same autumn they completed two stone 
churches in the Lyudin quarter : that of the Holy Exaltation [of the 
Cross] of the Lord, and that of St. Luke. 

The same autumn, b^' the sufferance of God, and the will of 
Knyaz Vitovt of Lithuania, [Vitovt] by his own wish having collected 
the Christian Bishops residing within his province — Feodosi of 
Polotsk, Isaak of Chernigov, Dionisi of Lutsk, Gerasim of Volodimir, 
Khariton of Holm, Eufimi of Turov — over those Bishops, put as 
Metropolitan, Gregory the Bulgarian, at Kiev on November 15. 

The same winter, on February 23, in Sexagesima Week, Samson 
went to the Metropolitan for confirmation as Vladyka; and with 
him envoys from Novgorod: Vasili Obakunovich, the Tysyatski 
Vasili Esifovich, and the Tysyatski Olexander Ignatievich; and they 
reached Moscow. 

A.D. 1416. A.M. 6924. On March 9, the day of the Forty Martyrs, 
after the full service on Monday, and on 
Thursday of that week, the 12th, God granted grace in the Church 
of the Holy Mother of God by the tomb of the Metropohtan Peter : 
the shortened leg of a man was made whole ; on the 15th in the second 
week of Lent, a nun's hand was cured. On that da}^ the Metro- 
politan Foti confirmed Samson as Deacon, and on Saturday 21st, 
the third of Lent, he made him full priest, and on the 22nd, on 
Sunday in Mid-Lent on the day of the holy Father Vasili, he was 
confirmed Vladyka of Great Novgorod in the Church of the Archi- 
strategos Mikhail, and was named Simeon by the Metropolitan, and 
there were present with the Metropolitan at the confirmation five 
Vladykas: Grigori of Rostov, Mitrofan of Suzdal, Antoni of Tver, 
Timofei of Sarsk, and Isaki of Perm ; and the Veliki Knyaz Vasili 
Dmitrievich was present together with his brothers Yuri and Kostyan- 
tin; and he came to Novgorod on April 16, on Great Thursday 

icf. p. 123. 
* The Red Hill. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 185 

[in Holy Week]. And Posadnik Ivan Bogdanovich, the Tysyatski 
Boris Vasilievich, with the Ignmens and the priests and the choir of 
St. Sophia met him with the crosses at the end of the Slavno quarter, 
and the men of Novgorod were glad of their Vladyka. 

And on that day Vladyka Simeon performed a holy liturgy in St, 
Sophia, at his own altar granted to him by God. 

They erected a church to St. Ilya in Prussian Street. 

The same autumn two stone churches were completed: that of 
St. Peter, Metropolitan of Russia, and of St. Afanasi, by the efforts 
of Vladyka Simeon. 

A.D. 1417. A.M. 6925. Posadnik Yuri Ontsiforovich died, having 
been dumb one year and three months. On 
June 10 there was a thunderstorm and in the Church of St. Eupati 
in Rogatitsa [Street] the images were burnt. 

Vladyka loan died on the 24th of the same month the day of 
the Birth of St. loan the Forerunner, in the monastery on the [river] 
Derevyanitsa, and he was laid in the porch of the Holy Resurrection. 
And Knyaz Ivan, son of the Veliki Knyaz \^asili, died in Moscow. 

The same year six stone churches were completed: the Holy 
Trinit}' at Kolmovo,^ St. Nikola, St. Mina in Danislav Street, St. 
Andrew in Shchitna^ Street, St. Andrei by St. Saviour's at Khutin,^ 
and St. Nikola in Kholop town.^ 

The same year Gleb Semenovich, a Boyar of Knyaz Yuri, with 
some fugitives from Novgorod, together with Simeon Zhadovski 
and Mikhail Rossokhin, and with men of Ustyug and of Vyatka, the 
patrimony of the Veliki Knyaz, went from Vyatka secretly in boats 
to the country beyond the Volok; they ravaged Borok, a district 
of the sons of Ivan Vasilievich, and also took and burnt the districts 
of Yemtsa and Kolmogor}^, and captured the Novgorod Boyars 
Yuri, Ivanovich and his brother Samson. Ivan Fedorovich and 
his brother Afonosi with Gavrilo Kirilovich and Isak Ondreyevich, 
having come up with them on an island by Morzh, rescued their 
brethren Samson and Yuri, and all the captives and the cattle, and 
let them* go free. And Vasili Yurievich, Posadnik' s son, Simeon 
Ivanovich, Gavrilo Kirilovich and his brother Grigori with men from 
the country beyond the Volok pursued the robbers and pillaged 
Ustyug. 

' Near Novgorod. 

* " Shieldmakers." ^ 
2 In Novgorod. ^ 

* sc. the fugitives. 



186 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

At that time the men of Novgorod took peace with the Nenitsy. 

The same summer and winter there was a fearful plague among 
the people in Novgorod, and in Ladoga, in Russa, Porkhov, Pskov, 
Tver, Dmitrov, and in Torzhok, and throughout their districts and 
villages. And how can I relate the fearful and terrible misery 
that there was during the whole plague ? What grief the living had 
for the dead, for the deaths increased so in towns and villages that 
the living had barely time to make the dead tidy for burial; so 
many died every day, that they had not time to bury them; and 
many houses were closed unoccupied. First of all it would hit 
one as if with a lance, choking, and then a swelhng would appear, 
or spitting of blood with shivering, and fire would burn one in all 
the joints of the body; and then the illness would overwhelm one; 
and many after lying in that illness died. But to many Christians 
God was merciful : they left this life entering the angelic order after 
receiving holy unction from the Vladyka. And two Posadniks died 
in the same order: Ivan Olexandrovich and Boris Vasilievich. 

And Vladyka Simeon with all the seven congregations, with the 
Christians and with crosses went round the whole of Great Novgorod, 
praying God and His Immaculate Mother to withhold the wrath of 
God ; and the Christians on horseback and afoot drew logs from the 
forest and built a church to St. Anastasia which was consecrated 
the same day by the Vladyka Simeon who performed a holy liturgy ; 
with the remainder of the logs, they erected a church to St. Ilya in 
Prussian Street. And the people of Novi-torg put up a church to 
St. Afanasi likewise in a single day, and performed a liturgy. 

A.D. 1418. A.M. 6926. There was a sign in the Church of the Holy 
Martyr Anastasia: blood seemed to come 
from both sides of the robe of the image of the Holy Mother of 
God, on April 19. 

The same month this happened in Novgorod at the instigation of 
the devil: a certain man Stepanko seized hold of the Boyar Danilo 
Ivanovich, Bozha's grandson, and, holding him, cried out to the 
people: " Here, sirs! help me against this miscreant." And seeing 
his cryi folk dragged him like a miscreant to the people, beating 
him with wounds nearly to death, and they led him from the Veche 
and hurled him from the bridge. And a certain man of the people, 
Lichko's son, wishing him. well, caught him up into his boat; but the 
people, enraged against that fisherman, plundered his house. And 

1 Sic. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 187 

the aforesaid Boyar, wishing to avenge his dishonour, caught the 
impostor and put liim to torture, and wishing to cure the evil, 
raised up still greater trouble; I will not recall the spoken words: 
" Vengeance is mine." And the people learning that Stepanko had 
been seized, began to summon a Veche in Yaroslav's Court, and a 
multitude of people assembled, and they kept shouting and crying 
for many days: " Let us go against that Boyar and plunder his 
house." And they came armed and with a banner to Kuzma- 
Demyan Street, sacked his house and many other houses, and 
ravaged the quay in Yanev Street. And the people of Kuzma- 
Demyan Street became afraid at these robberies that w'orse would 
befall them, surrendered Stepanko, and coming to the Vladyka 
prayed him to send him to the meeting of the people. And the 
prelate heard their prayer and sent him with a priest and one of his 
own Boyars, and they received him. And again they became 
enraged like drunkards, against another Boyar, Ivan levlich,^ 
of Chudinets Street, and on his account pillaged a great many 
Boyars' houses, as well as the monastery of St. Nikola in the Field, 
cr\ang out: " Here is the treasure house of the Boyars." And 
again the same morning they plundered many houses in the Lyud- 
goshcha Street, calling out: " They are our enemies." And they 
came to Prussian Street, but there they beat them off successfully. 
And from that hour the mischief began to increase. Returning 
to their own, the commercial side, they said: " The Sophia side is 
going to arm against us, and to plunder our houses." And they 
began to ring throughout the whole town, and armed men began to 
pour out from both sides as for war, fully armed, to the great bridge. 
And there was loss of life too. Some fell by arrows, others by arms, 
they died as in war, the whole town trembled at this terrible storm 
and great rebellion and a dread fell on the people on both sides. 
And Vladyka Simeon shed tears from his eyes on hearing of the 
internecine war between his children, and he ordered those under 
him to gather his congregation; and the Vladyka, having entered 
the Church of St. Sophia, began to pray with tears, and arraying 
himself in his vestments with his clergy he ordered them to take the 
Lord's Cross and the image of the Holy Mother of God, and went to 
the bridge, and there followed him the priests and servants of the 
church and all who called themselves Christians, and a great mul- 
titude, shedding tears and saying: " Lord, make it to cease by the 

» Son of Job (Yev.). 



188 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

prayers of our lord.^ " And God-fearing people fell in tears at the 
feet of the prelate saying: " Go, Lord, and may the lord cause this 
internecine war to cease, through thy blessing." And others said: 
" May this evil be on the heads of those who began the fighting." 
And on reaching the middle of the bridge the prelate raised the life- 
giving Cross and began to bless both sides. And those who looked 
at the honourable Cross wept. The opposite side, hearing of the pre- 
late's arrival, Posadnik Fedor Timofeich came with other Posadniks 
and Tysyatskis and bowed to the Vladyka; and the Vladyka heard 
their prayer and sent the Archimandrite Varlam and his spiritual 
father, and an archdeacon to Yaroslav's Court to bestow the 
blessing on the acting Posadnik Vasili Esifovich and on the Tysyatski 
Kuzma Terenteyevich, to go to their homes; and they dispersed 
through the prayers of the Holy Mother of God and with the blessing 
of Vladyka Simeon, and there was peace in the town. 

That same year four stone churches were erected: All Saints in 
Chernitsyn Street, St. Sava in Kuzma-Demyan Street, St. Ilya by 
St. Saviour's in the general monastery of Christ's Resurrection at 
Khutin, and St. Nikola on the [stream] Pidba. 

The same autumn Vladyka Simeon went on his periodic visitation 
to Pskov and sat there for a month in judgment. 

A.D. 1419. A.M. 6927. On May 1 the Slavno and Carpenters' 
quarters^ as far as the Fedor stream were 
burnt down; twenty-four churches were burnt, and that of the 
Holy Fathers was entirely destroyed by fire ; a large quantity of the 
propert}' of the Christians was burnt, and many people were drowned 
in the Volkhov and many were burnt. 

The same year Posadnik Ivan Bogdanovich died. 

During evening service on April 9, Sunday, there was a violent 
storm of wind, and clouds and very thick rain; the water from the 
springs ran like a strong river; hghtning flashed, and there was 
terrible thunder, and it killed the watchman Andrei in the Church 
of the Holy Mother of God by the town gates; the chain of the 
candelabra from the ceiling of the cupola was all torn ; and the Holy 
Gates were burnt ; it caused damage in [the churches of] St. loan the 
Forerunner, of St. Nikola and of St. Vasili, but by God's mercy the 
churches were spared, but below the churches in the gateway two 
men were killed, others fell down as dead, and others were struck 

* Gospodin, sc. the Vladyka. 

* Plotniki. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 189 

deaf; some lost their legs, and others were struck dumb, but by the 
mercy of God they were assuaged with water and carried to their 
homes, where, after having Iain down a little on their beds, by the 
grace of God they got up again; and at that same time the ikons 
in the Church of St. Kostyantin were scorched. 

The same year the Murman people^ to the number of 500 men com- 
ing in vessels and boats made war on the Korel- villages in [the dis- 
trict of] Arzuga and on the villages^ of the country beyond the 
Volok, namely: Nenoksa, the monastery of St. Nikola in the KoreP 
country, Konechny village, the Yakov gulf, the Ondreyan shore, 
Kig and Kyar islands, Mikhail monastery, Chiglonim and Khechi- 
nima ; they burned three churches and slew Christians and monks. 
But the men from beyond the Volok destroyed two boats of the 
Murman people ; the others escaped out to sea. 

The Archimandrite Varlam erected a church in the Yurev mon- 
astery to the Nativity of the Mother of God, and Mikhail Yurie vich put 
up a wooden church to St. Mikhail at Kolmovo, and Igumen Fedosi 
put up a stone church to the Holy Trinity in Klopsko in sixty days. 

The same year the Lithuanian Metropolitan Grigori of Kiev died, 
who had been appointed by order of Vitovt's Bishops, and not by 
the Patriarch, not in accordance with the ordinances of the Holy 
Fathers and the Apostles. 

The same year Knyaz Kostyantin Dmitrievich came to Novgorod 
from Moscow. And by the grace of God and with the blessing of 
Vladyka Simeon the men of Novgorod received him with all honour 
on February 25 in great congregation. And they granted him the 
appanages which had been Lugven's,* and allowed him to make a 
tax collection over all Novgorod districts. And this is why he 
was in Novgorod, because his brother the Veliki Knyaz Vasili wished 
to make him kiss the Cross in submission to his son Vasili ; and not 
wishing to be under his nephew, Knyaz Vasili, he^ cast on him his 
displeasure and deprived him of all his patrimony, seized his Boyars 
and appropriated their cattle and villages. 

A.D. 1420. A.M. 6928. The men of Novgorod began to trade with 
silver coins, and sold the ariugs^ to the 
Nemtsy, having traded with them nine years. 
' Northmen, or Norwegians. 

* Korilsky. 

' Pogost, villages, settlements, small colonies or outposts. 

* sc. Knyaz Simeon Olgerdovich of Lithuania. 
' sc. the Veliki Knyaz. 

' Swedish copper coins. 



190 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

There was a great plague in Pskov. 

The same autumn an envoy from the Master Sehvester from the 
Nemtsy arrived in Novgorod, the Commander Gostilo of Velyad, with 
Timofei, the Master's nephew, and the Voyevoda of Rugodiv,^ and 
they agreed with Knyaz Kostyantin and with all Great Novgorod to 
meet at a conference with the Master and Knyaz; Kostyantin and 
Novgorod to send their Boyars and they sent Knyaz Fedor Patrikeye- 
vich, lieutenant of the Veliki Knyaz, Posadnik Vasili Esifovich of 
Novgorod, Posadnik Afonosi Fedorovich, Yakov Dmitrievich, 
Mikhail Yurievich, and Naum Ivanovich. And they met the Master 
at Narova and took perpetual peace on the old terms, as it was 
under the Veliki Knyaz Alexander Yaroslavich. 

A.D. 1421. A.M. 6929. Knyaz Kostyantin departed from Great 
Novgorod, and Vladyka Simeon, the Posad- 
niks and the Tysyatskis and the Boyars of Novgorod bestowing gifts 
on him sent him off with honour. 

The same year the water was big in the Volkhov; and washed 
away the great bridge, also the Neredich and the Zhilotug bridges. ^ 
At Kolomentsa^ it carried away the Church of the Holy Trinity, and 
in Shchilova, Sokolnitsa, and Radokovitsi [Streets] and in the Re- 
surrection in the Lyudin quarter service in the churches was per- 
formed only on raised platforms, and in the different quarters it 
washed away dwellings with all their stores; and it was so great 
that it poured out through the town gates to Rybniki.^ 

The same year on May 19, during Peter's Fast, there was a great 
storm by night in the skies; clouds came up from the south, and in 
the north thunder and fiery lightning came from the skies with 
frightful noise, and purple rain fell with stones and hail. And 
Vladyka Simeon going at dawn on Monday into St. Sophia with the 
hierarchy and choir, ordered prayers to be sung to the Holy Mother 
of God for the whole Christian race, to avert the wrath of God. 

The same year the two Posadniks, Fedor Timofeyevich and Olex- 
ander Fominich, died in monks' orders. 

The same year on June 15, the day of the holy Prophet Amos, 
Simeon, Vladyka of Novgorod, died, he was Vladyka five years and 
three months short of five days, or six years altogether. The same 
year the men of Novgorod having deliberated in Veche in Yaro- 

1 i.e. Narva. 

2 Bridges over small tributaries of the Volkliov in Novgorod. 
» Kolmovo, near Novgorod. 

* The Fisheries. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 191 

Slav's Court, and having held a Veche at St. Sophia placed three 
written lots on the altar in St. Sophia; Igmnen Feodosi of the Holy 
Trinity at Klopsko, Igiimen Zakhari of the Annunciation of the 
Holy Mother of God, and Arseni, the Vladyka's steward from Lisitsa^ 
Hill; and on conclusion of holy service, the priest Trifan brought out 
first the lot of Arseni, then that of Zakhari, and Feodosi's lot re- 
mained on the altar. And Posadnik Timofei Vasilievich and the 
Tysyatski Kuzma Terentievich with the men of Novgorod raised 
Igumen Feodosi honourably to the threshold^ of the house of St. 
Sophia on Monday, September 1, the day of the holy father Simeon 
Stylites. 

The same j'ear were completed three stone churches: the Mani- 
festation of our Lord in the Field, the Resurrection in the monastery 
of the Annunciation, and of loan the Merciful in the Lyudin quarter; 
and the men of Novgorod kissed the Cross to be as one brother. 

During these two years there were great famine and plague, and 
three public graves were filled with the dead, one behind the altar in 
St. Sophia and two by the Nativity in the field. ^ 

A.D. 1423. A.M. 6931. There was a sign in the sun. The same year 

they completed two stone churches: of the 

Holy Mother of God at Kolmovo,* and of St. Yakov on the Luzhitsa. 

A.D. 1424. A.M. 6932. The men of Novgorod sent away Feodosi to 
his own monastery, for he had sat two years 
in the threshold- in the House of St. Sophia, and in the same year they 
raised Emelian by lot to the altar in St. Sophia. 

The same year they minted money in Pskov, and began to trade 
with coin throughout all the Russian Land. 

There was a plague in the Korel Land. The same year there was a 
plague with glands and with spitting of blood in Novgorod. 

Eufemi was appointed Vladyka by the Metropolitan Foti in Mos- 
cow. Two stone churches were completed; St. Luke in Lyubyanitsa 
[Street], and SS. Boris and Gleb on the [stream] Gzen. The same 
year Vladyka Eufemi built a church to St. Saviour the Merciful 
behind the altar of St. Sophia. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Dmitrievich died. 

1 " Fox." 

2cf. p. 123. 

3 No record for 1422. 

* Near Novgorod. 



192 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

A.D. 1425. A.M. 6933. The commercial side was burnt and the 
whole of the Lyudin quarter. 

The same year the people of Ustyug ravaged the country beyond 
the Volok, and the men of Novgorod went to war against them to 
Ustyug and took a ransom on that place of fifty squirrel skins and 
six forties of sable. 

The same year Knyaz Iva^ Mikhailovich of Tver died. 

Igunien Feodosi of the Holy Trinity died in his own monastery 
on September 29. 

A.D. 14:26. A.M. 6934. Vitovt stood under Voronach three weeks 
and withdrew without taking it. 

A.D. 1427. A.M. 6935. The stone Church of St. Saviour the Merciful 
was completed by Vladyka Eufemi; and it 
was wonderfully fitted up with pictures and with books. 

A.D. 1428. A.M. 6936. Knyaz Vitovt came to Porkhov with an 
armed force and the men of Porkhov agreed 
[to pay] for themselves 5,000 of silver; and then Vladyka Eufemi 
went to Porkhov with Novgorod envoys and paid Vitovt another 
5,000 of silver and a sixth thousand for captives. 

A.D. 1429. A.M. 6937. Vladyka Eufemi died on November 1, 
SS. Kuzma-Demyan Day, having been 
Vladyka five years and five weeks, and as monk he had sat at the 
threshold^ one year and two weeks. 

On the 13th of the same month the holy monk Eufemi of Lisitsa 
Hill was elected by lot and raised to the threshold^ in the House of 
St. Sophia. 

The same year the Church of the Holy Fathers in the Knyaz's 
Court collapsed. 

A.D. 1430. A.M. 6938. They put up the Church of the Holy Fathers 
in stone in the same place in the Knyaz's 
Court. 

The same year the men of Novgorod built another stone wall 
round Porkhov. 

The same year there was a summons to Novgorod on the people 
for the building up of a wall ; every fourth man furnished a fifth. 

The same autumn Knyaz Vitovt of Lithuania died, and in his 
stead there took his seat on the throne Knyaz Svetrigailo.^ 

Jcf. p. 123. 
» Svidrigailo. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 193 

The same autumn the water was exceeding low; the soil and the 
forests burned, and very much smoke, some times people could not 
see each other, and fishes and birds died from that smoke; the 
fish stank of the smoke, for two years. 

A.D. 1431. A.M. 6939. The Metropohtan Foti^ died in Moscow. 

The Russian Knyazes Yuri Dmitrevich and 
Vasili Vasilievich went to the Horde this year. 

A.D. 1432. A.M. 6940. The Russian Knyazes came away from the 
Horde, without the title of Veliki Knyaz. 

A wooden church was erected to the Holy Apostles in Chudinets 
Street by the holy monk Vladyka Eufemi. 

Knyaz Yuri Simeonovich arrived in Novgorod from Lithuania 
in the autumn. 

The Vladyka's Court and all the surrounding quarter were burnt 
down in the same autumn. 

A stone Church of St. Yuri was founded in Borkhov Street. 

A.D. 1432. A.M. 6940.- The Russian Knyazes Vasili Vasilievich and 
Yuri Dmitrievich came away from the 
Horde ; Tsar Mahmed gave the title of Veliki Knyaz over the whole 
Russian Land to Knyaz Vasili Vasilievich. 

The same autumn Knyaz Yuri Simeonovich with his wife arrived 
in Novgorod from the Lithuanian country. 

A.D. 1433. A.M. 6941. A fire broke out in the spring in Yanev 
Street, spreading over the suburban quarter 
and the Lyudin quarter, as far as Lukin Street. 

The same year the people of Borkhov Street completed the stone 
Church of St. Georgi. 

The same year the most reverend Vladyka-elect Eufemi built 
himself a house in his court and it had thirty doors ; and Nemetski 
masters from oversea made it with masters of Novgorod. 

A.D. 1434. A.M. 6942. Knyaz Yuri Dmitrievich seized the town of 
Moscow and took his seat as Veliki Knyaz. 

And the same year, in the spring, on April 1, in Holy Week, 
the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Vasilievich came to Novgorod. 

And on April 5, at the same time, in Holy Week, all Great Nov- 
gorod went out in arms into the country the other side of the river 

^ Photius. 

2 Year repeated. 



194 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

towards the Zhilotug [stream] and Knyaz Vasili was then in the 
Gorodishche^ ; and nothing happened to the men of Novgorod. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Yuri Dmitrievich died. 

The same spring Eufemi of Novgorod went to Smolensk on 
April 11 to be confirmed by the Metropolitan Gerasim, and Knyaz 
Vasili left for Moscow on April 26. 

The same spring the former house in the Vladyka's Court was 
painted. Vladyka Eufemi returned to Novgorod on May 26, 
confirmed and blessed by the Metropolitan Gerasim. 

The same year Knyaz Vasili Yurievich came to Novgorod when the 
Vladyka Eufemi was there. That autumn Knyaz Vasili Yurievich 
left Novgorod, committing much robbery along the Msta,^ in 
Bezhitsy, and in the country beyond the Volok. Much mischief was 
suffered through him. 

The same autumn a stone church was erected in the loan Zlatoust^ 
district on an old foundation by Posadnik Gregori Kirilovich and 
Esif Ondreyanovich, grandson of Goroshkov. 

A.D. 1435. A.M. 6943. The following Voyevodas of Novgorod went 
out in the winter ; the Posadnik of Novgorod 
Ivan Vasilievich, Posadnik Gregori Kyurilovich, the Tysyatski Fedor 
Oliseyevich, Esif Vasilievich, Annai Simeonovich, Ostafi Esifovich, 
and many other Boyars and men of Novgorod, with Fedor Ostafev, 
Mikhail Buinosov of Russa, and others of Porkhov, and they went 
by three different ways and punished the men of Rzheva, and 
burnt all the villages along the Rzheva river, along the borders of 
Pleskov, and by God's help returned all well to Novgorod with 
their plunder. 

The same winter the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Vasilievich kissed the Cross 
to the men of Novgorod, and the men of Novgorod kissed the Cross 
likewise to the Veliki Knyaz, the Veliki Knyaz to relinquish the 
Novgorod patrimony, Bezhitsy, and at the Lamsk Volok, and in 
Vologda; and the Boyars of Novgorod to give up the lands of the 
Knyaz wheresoever such may be. The Veliki Knyaz engaged to 
send his Boyars for the delimitation of the lands, on Peter Day,* 
and the men of Novgorod were to send their own Boyars. 

The same year Eufemi, Vladyka of Novgorod, erected a stone 

1 Near Novgorod. 

2 A river flowing into lake Ilmen from the E. 

3 John Chrysostom. 
* July 11. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 195 

church to St. loan Zlatoust at the gates of his court. In that 
autumn they completed that church; but the masters^ only just 
left the church and in that instant it collapsed. 

A.D. 1436. A.M. 6944. Knyaz Vasih Yurievich was blinded by 
Knyaz Vasili Vasilievich in Moscow. 

The same year the men of Novgorod sent their Posadnik Gregori 
Kyurilovich and Ivan Maksimov with the men of property Kuzma 
Tarasin, and Ivan Maksimov to Bezhitsy and others to the Lamsk 
Volok and to Vologda to carry out the delimitation of land, but 
the Veliki Knyaz did not send his own Boyars, and he did not cede 
any of the Novgorod patrimonies anywhere to the men of Novgorod, 
nor did he make any reparation. 

The same year Vladyka Eufemi, Vladyka of Novgorod, again 
finished the Church of St. loan Zlatoust and he put up a sounding 
clock over his palace. 

The same year Vladyka Eufemi founded a stone church to St. 
Nikola at Vezhishchi.^ 

The same autumn by God's sufferance a frost struck the crops 
during harvest throughout the entire Novgorod province; and in 
the same autumn the water was big, and on a frosty night the ice 
carried away seven stays of the great bridge, and the little Zhilotug'^ 
bridge was carried away. 

The same winter the men of Novgorod sent their Posadnik 
Gregori Kyurilovich to Zhidimont,* and Knyaz Zhidimont of Lithu- 
ania kissed the Cross to the Novgorod envoys, and they took peace. 

A.D. 1437. A.M. 6945. Knyaz Yuri Patrakievich arrived in Nov- 
gorod from Moscow demanding on behalf 
of the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Vasilievich a tax on the common people, 
and the men of Novgorod gave him the tax, and Knyaz Yuri 
Patrikievich left Novgorod. 

The same spring the Church of St. loan Zlatoust at the gates of 
the Vladyka' s Court was painted. 

The same spring the Metropolitan Sidor, a Greek, arrived in 
Moscow from Tsargi-ad from the Patriarch Joseph, as Metropolitan. 

1 sc. builders. 

- Near Novgorod. 

3 A stream in Novgorod. 

* Sigismund, King of Poland. 

02 



196 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

The same spring the water washed away the wall of the Deiineis} 
and the earth from the wall slipped down and the stone wall fell 
together with the belfry [undermined] by the Volkhov. The same 
year the Church of St. Nikola collapsed at Vezhishchi. 

The same year, at a Veche, Vladyka Eufemi in his vestments 
blessed with the Cross the Posadniks and the Tysyatskis and all 
Great Novgorod on Sunday, and on July 7, on the holy Father 
Thomas' Day, he went to Moscow to the Metropolitan Sidor. 

The same year Vladyka Eufemi erected a stone church to St. 
Peter at the gates of his court, and he demolished the old church. 
The same year they completed the great bridge. 

That autumn on October 9 the Metropolitan Sidor the Greek 
arrived from Moscow in Novgorod; and the Vladyka, and the 
Posadniks and the Boyars and the merchants and all Great Nov- 
gorod honoured him; and in the winter the Metropolitan went to 
Pskov on his way to Tsargrad. And in Pskov he appointed Gelasi, 
the Archimandrite [as their Vladykd\, and gave him Vladyka' s 
jurisdiction and all the taxes. 

A.D. 1438. A.M. 6946. Knyaz Yuri Simeonovich arrived in Nov- 
gorod in the spring on March 3. 
The same year the Church of St. Nikola at Vezhishchi was again 
erected of stone on the old foundations. 

A.D. 1439. A.M. 6947. Vladyka Eufemi, Vladyka of Novgorod, 
built a stone granary. The same year he 
plastered the whole Church of St. Sophia with lime. The same 
year Vladyka Eufemi erected a stone belfry on the wall on the old 
place where it had fallen to its foundation. 

The same year the body of the Vladyka loan was found, in whose 
time the men of Suzdal had been before Novgorod.^ 

The same year Vladyka Eufemi gilded the tomb of Knyaz 
Volodimir, the grandson of the great Volodimir, and had it in- 
scribed, and also had the tomb of his mother inscribed, and a canopy 
was raised over it ; he ordained a commemoration of them to be held 
on'^October 4 every year. 

A.D. 1440. A.M. 6948, The Veliki Kttyaz Zhidimont^Kestutievichoi 
Lithuania was murdered in Lithuania by 

1 Citadel. 
* sc. at war. 
^ Sigismund. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 197 

Olexander Chertoriski^ and his brother Ivan: he had ruled nine 
years. This Knyaz was cruel and unmerciful, and moreover a 
covetous man; he ruined many Lithuanian Knyazes, drowning some 
and putting others to the sword. And he destroyed not a few of the 
Boyars and landowners mercilessly; for that reason did God send 
him this cruel death. And so because of his wickedness they did 
not support his son Mikhail, and all the Lithuanian and Russian 
towns chose Kasimir, Yagoilo's- son, for their Veliki Knyaz, and they 
set him on the throne in Vilna quietly and without any disturbance. 

The same year Poltesk^ was entirely burnt down. 

And Knyaz Yuri Simeonovich left Novgorod the Great for Lithu- 
ania, and the Veliki Knyaz Kasimir gave him back all his patri- 
mony : Mstislavl and Krichev, and not a few other towns and dis- 
tricts; but having grown proud, he occupied Smolensk and Polo- 
chesk^ and Vitebsk, which brought him no advantage, and the 
people broke out in great tumult and conflict. The same autumn 
he took fright seeing his own audacity, that he had acted unwisel}', 
and fled to Moscow. 

The same year the Vladyka erected a stone church to St. Anas- 
tasia, and he built a smaller stone house. 

A.D. 1441. A.M. 6949. In the winter the Veliki Knyaz Vasih Vasil- 
ievich of Moscow turned his wrath on Nov- 
gorod the Great ; he sent a declaration of war and ravaged many Nov- 
gorod districts. And the men of Novgorod sent out Vladyka 
Eufemi with Boyars and men of property who fell in with him in 
Dereva near the town of Demyan, and concluded peace with him 
on the old terms, and gave him 8,000 roubles. 

And the men of Pskov aided the Veliki Knyaz Vasili in ravaging 
the Novgorod lands and they did no little damage. 

At that same time Novgorod Voyevodas with men from the countn.^ 
beyond the Volok ravaged many lands of the Veliki Knyaz for those 
he had ravaged of the districts of Novgorod. 

The same winter the Metropolitan Isidor returned to Russia from 
the Eighth Veche in Rome, and began calling himself Legates from 
the rib of the ApostoHc seat of Roman power, and Roman Metro- 
politan: he also began the naming of the Pope of Rome in his 
services, and other new things which we had never heard since the 

1 Alexander Czartoryski. 

2 Jagiello Olgerdovich, King of Poland. 

3 Polotsk. 



198 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

baptism of the Russian Land; and he ordered Russian priests to 
perform his services in the Pohsh^ churches, and chaplains to serve in 
Russian churches. But Lithuania and Russia did not support this. 

The same year by order of the most holy Vladyka of Great Nov- 
gorod, Vladyka Eufemi, the Church of St. Nikola at Vezhishchi was 
painted, the same year the large palace of the Vladyka was painted, 
and the front porch was painted. 

The same year Vladyka Eufemi erected the Church of SS. Boris 
and Gleb in the Okolotok,^ on the old foundations, and the men of 
Novgorod were his helpers. 

A.D. 1442. A.M. 6950. The Metropolitan returned to Moscow from 
Lithuania, and the Veliki KnyazV^.'iiW. Vasilie- 
vich ordered him to serve; and hearing him in the service cite the 
Pope of Rome and not the Patriarch of Tsargrad, and many other 
things not according to the custom of the Russian Land, the Veliki 
Knyaz said: " Under our brethren, the Veliki Knyazes of the Russian 
Land, this has never been, and I do not wish to hear it." And he 
ordered the Metropolitan to live in a monastery and ordered warders 
to guard him ; but he escaped to Tver and thence to Lithuania. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz of Moscow cast his displeasure on 
Knyaz Dmitri Yurievich, and pursued him; and he escaped to the 
Novgorod [territories of] Bezhitsy, and he did much harm to the 
districts, and sent an envoy to Novgorod: " Receive me on your 
own conditions." And the men of Novgorod replied: " Thou mayst 
come if thou wilt, or not, Knyaz, as thou likest." 

The same year the pious Vladyka of Novgorod, Vladyka Eufemi, 
erected the church and monastery of the Transfiguration of the 
Holy Saviour on the old foundations in Russa, and the men of 
Novgorod and of Russa helped him, and it was completed on 
September 13. On the same day the Vladyka came from Nov- 
gorod and ordered an all-night vigil because of the Lord's Festival, 
and put on his full ecclesiastic vestments, and attended by all the 
clerics of St. Sophia, he commanded the Igmnens and priests of 
Russa to perform service with him; and he himself consecrated it on 
the Festival of the Exaltation of the honourable Cross, and finishing 
the holy liturgy, the holy (man) rejoiced in his heart and soul in 
beholding the temple of the Holy Saviour and the beginning of his 
work brought to good completion, which he had built to his own 

^ Lyadski. 

2 lit. " District," a part of Novgorod. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 199 

everlasting memory and for the remission of sins, a refuge and a joy 
to all Christians and a joy and gladness to the faithful, and a cause of 
praise of the Vladyka by the people entering the house of the Holy 
Saviour, beholding the church, saying: " Blessed be God who put 
it into the heart of our lord to create the supremely first temple of 
the Holy Saviour." And he ornamented it well and had the pictures 
well painted on gold and other requisite places well finished, as is 
proper for the beautifying of a church; and he had church vessels 
made of silver, and other silver vessels for use in the monastery. At 
that time Ivan Vasilievich was Posadnik of Novgorod and held the 
Posad}iik-shi-p of Russa, and was consecrated under Igunien Ivan 
of the Holy Saviour. 

The same year Vladyka Eufemi erected the stone Church of St. 
Nikola in his court. 

The same year they erected the stone Church of St. Prokopi in 
Belaya.^ The same year Vladyka Eufemi built a stone kitchen and 
a stone room in his court. 

The same year a fire broke out in the Carpenters' quarter. ^ The 
fire began in Shchitna^ Street on May 4. A half of Konyukhov* 
Street was burnt and the whole of Zapolskaya^ [Street], and passing 
beyond the town the fire extended to the Antonov monastery. 

And again on the 11th of the same month of May, the day of the 
holy Martyr Moki, a fire broke out in Podol^; and it was terrible and 
people suffered much harm, and twelve stone churches were burnt; 
and God knows how many Christian souls were burnt; and the 
entire quarter was burnt as far as St. Georgi; and here the fire 
stopped at the Lyub3^anitsa [Street]. After a short time in the 
same month Mikitin Street in the Zapole quarter was burnt, and 
great harm was inflicted on people who went into them^ with their 
belongings. These fires occur because of our sins, in order that we 
might repent of our evil ways. At that time some people in their 
distress at those great conflagrations seized some men, saying to 
them in the confusion of their fury: " Ye walk secretly and do not 
show yourselves to men and set fire to the town and destroy people." 
And some of them they burned, and others they cast from the 

1 " White," a place on the river Msta, q.v. 

2 Plotniki. 

3 " Shieldmakers." 
'' " Grooms." 

= " Beyond the fields." 
' The Lower town. 
' sc. the churches. 



200 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

bridge. But God knows, who tests the hearts of men, whether that 
is true that was said. 

A. D. 1443. A.M. 6951. F/flri^_y^aEufemi, F/fl^_y^a of Great Novgorod, 
built a sacristy of stone and a warder's room 
of stone in his court. 

In the same year they erected a stone church to St. Nikola at 
Krecheva in Russa. 

A.D. 1444. A.M. 6952. Knyaz Ivan Volodimirovich came to Nov- 
gorod on September 14 at the invitation of 
Novgorod, to [take possession of] the dependencies which had been 
held by Lugven^ and his son Yuri ; and Knyaz Yuri Lugvenich went 
to the Nemtsy and the Nenitsy gave him no road, and he went away 
to Moscow. 

The same autumn the Nemtsy came to Yam,^ burned the outskirts 
and ravaged the coast, and sent to Novgorod: " We are not warring 
against you ; it is Knyaz Gregori of Kiev from oversea to avenge his 
Voyevoda Itolk of Rugodiv."^ But the Nenitsy lied in all this. 

The same autumn people from the Veliki Knyaz s patrimony of 
Tver ravaged many lands and villages of Novgorod, Bezhitsy, the 
country beyond Borov, and all the districts of Novi-torg. And from 
Lithuania the Veliki Knyaz Kazimir sent to Novgorod, saying thus: 

Receive my lieutenants into the Gorodishche; I shall defend you. 
And on your account I have not taken peace with the Knyaz of 
Moscow." And the men of Novgorod did not agree to this. 

The same winter the men of Novgorod went to the country of the 
Nemtsy beyond the Narova, with Knyaz Ivan Volodimirovich; and 
took much plunder and burnt much round Rugodiv^ as far as the 
Purdozna river, along the Narova and up to the Chud lake.^ 

The same year the Nemtsy with the Master and all his forces came 
to Yam^ town and bombarded it with guns for five days ; they also 
plundered and burnt the Vod lands and those along the Izhera and 
the Neva. But God and the l^oly Archis^raiegos'MilCiidal protected the 
town, so they did not take it; but a great many Nemtsy fell before 
the town, and others returned to their own country wounded. 

At that time Knyaz Vasili Yurievich, one of the Suzdal Knyazes, 
was in the town of Yam. And the men of Novgorod sent the 

1 Simeon Olgerdovich Knyaz of Lithuania. 

2 sc. Yamburg. 

3 Narva. 

■* Lake Chudskoe or Peipus. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 201 

Luga villagers and the Vod and Izhera Boyars in advance, them- 
selves intending to march with them and with Knyaz Ivan Volo- 
dimirovich beyond the Narova. But for our sins at that very time 
the horses began to die in great numbers in the town and in the 
districts, so the men of Novgorod returned and did not go beyond 
the Narova. 

At that time the men of Pskov sent envoys to Novgorod about 
peace, and saw that horses were dying in Novgorod in great numbers, 
and that the men of Novgorod had not gone beyond the Narova, 
and left without coming to terms of peace. 

The same year the Korel people attacked the Murman people, 
slaughtered them, and ravaged their lands, and returned with 
plunder in good health. 

A.D. 1445. A.M. 6953. VladykalLniemi.Vladykaoi GredJi^ovgovod, 
erected a stone church at Khutin to St. 
Varlam, with a belfry on the top. The same year Eufemi, Vladyka 
of Great Novgorod, founded the monastery of St. Georgi in Gorodok; 
he repaired the stone wall, and renovated the Church of St. Georgi 
in parts which had fallen away, and had it painted, and roofed it 
with shingle; and it was a refuge for Christians. 

The same year Knyaz Yuri Lugvenevich came to Novgorod from 
Moscow, and the men of Novgorod gave him maintenance: grain 
from the districts, but they gave him no appanages ; and the Knyaz 
went away to Lithuania. 

The same winter the Veliki Knyaz Vasili sent two Tartar princes^ 
against the Lithuanian towns Vyazma and Bryansk and others, by 
surprise; and they made great havoc, burning, and taking many 
captives, nearly up to Smolensk. And hearing of this, Knyaz 
Kazimir of Lithuania sent out his Boyars and soldiers against 
Mozhaisk and other towns; and they took five towns and seized 
much territory, and there was great ruin to Christians. 

The same winter the Veliki Knyaz Vasili went against the Tartar 
Tsar Mahmed ; many Christians died from cold, others were slain by 
the Tartars who laid waste the country. But God aided the Veliki 
Knyaz Vasili, and the Tartars fled, others being slain. 

The same winter Knyaz Boris of Tver seized fifty Novgorod dis- 
tricts, ravaging Bezhitsy and the country about Torzhok, and 
he took Torzhok. 

The same winter the men of Novgorod sent Knyaz Yuri with 

1 Tsarevitsc^. 



202 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Boyars and merchants to a conference with the Nemtsy and the 
Master ; but the Master wanted the town of Ostrov, so they all dis- 
persed without peace. 

Bread was dear in Novgorod, and not only this year but during 
ten whole years: one poltina^ for two korobyas^; sometimes a 
little more, sometimes less ; sometimes there was none to be bought 
anywhere. And amongst the Christians there was great grief and 
distress ; only crying and sobbing were to be heard in the streets and 
market place, and many people fell down dead from hunger, chil- 
dren before their parents, fathers and mothers before their children; 
and many dispersed, some to Lithuania, others passed over to 
Latinism, and others to the Besermeny^ and to the Jews, giving 
themselves to the traders for bread. 

At the same time there was no law or justice in Novgorod; calum- 
niators arose and turned obligations and accounts and oaths to 
falsehood**; and began to rob in the town and in the villages and 
districts; we were exposed to the rebukes of our neighbours, who 
were around us. There was much confiscation, frequent demands 
for money, throughout the districts, with weeping and anguish and 
with outcries and curses on all sides against our seniors and our 
town: because there was no grace in us, nor justice. 

The same year Vladyka Eufemi erected a warm stone church to 
St. Eufemi at his Court, and he painted it and decorated it with 
pictures ; and all that was done in four months. 

The same year the people of Knyazhna erected the stone Church of 
the Holy-Women-who-brought-Myrrh, on the old foundation. 

The same year the stone Church of St. Dmitri was built in Russa. 

The same year Vasili Shenkurskoi and Mikhail Yakol, Voyevodas 
of Novgorod, with three thousand men from beyond the Volok 
went against the Yugra people, and after capturing many Yugra 
men with their wives and children, disbanded. And the Yugra 
people succeeded in deceiving them, saying thus: " We will pay you 
tribute, and we will count our numbers and show you our camps, 
settlements and islands and natural boundaries." At the same 
time they collected and attacked Vasili's fortress, killing many 
good men, Boyars' sons, and eighty other brave men. It was 
terrible to hear their destruction, but Vasili escaped with his son 

1 Half- Rouble. 

2 " Baskets." 

^ sc. Mussulmans. 
* sc. repudiated. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 203 

Semeon and a small party, and others fled into the forest and dis- 
persed. The other Voyevoda Mikhail Yakol was then on another 
river, and coming to Vasili's fortress and finding it demolished and 
his fellows killed and others scattered, he set about seeking his own 
people along the river. And Vasili and his son and the others 
joining him, they all returned to their own country. 

The same year the Murman Svei''- came in force by surprise to the 
Dvina^ beyond the Volok, to Nenoksa, plundering and burning, 
killing people and making many captives. And the people of the 
Dvina having heard, came up quickly, slew some and sent about 
forty to Novgorod, putting to death their Voyevodas Ivor and Peter 
and a third one; a few others jumping into their boats escaped. 

The same year there was a great sign in the town of Suzdal in 
the Cathedral Church of the Holy Mother of God, on April 20, the 
eve of the Wednesday of the fourth week after Easter, in the pre- 
sence of the Veliki Knyaz Vasili Vasilievich and of Avram, Bishop of 
Suzdal : the tombs of the Saints began suddenly to burn inside and 
to fall to pieces ; and on the morrow, the very day of middle term,^ 
the Cathedral Church of the Holy Mother of God collapsed. 

The same year the Veliki Knyaz Vasili gathered his forces and went 
against that same Mahmed; he reached Suzdal, and while he was in 
the Eufemi monastery the Tartars came upon him by surprise, and 
the Veliki Knyaz had a fierce fight with the Tartars, and for our sins 
the Veliki Knyaz was defeated; and having captured him the Tar- 
tars took him to the Horde and with him Knyaz Mikhail Ondreye- 
vich and a great many Boyars and monks and nuns and young 
people, and many others they slew. And. Knyaz Ivan Ondreyevich and 
Knyaz Vasili Yaroslavich escaped wounded, with a small following. 

And after this defeat by the Tartars there was the following calam- 
ity: six days afterwards, when from all sides the remainder of the 
people had hastened into Moscow with all their possessions, the inside 
of the town of Moscow took fire: and was entirely burnt, and about 
seven hundred Christians perished and all the property was burnt, and 
the cupola of the Cathedral Church of St. Mikhail fell in, and another 
church collapsed, that of the Exaltation of the honourable Cross. 

The same year, on August 7, the Vladyka of Great Novgorod, 
Vladyka Eufemi, having blessed his children the Posadniks and the 
Tysyaiskis and all Great Novgorod, went beyond the Volok 

1 Norsemen. 

2 The Northern Dvina (White Sea). 

^ i.e. half-way between Easter and Pentecost. 



204 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

to- bless the patrimony of Novgorod and his children and his 

diocese. 

The same year, on August 22, Knyaz Boris of Tver sent his Voyevo- 
das against Torzhok, and drove out the remainder of the people to 
rob them, others he destroyed, and from others he exacted ransom. 
He took away to Tver forty cartloads of goods and belongings of 
people of Moscow, of Novgorod and of Novi-torg; other cartloads 
of goods were lost in the river. And in two years he ravaged 
Bezhitsy and eighty districts beyond Borov. 

A.D. 1446. A.M. 6954. Tsar Mahmed let the Veliki Knyaz Vasih 
return to the Russian Land, taking a ransom 
of two hundred thousand roubles; and what else, God knows, and 
they. 

That same year the people began to find fault with the silver 
coinage, till all the men of Novgorod looked one at the other; 
there was tumult and rebeUion and animosity amongst them. 

And the Posadnik and the Tysyatski and all Novgorod appointed 
five minters, and they began to re-mould the old coins and to mint 
new coins of the same value: of the same weight of four pochki, 
and half a denga was taken off the new grivna. There w^as much 
distress and loss among the Christians in the town and in the dis- 
tricts. And this will not be forgotten even in the last generations. 

The same year, on January 3, there were heavy clouds with rain, 
and wheat and rye and corn were beaten down altogether,^ both in 
the fields, and in the forests, all round the town for five versts from 
the Volkhovets [river], and as far as the Msta river, for fifteen 
versts. The people bore into the town whatever they could gather 
up; and the townspeople collected to see this curious marvel, whence 
and how it came. 

The same winter, on January 23, the Vladyka returned to Nov- 
gorod from the country beyond the Volok, and on the 30th of the 
same month, the day of the three holy Bishops Vasili the Great, 
Grigori the Theologian, and loan Zlatoust,^ Vladyka Eufemi in 
congregation consecrated the warm Church of St. Eufemi.^ 

A.D. 1446. The same year three Knyazes: Dmitri 

Yurievich, Ivan Andreyevich of Mozhaisk 

and Boris Alexandrovich of Tver, with two of the Tsar's envoys, 

1 sc. the autumn-sown crops. 

* John Chrysostom. 

* Here this text ends ; the following is added from another text. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 205 

conspired together; they ordered the levy of a contribution and 
took the money. 

The same year those same three Knyazes caught the Veliki Knyaz 
Vasih Vasihevich in the Trinity monastery, behind the Sergiev 
tomb, and bhnded him; and Dmitri Yurievich became Veliki Knyaz.^ 

[a.d. 1471. A.M. 6979. The Veliki Kttyaz loan Vasihevich marched 
with a force against Novgorod the Great 
because of its wrong doing and lapsing into Latinism.^ 

Concerning these^ this is a copy of the introductory words to the 
narrative of the first taking [of Novgorod] by the Veliki Knyaz 
loan Vasihevich of all Russia, the grandfather of the Veliki Knyaz 
loan Vasilievich* of all Russia, when there were dissensions in Great 
Novgorod. 

King of kings, and Lord of lords, God supreme and ruling and 
strong, Owner and Creator of all, our Lord Jesus Christ, keep ever- 
lasting kingdom, having neither beginning nor end. That one only 
is all powerful whom the Creator of Heaven and earth and all else 
may create of His own will ; power and glory he is pleased to give to 
him, the sceptres of empire He entrusts him with, and by His merci- 
fulness estabhshes all virtue, and pours his grace on all who fear him. 
It is written in the old books as it was said: " A country wishing to 
be ruled in the face of God sets up a prince who is pious and just, 
regardful of his kingdom and of the governing the land, and loving 
justice and truth." Of those, it is said, who in goodness build 
earthly [kingdoms] receive also a heavenly one. Truly has the Lord 
God of His unspeakable mercy with His life-bearing right hand 
raised a chief over the God-loved Russian Land, who maintains it in 
truth and piety, whose honourable head is filled with wisdom, who 
has organized it hke to a lamp of illumination of piety, a promoter 
of truth, a guardian of godly law, a strong champion of Orthodoxy, 
the honourable, pious and trusty Veliki Knyaz loan Vasihevich of all 
Russia. The Lord God and the most pure Mother of God by 
their unspeakable mercy have committed to him the prosperity and 

1 Here ends the Chronicle proper. The record for the year 1471 (edited 
in the sixteenth century, under Ivan the Terrible) has been added, because it 
gives a detailed account of the final suppression of the independence of Nov- 
gorod by Ivan III ' the Great' of Moscow. 

2 From Number Two Chronicle : Ivan Vasihevich the Veliki Knyaz came to 
Novgorod with an armed force; he camped on the river Shelon, and took a 
ransom of 16,000 Roubles. 

3 sc. the people of Novgorod. 

* Ivan IV "the Terrible," {Grozny.) 



206 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

the strengthening of all; extending their godly mercy through 
shedding the hght of rehgion over Russian Lands. 

Likewise it is written : Length of days, and long hfe and peace shall 
be added to thee, and he found favour and was beloved for his 
righteous acts, the Veliki Knyaz of all Russia, loan Vasilievich; 
yet the deceitful people would not submit to him; stirred by a 
savage pride, the men of Novgorod would not obey their sovereign 
Veliki Knyaz, until they were reminded of the great piety of old 
times told to them. For that reason did their fame abate, and their 
face was covered with shame: by reason of the men of Novgorod 
leaving the light and giving themselves over in their pride to the 
darkness of ignorance, saying that they would draw away and 
attach themselves to the Latins. 

Thus have these inchned away from their sovereign the Veliki 
Knyaz, wishing to give themselves over to the Latin king, bringing 
evil to all Orthodoxy. The pious sovereign and Veliki Knyaz of all 
Russia, loan Vasilievich, has frequently sent his messengers to them, 
calling on them to keep his patrimony from all harm, to improve 
themselves in all things within his ancestral estates, and to live 
according to old custom. He suffered much in these things from 
their vexatious ways and contumacy within his paternal domains, 
while he expected from them a thorough amendment of their 
conduct towards himself and a respectful submission. 

And again when the Novgorod Posadnik Vasili Ananin came as 
envoy from Great Novgorod, the patrimony of the Veliki Knyaz, 
laying before him all the affairs of Novgorod, he did not say a single 
word of the ill-behaviour of the men of Novgorod and of their failure 
to amend their ways, but in reply to the Boyars of the Veliki Knyaz 
Vasili he said: " Under that head I have no instructions from Great 
Novgorod, and I have no orders to speak." The sovereign Veliki 
Knyaz was sorely aggrieved by their churhshness, who, while 
sending to him men from his patrimonial domains to implore favours, 
bear themselves with insolence and are unmindful of their mis- 
behaviour. Therefore has the Veliki Knyaz laid his anger upon 
them, upon the land of his inheritance, upon Great Novgorod, and 
he has commanded Vasili, the Novgorod envoy, to teU Great 
Novgorod: " Mend your ways towards me, my patrimony, and recog- 
nize us ; encroach not on my lands and my waters, and keep my name 
of Veliki Knyaz in strictness and in honour as of old; and send to me, 
the Veliki Knyaz, representatives to do homage and to make settle- 
ment. I desire to keep you, my patrimony, in good favour, on the 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 207 

old conditions." With that he dismissed him, informing his patri- 
mony that his power of endurance was exhausted, and that he would 
not suffer their misbehaviour and contumacy any longer. 

The Veliki Knyaz sent also to Pskov, his patrimony, repeating 
the same words and with commands to acquaint Pskov with the 
opposition to him of his patrimony Great Novgorod, and to say: 
" H you send to me, the Veliki Knyaz, with due homage, then I 
will hold them in my favour; but if my patrimony. Great Novgorod, 
fails in so doing, then must you be ready to act against them with 
me." And after this the Vladyka lona of Great Novgorod and of 
Pskov died amongst them, and the men of Novgorod chose the 
monk Feofil^ as their father to occupy his place, without reference 
to the Veliki Knyaz Ivan Vasilievich of all Russia. And it was 
after this selection that they sent their Boyar, Nikita Savin, to the 
Veliki Knyaz Ivan Vasilievich of all Russia to ask on behalf of Great 
Novgorod, the patrimony of the Veliki Knyaz, for letters of safe con- 
duct ; and Nikita in the name also of all Great Novgorod prayed Filip 
the Metropolitan of all Russia and the spiritual father of the Veliki 
Knyaz, as well as the Knyaginya Marya, the mother of the Veliki 
Knyaz, to intercede for them with the Veliki Knyaz, in obtaining 
guarantee of security in submitting their petition for Feofil whom 
the men of Novgorod had nominated, for the Posadniks and Tysyat- 
skis and Boyars who would come to Moscow to do homage to the 
Veliki Knyaz and to obtain confirmation of Feofil as Vladyka of 
Novgorod the Great and of Pskov, with the white hood, that they 
might all depart again in freedom. The Veliki Knyaz acceding to 
the solicitations of his spiritual father the Metropolitan and of his 
mother the Knyaginya Marya, granted letters of security and with- 
drew his displeasure from his patrimony Great Novgorod. Yet the 
men of Novgorod, gone mentally astray, and forgetful of this, 
went not in fear of God's words spoken to the whole congregation 
of the children of Israel. 

Those ancient Israelites hearkened not to the words of God, and 
they did not obey his commandments ; they were therefore deprived 
of the promised land and were scattered over many countries. 
Thus also the people of Novgorod, enraged by the pride in them, 
followed in the ways of the old desertion and have been false to 
their sovereign the Veliki Knyaz, choosing to have a Latin ruler as 
their sovereign, and having before that accepted from him in 
Great Novgorod the Knyaz Mikhail Alexandrovich of Kiev, keeping 

^ Theophilus. 



208 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

him a long time in Novgorod, doing offence in this wise to their 
sovereign Ivan Vasilievich the Veliki Knyaz of all Russia. By their 
artful devices they won over evilly inclined men, who were thus 
caught in the nets of the snarer and destroyer of the soul of man, 
the many-headed beast and cunning enemy, the devil; like a living 
hell has he devoured them by his evil counsel. 

That tempter the devil entered in their midst into the wily Marfa^ 
Boretskaya, widow of Isaak Boretski, and that accursed [woman] 
entangled herself in words of guile with the Lithuanian Knyaz 
Mikhail. On his persuasion she intended to marry a Lithuanian 
Boy ar, to become Queen, meaning to bring him to Great Novgorod 
and to rule with him under the suzerainty of the King over the whole 
of the Novgorod region. 

This accursed Marfa like to them beguiled the people, diverting 
them from the right way to Latinism, for the dark deceits of Latinism 
bhnded her soul's eyes through the wiles of the cunning devil and 
the wicked imaginings of the Lithuanian Knyaz. And being of 
one mind with her, prompted to evil by the proud devil Satan, Pimin 
the monk and the almoner of the old Vladyka, the cunning [man], 
engaged with her in secret whispering and helped her in every 
wickedness, seeking to take the place of his lord as Vladyka of Great 
Novgorod during his life, having suffered much punishment for 
his rogueries ; his desire had not been gratified, inasmuch as the Lord 
God had not favoured him in the drawing of the lot, and he was not, 
therefore, accepted by the people for the high office. That wicked 
man is hke Peter the Stammerer, the first perverter of the faith, or 
like the ancient Farmos, those originators of the Latin heresies ; and 
they were followed in our time by the apostate Metropolitan Isidor 
who attended the eighth Veche of Rome at Florence, tempted by 
the Pope's gold and coveting a cardinalship, seceding to Latinism. 
Among these is also Grigori, his apostate pupil, who is now in Kiev 
called Metropolitan ; but he is not received into our great Orthodox 
church of the Russian Land, but excluded. 

This cunning monk Pimin sought his appointment by the apostate 
Grigori, spreading it among the people that he should be sent to 
Kiev where he would receive his confirmation, being unmindful of 
the words in the Holy Gospels spoken by the lips of our Lord: " He 
that entereth not by the door into the sheep-fold, but climbeth up 
some other way, the same is a thief and a robber." Now this 
cunning man not only sought like a wolf to climb over the fence 
into the sheep-fold of the house of Israel, but to scatter and to 

'i.e. Martha. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 209 

destroy God's church; and he in this wise ruined the whole of the 
Novgorod land, the accursed one. According to the Prophet: 
" He made not God his strength, but trusted in the abundance of 
his riches and strengthened himself in his wickedness." This 
Pimin did similarly trust in the abundance of his riches, giving of 
them also to the crafty woman Marfa, and ordering many people 
to give money to her to buy over the people to their will ; and this 
accursed wicked serpent fearing not God and having no shame 
before man, has spread destruction throughout all the Novgorod 
land and destroyed many souls. 

The most venerable priest-monk Feofil, their spiritual father, 
nominated to the Vladyka-ship, exhorted them to refrain from their 
wicked ways, but they would not hearken to him, and he tried many 
times to withdraw to his cell in his own monastery, but they would 
not let him go, while they persevered in their wicked design. 

The Veliki Knyaz loan Vasilievich, hearing of what was doing in 
his patrimony, Novgorod the Great, of the uncurbed outrages of his 
people who were like the waves of the sea, bethought him of these 
occurrences in the goodness of his heart, yet he did not hasten to 
show his wrath, but quieted his most honest soul with a goodly 
patience, filled, like the Apostle, with the fear of God, and in remem- 
brance of the holy light of the righteous Son, of Christ's merciful 
long-suffering, when the word of God came down from heaven and 
humbling himself, he descended to the earth, taking the form of a 
servant for the salvation of mankind ; the Veliki Knyaz allowed them 
sufficient time, saying to himself: " Thou art just, O Lord, and thy 
judgments are correct; and as the Lord is just, so may I, loving 
justice, be just in His sight." Thinking thus, being favourably 
incHned towards his patrimony', and not being desirous of witnessing 
the shedding of Christian blood, he said to himself: " Even as the 
waves dash into foam against the rocks and come to naught, so 
also our people the men of Novgorod have more than once acted 
treasonably towards us, and the Lord God will subdue them." 
With this view he commanded his [spiritual] father Filip, the 
Metropolitan of all Russia, to write to them in his name, admonish- 
ing them, and instructing them not to draw away from the light of 
piety, to abandon their evil designs, and to withstand the darkness 
of the Latin allurements. The Metropolitan of all Russia did 
repeatedly write to Novgorod the Great, sending his blessing and 
writing instructions from the sacred Book: " It has come to my 
hearing, my sons, that some among you are endeavouring to cause 



210 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

a great rebellion and to produce dissent in God's holy church, to 
renounce the Orthodox Christian faith, and to pass over to the Latins. 
You must disadvise those wicked people among you from their evil 
inclinations, for, my sons, theirs is false and godless work; for by 
abandoning the light of piety they wiU unwittingly bring down upon 
themselves the future judgment of God and many eternal tor- 
ments; let them be guided by a godly wisdom and by God's com- 
mandments. Stand in fear of the wrath of God, and in dread 
of the awful scythe which was seen by the great prophet Zachariah 
descending from heaven upon the unruly; you must punish those 
who make tumult and sow dissension among you, and teach them to 
walk in the old ways of their fathers and to dwell in the former ways 
of peace and piety. Cruel and irremediable will be the effects of 
these beginnings, if you neglect the new law of piety and salvation 
of the testament of the living God, and adhere to Latinism. The 
Lord God will call to account all the godless perverters of the faith- 
ful, so that you must restrain the evil-doers according to the words: 
' Fly from sin as from a foe; fly from deceit as from the face of 
a serpent, that it may not sting thy soul with the barb of eternal 
perdition.' You know, my sons, how many cities, countries and 
places of mighty kingdoms have been ruined and desolated in former 
times for breaking the law and for disobeying the Prophets and for 
not following the teachings of the Apostles and the holy Fathers; 
that countries and cities which did not submit to God and to their 
sovereign were destroyed. The once pious and great Imperial city 
of Constantinople perished because of that same Latinism; it fell 
through impiety, and is now possessed by the heathen Turk. Fear 
the wrath of God, ye sons of God's world, it is not only one or two 
among you who are working to depart from the truth and to turn 
from the right way, forgetting your past greatness and the laws 
of your fore-fathers; but the whole multitude of your people are in 
commotion. Submit yourselves, my sons, to him under whose 
strong arm God has placed you and the God-serving land of Russia, 
the Veliki Knyaz loan Vasilievich our hereditary ruler, according to 
the direction of Christ's Apostle Paul the teacher of the universe, 
who said: ' Whosoever submits to the power of God, obeys His ordi- 
nances, but whosoever resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance 
of God; ' and again: ' Fear God and obey the king.' The minister 
of God beareth not the sword in vain as an avenger, but also in de 
fence of the godly. Ponder, therefore, my children, over these things, 
and humble yourselves, and may the God of peace be with you." 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 211 

They remained, however, not only implacable, but also stone- 
hearted, and gave no attention to the above writing, and were as 
deaf as adders, closing their ears to the voice, as it were, of the 
charmers. So these men of Novgorod giving no heed to the writ- 
ing, nor accepting the benediction, and continuing in their evil 
courses, could not be compacted [in the right]. The pious sovereign 
and Veliki Knyaz of all Russia loan Vasilievich being still gracious 
to them, sent to Great Novgorod, his patrimony, his servant loan 
Fedorovich Tovarkov with fair words, saying: " His patrimony 
should not abandon the Orthodox faith, but cast the evil thought 
from off their hearts, and should not adhere to Latinism; that the 
great sovereign holds the men of Novgorod in favour and in his 
regards as of old." But the wicked people minded him not, and 
clung to the intention of abandoning Orthodoxy and giving them- 
selves over to the king. We will state the accusation against 
them. 

The Veliki Knyaz being informed of the unceasing evil doings of 
the men of Novgorod, dispatched to Novgorod the Great a chal- 
lenge in writing, exposing the malpractices of the people and their 
treason, and announcing that he was himself marching with a force 
against them. The Veliki Knyaz had first sent his Voyevodas 
Vasili Fedorovich Obrazets and Boris Matvej'evich Tyushtev with 
his men of Ustyug, of Vyatka and of the Vologda district, to the 
Dvina and the country beyond the Volok, and into all the ter- 
ritories of Novgorod in those parts. In advance of his own force 
the Veliki Knyaz sent an army under his Voyevodas, Knyaz Danilo 
Dmitrievich Kholmski and his Boyar Fedor Davidovich, accompanied 
by many others of his court ; they were ordered to scour the country 
around Novgorod, towards Russa beyond the Ilmen lake and to 
burn all places of habitation. To his patrimony Pskov the Veliki 
Knyaz sent to say that the men of Pskov should release themselves 
from their engagement on oath to Great Novgorod, and take to 
horse in his service against Novgorod which had abjured Orthodoxy 
and was giving itself to the Latin king. They issued forth at once 
with all the men of the country of Pskov, and at the instance of the 
Veliki Knyaz they revoked their oath on the Cross to Novgorod the 
Great. 

The pious sovereign and Veliki Knyaz loan Vasilievich prayed to 
God and to the most pure Mother of God, shedding many tears before 
them, beseeching their mercy for the pacification of the world, and 
for the well-being of God's holy churches and the Orthodox faith. 

P2 



212 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

His heart filled with sorrow, he said to himself: " It is known to 
Thee, Almighty God and everlasting King, who knowest the secrets 
of all men's hearts, it is not of my own desire and will that I dare 
to do this which may cause much shedding of Christian blood upon 
this earth. I stand by the godly laws of the holy Apostles and holy 
Fathers and for the true Orthodox faith of the Russian Land, also 
for my patrimony and against their renunciation of the true faith 
and adoption of Latinism." And praying thus, the pious worker 
invoked to his aid the great defender and speedy helper in war, the 
Voyevoda of the celestial forces, the Archistrategos Mikhail, and 
the great unconquerable sufferers for Christ, Dmitri of Selun} 
Georgi the Brave and Feodor Stratilat,^ also his saintly and Orthodox 
ancestors St. Vladimir and his two sons Boris and Gleb; and putting 
his trust in the prayers of the Saints, of the great sanctifier loan 
Zlatoust,^ the Bishop of Tsargrad,'^ the miracle- worker Nikola, 
Peter the Russian Metropolitan, Alexis the miracle-worker and 
Russian Metropolitan, St. Leonti the miracle-worker and Bishop of 
Rostov, and the Saints and miracle- workers Sergei, Varlam, and 
Kiril, and Nikita the almoner of the miracle-worker of Pereyaslavl. 
By their prayers might he be strengthened and established for 
many years by the Lord God with His help from on high. 

And so putting his trust in God, the Veliki Knyaz mounted his 
horse ; and in the house of the Most Pure Mother of God and of the 
great Sanctifier Peter the miracle-worker, he left his son the faith- 
ful and pious Veliki Knyaz loan loanovich to sit in his throne in 
Moscow in guard of his patrimony and to govern the land of Russia ; 
he left his younger brother Knyaz Andrei Vasilievich with him, and 
he commanded his son to retain by him the Tsarevich Murtasa, 
the son of Tsar Mustafa, with his Knyazes and Kazaks,^ to serve 
him on any emergency. 

The Veliki Knyaz took along with him his younger brother 
Knyaz Yuri Vasilievich and his youngest brothers Andrei and 
Boris Vasilievich, also Knyaz Mikhail Andreyevich with his son Vasili, 
with a large number of other Knyazes in his service, and Boyars 
and Voyevodas; he took with him also the son of Tsar Aldayaras 
Kasimovich of the Meshcher country with his Kazaks and retinue. The 
men of Pskov joined their forces from the borders of their country. 

1 Salonika. 

- Theodore Stratelates. 

* John Chrysostom. 

* Constantinople. ^ Bodyguard. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 213 

Thus did the Veliki Knyaz advance with all his host against his 
patrimonial domain Novgorod the Great because of the rebellious 
spirit of the people, their pride and their conversion to Latinism. 
With a numerous and overpowering force he occupied the entire 
Novgorod country from border to border, visiting every part of it 
with the dread powers of his fire and sword. As in ancient times 
Jeremiah prophesied of Nebuchadnezzar, King of Jerusalem: 
" From the rumbling and thunder of his chariots and from the neigh- 
ing of his horses the earth shall tremble; " and so by the mercy and 
aid of God shall the same prophecy be fulfilled in our time over the 
wicked men of the Novgorod country, through the pious sovereign 
Veliki Knyaz loan Vasilievich of all Russia, for their abjuration of 
the faith and for their wrong-doing. 

The Novgorod country is filled with lakes and swamps, for which 
reason mounted forces were never employed against Novgorod by 
former Veliki Knyazes and the wicked people in their wonted con- 
tumacy dwelled in security during the summer after, following their 
own evil ways from the autumn to the winter, and even up to spring 
time, by reason of the inundation of the lands. 

By the beneficence of God, vouchsafed by God from on high to the 
Veliki Knyaz loan Vasilievich of all Russia to the detriment of the 
Novgorod land, not a drop of rain had fallen during the summer, from 
the month of May to the month of September the land was dry and 
the heat of the sun had dried up all the swamps. The troops of the 
Veliki Knyaz found no impediments and could ride in every direc- 
tion over the country, driving the cattle over dried ground; thus 
did the Lord God through this desiccation punish the men of Nov- 
gorod for their evil-doing and subject them to the strong hand of 
the pious sovereign and Veliki Knyaz loan Vasilievich of all Russia. 
When the men of Novgorod heard that the Veliki Knyaz was march- 
ing upon them with a large army, those cunning men sent to him 
professions of duty and again asked for guarantees of security while 
proceeding with their evil doing. At the same time they sent forces 
from Novgorod the Great by the Ilmen lake in boats against the 
advancing columns of the Veliki Knyaz, and fought them ; but God 
aided the Voyevodas of the Veliki Knyaz, and 500 men of Novgorod 
were killed and others were captured or drowned, while others fled 
back to the town informing the townsmen that they had been 
defeated by the Voyevodas of the Veliki Knyaz. Thrown into 
great agitation, the men of Novgorod, after deliberation, dis- 
patched another messenger to the Veliki Knyaz, Posadnik Luka 



214 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

Klementievich, doing homage and again asking for guarantee of 
security and ignoring the defeated force which had passed down in 
boats, declared that as yet no men from the town had fought with 
those of the Veliki Knyaz. 

Without waiting for the return of their venturesome envoy the 
crafty people conceived a great wicked design ; the rebel Posadniks 
and Tysyaiskis, the Boyars, well-to-do men, the merchants and the 
whole of Great Novgorod collected together forming a fighting body 
of fully 30,000 men, being unaware that the sword of God was sharp- 
ened against them, and mounting their horses, rode quickly out 
of the town to fall upon the advance force of the Veliki Knyaz 
which was led by Knyaz Danilo Dmitrievich and by Fedor David- 
ovich. Here befell what was said by David the Prophet: "By the 
morning shall all the wicked of the earth be slain ; I shall destroy all 
the lawless of the city." When the watchers and the scouts in- 
formed the Voyevodas that a large force of mounted men was ad- 
vancing from Novgorod, and that an auxiliary force was coming 
in boats, into the Shelon river, then the Voyevodas of the Veliki 
Knyaz began to acknowledge the justice of the Knyaz' s cause and 
the perfidy of the men of Novgorod and, praying to the Lord God 
and to the most pure Mother of God, and reposing their trust in God, 
they said to their compan}^: " It is our duty, brothers, to serve our 
sovereign the Veliki Knyaz loan Vasilievich of all Russia, and were 
they 300,000 strong we should all the same lay down our lives in 
fighting for the cause of our sovereign Veliki Knyaz; and God and 
the holy Mother of God know that the cause of the Veliki Knyaz 
is a just cause." 

Early on the morning of July 14, the day of the Apostle St. Kuld, 
the entire force of the men of Novgorod was ranged on the Shelon 
river, and the opposing armies faced each other across the river. 

When they saw the forces of the men of Novgorod the troops of 
the Veliki Knyaz precipitated themselves into the river on their 
horses, not one of their horses stumbling in descending the steep bank, 
nor floundering in the water, and closing up they rushed upon the 
whole body of the men of Novgorod and they joined in battle. And 
here was fulfilled what was said by the Prophet: " Like drunken 
men did they stagger and fall into confusion, and all their under- 
standing was swallowed up; " and again: " As in drowsiness they 
mounted their horses, terrible art Thou, O Lord; who can stand 
against Thee ? " 

Thus was God's favour bestowed on the troops of the Veliki 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 215 

Knyaz, maintaining his just cause; even as God helped Gideon 
against the Midianites, and Abraham against the king Hodologo- 
nwr of Sodom, so did he aid the Voyevodas of the Veliki Knyaz 
against these unrighteous backshders, the men of Novgorod. 
Although they rebelled and arrayed themselves against the troops 
of the Veliki Knyaz, yet they could not raise strong hands against 
them, but themselves fell into confusion from the stretching of their 
arrowed bows, and from the weapons of their hands. Thus likewise 
did God in his goodness turn their faces in an hour's time, as they 
threw down their arms and fled back whence they had come; they 
ran in disgrace, casting away their armour to relieve their horses of 
weight, and a great number of them fell dead, for their lawlessness 
and for their rebellion against their sovereign the Veliki Knyaz. 
It did not appear to them that they were stricken by men's hands, 
but by the invisible power of the Living God and by the aid of the 
great Archistrategos Mikhail, the leader of the heavenly forces. All 
were in great terror and many fell dead with their faces to the earth, 
while others throwing themselves off their horses ran into the 
forests where they strayed like cattle in their separate ways, — being 
there no married men amongst them, — but hearing on all sides the 
shout of " Moskva "^ from the troops of the Veliki Knyaz. 

So did the Lord fill their wicked souls with dread that they strayed 
in the forests not knowing their own country. The troops of the 
righteous sovereign and Veliki Knyaz triumphing over them by 
God's mercy, chased the wicked men of Novgorod tv^&niy poprishche'^ 
killing many and taking others alive, while others were drowned in 
their boats in the Shelon river. 

The troops on the field of battle proclaimed their victory by 
trumpet sound and kissed the sacred images, glorifying God for 
their victory over their presumptuous enemies. 

And searching in the transport they found a writing which was 
the draft of an agreement between Novgorod and the king.^ This 
was a surprise, and it caused astonishment, and the papers were 
forthwith sent to the Veliki Knyaz loan Vasilievich by the hand of 
the Boyar Ivan Vasilievich Zamyatin; he was to report that a large 
army of Novgorod men had advanced against them with banners 
with the best men among them, and had fought desperately, but 
that God had aided the Voyevodas of the Veliki Knyaz, that the 
great Novgorod army was completely defeated, that many Nov- 

1 Moscow. 

■ About 20 versts. " Of Poland. 



216 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

gorod men had fallen, and many had been captured, to the number 
of 1,700; that here were the copies of a treaty with the King of Po- 
land, and with these they sent a prisoner, the man who had written 
out the draft, to serve the Veliki Knyaz in his accusation of the 
crafty men of Novgorod. 

The pious Veliki Knyaz was gladdened by the unspeakable mercy 
of God in the aid given to him from on high against his cunning 
enemies. Praising God and the most pure Mother of God for 
having frustrated their wicked design of corrupting the sacred 
churches of God, of causing agitations and of producing hostilities 
between great sovereigns to the utter discomfiture of all Orthodoxy. 
He found among the documents the draft of a treaty with the 
king, by the terms of which the men of Novgorod agreed to sur- 
render all the towns and districts of the Veliki Knyaz, with his lands 
and waters and with all the taxes of Novgorod the Great, setting 
forth the names of the envoys to be sent to the king — Panfili Seli- 
fontov and Kurila Ivanov, son of Makar — and naming him "our 
honourable king and sovereign." It is written, that their sickness 
shall turn upon their heads and their untruth shall descend upon 
them. So may it be with them for their craftiness and evil counsels. 

The pious Veliki Knyaz of all Russia loan Vasilievich, having 
prayed to God and to the most pure Mother of God, went forward 
in his great work to Novgorod the Great, with his younger brothers 
Knyaz Yuri Vasilievich and Knyaz Andrei Vasilievich and Knyaz 
Boris Vasilievich, with the [Tartar] Tsarevich, with all his Knyazes 
and Voyevodas and with all the people of his lands, hastening to his 
Voyevodas and to his advance army. 

When the men of Novgorod were brought before the Veliki 
Knyaz, he, the pious one, with a godly wisdom accused the crafty 
men of their cunning and dishonourable proceedings, of departing 
from the light of true worship and giving themselves up to Latinism, 
of surrendering themselves to the Latin king while being the 
patrimony of him the Veliki Knyaz; and of surrendering to the 
Latin king according to the draft of a treaty with him all the towns, 
districts, lands and waters which belonged to him the Veliki Knyaz 
of Moscow, together with the taxes. Having found them guilty of 
all this, and being thus stirred against the men of Novgorod, he 
ordered them to execution by the sword, the chief Posadniks, 
among whom was Dmitri the eldest son of the charming Marfa, 
the town Posadnik; and she was also to lose her life by decapitation ; 
together with these Vasili Seleznev Guba, Kiprian Arzubiev and 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 217 

leremia were also beheaded for their conspiracy and crime in seeking 
to take to Latinism. Many other Posadniks, Tysyatskis, Boyars 
and men of substance of Novgorod were sent away to various towns 
or thrown into prisons, while others were retained in the fortress 
under charge to bide their time. 

When God's aid came down from on high, with the leader of the 
heavenly host, the great Archistrategos Mikhail, in that hour Great 
Novgorod trembled before the wrath of God, and the Posadniks, 
the Tysyatskis, the men of substance, the Boyars, the merchants, and 
all the land of Novgorod turned their hearts towards good. 

So did those men of Novgorod come unanimously to one decision ; 
taking with them the priest-hermit Feofil, nominated Vladyka of 
Novgorod the Great and of Pskov, the Archimandrites, and Igumens, 
the worthy fathers and hermits, the priests from all the seven cathe- 
dral churches, and a great number of the best men of the town, they 
went to the pious sovereign and Veliki Knyaz of all Russia loan 
Vasilievich, and all of them prostrating themselves before him, they 
repented them with tears and in great sorrow of their crimes, pray- 
ing: " Merciful lord and Veliki Knyaz of all Russia loan Vasilievich, 
for the Lord's sake pardon us guilty men of Novgorod the Great 
your patrimony; grant us. Lord, your favour, withdraw your anger, 
hold back your sword and extinguish your fires, silence your thun- 
ders, spare the land from ruin, be merciful and let your irresponsible 
people see the light." 

And they all came on many days to his brothers, Knyaz Yuri 
Vasilievich, iiTw^'a^; Andrei Vasilievich, and to Knyaz Boris Vasilievich, 
humbling themselves before them and praying them to plead for 
them to their elder brother, the Veliki Knyaz loan Vasilievich ; and 
on many days they likewise visited the Boyars, the Knyazes and 
Voyevodas, beseeching them because of the sorrows of all Great 
Novgorod to plead for them, before the Veliki Ktiyaz. The gracious 
brothers of the Veliki Knyaz, Knyaz Yuri Vasilievich, Knyaz Andrei 
Vasilievich, and Knyaz Boris Vasilievich, favoured them as of their 
patrimony, and compassionating them, and together with all the 
Knyazes and Boyars, did plead for them before their brother the 
Veliki Knyaz of all Russia, praying him to have regard for them of his 
patrimony and to lay aside the wrath in his heart. The gracious 
and intelligent sovereign Veliki Knyaz of all Russia, loan Vasilievich, 
seeing before him such a multitude of penitent people, and among 
them his own priests, the hermit priest Feofil, the Vladyka-elect 
of Novgorod the Great and of Pskov, who had grieved sore many 



218 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

days, as also his brothers and the Boyars and Knyazes in supphca- 
tion before him, and the righteous Veliki Knyaz being also mindful 
of the writing he had received from his spiritual father Filip, 
Metropohtan of all Russia in which as pastor and teacher of Christ's 
flock the Metropolitan entreated the Veliki Knyaz, with his blessing, 
to be merciful to the people of his patrimony, those many Orthodox 
Christians for whose souls he grieved, and for the sake of Christian 
peace to accept their petitions, and remembering also the words 
which came from the mouth of our Lord: " Be merciful even as our 
Father in heaven, forgive man's trespasses as your Father will 
forgive yours," and again: " Blessed is the merciful," so because of 
these words spoken by God, and of all these intercessions, the 
Veliki Knyaz granted grace to his patrimony, to Feofil the Vladyka- 
elect of Novgorod the Great and of Pskov, to the Posadniks, 
Tysyatskis, merchants and to the whole of Novgorod the Great : he 
withdrew from them the anger of his heart, withheld his sword and 
his menace over the land, and commanded that all the captives 
should be freed without ransom. He put a termination to the war 
and to plunder; and as to taxes and tribute, he settled them all in 
writing, on oath, after which the Veliki Knyaz withdrew from his 
patrimonial domains of Novgorod peacefuUy with his brothers, his 
Boyars, with the Knyazes and Voyevodas and with all his armed 
forces. 

From his Voyevodas operating on the Dvina the Veliki Knyaz 
received communications to the effect that they had defeated 
Knyaz Vasili Shuiski, the servant of Great Novgorod, who with 
mfen from the country beyond the Volok, from the Dvina country 
and from the Korel region had advanced in large numbers and had 
fought with them great battles from morning to night on land and 
on water, but that God had aided the forces of the Veliki Knyaz 
under Voyevoda Vasili Fedorovich and his comrades, that a large 
number of the men of Novgorod were slain and others captured; 
so were the men of Novgorod overcome with fatigue and staggered 
in battle that they could not move their hands or turn their heads ; 
that their Knyaz was wounded by an arrow and was taken away in a 
boat by his men, being barely ahve, and that the towns on the Dvina 
had been burned and demolished. Thus did God's grace and mercy 
descend from on high in aid of the right of our sovereign the righteous 
and pious Veliki Knyaz loan Vasilievich of all Russia. On receipt 
of this intelligence the pious Veliki Knyaz gave praise to God and 
to the most pure Mother of God for those great mercies, and re- 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 219 

turned to his throne in the God-protected city of Moscow on the 
1st day of September of the new year 6980 (1472). 

Having received their Hberty from their sovereign loan Vasihevich 
the Veliki Knyaz of all Russia, the men of Novgorod at once dis- 
persed from out of the town to their several homes. A large number 
of people proceeded to Russa in big vessels, and to the Volkhov 
river with their wives and children and possessions; their cattle and 
with their movable houses, going to the places of their residence by 
the Ilmen lake, or by way of the Russa lake, the breadth from shore 
to shore on all sides being sixty poprishche.^ When their numerous 
big vessels reached the middle of the lake, a storm with a hurricane 
of wind broke suddenly upon them, and tore their sails; there was 
terrible thunder and heav}^ rain with hail, and waves of mountain 
height, and dreadful, broke up their barges and all their big vessels 
in the middle of that frightful lake. There was in that hour an over- 
whelming terror and a raging storm, with shrieking and crying, 
many people clinging to each other, bitterly bewailing their peril, 
and in their agony tearing their clothes; mothers embracing their 
infants, fathers their sons, while shedding many tears and praying : 
" Lord save us, in the hour of our destruction and of our separation 
from the evils of this world." Sadness and woe to those who take 
to evil ! This was not within sight of their friends, and they got 
no help from them; unless it came from on high, because of the 
straits of the great city and the angry spirit pervading it ; the while 
that the big vessels were being shattered and wrecked, and all the 
men and women with their children were perishing in the deep waters 
separating from each other and tumbling about at the will of the 
waves which left nothing living in the waters, but all drowned and 
put to death. It was heard afterwards that the number of drowned 
in the lake was 7,000. Thus did God punish his people of the 
Novgorod country for their wicked imaginings, those evil-minded 
men, even for relinquishing their faith and inclining to Latinism. 
When it came to the ears of Great Novgorod that on the Dvina the 
Voyevodas of the Veliki Knyaz had beaten Knyaz Vasili Shuiski 
and the Novgorod men, while a large multitude had been drowned in 
the lake, then tears were added to tears, and wailings to wailings, 
realizing that the whole of the Novgorod country was by the wrath 
of the Veliki Knyaz of all Russia, loan Vasilievich, burned and laid 
waste by war, with its best men driven out, which had never hap- 
pened to them before. But all this evil and ruin they had brought 
1 About 40 miles. 



220 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

upon themselves by their cunning and faithlessness and for their 
going over to Latinism, having allowed themselves to be misled by 
cunning people and rebels; and that civic disaster and human blood 
shall they be made to account for by the Almighty God, according 
to the writing: " Lord! destroy the provokers of strife; and let the 
consequences fall on the heads of the traitors and on their souls in 
this world and in the next, amen." 



APPENDIX. 

Grivna was the old Russian equivalent of " pound "; the word 
originally seems to have meant a circular ingot of silver. 

Kuny (nom. pi. from Kuna = a marten) came to mean money in 
general, which took the form in earliest times of the heads of martens 
or squirrels; grivna kun (gen. pi.) meant a monetary pound, a pound 
of martens. 

The grivna contained twenty nogaty (nom. pi. from nogata), or 
twenty-five Kuny, or fifty rezany (nom. pi. from rezana) — all 
names of monetary units in the shape of paws, heads, or skins of 
various animals. 

There existed also metallic Kuny, and 2| of these equalled one 
fur nogata in the twelfth century. The grivna in the tenth century 
was actually about \ , in the eleventh and earlier twelfth centuries 
about i, and in the later twelfth and thirteenth centuries only a } , of 
alb. " ' 

The Rouble was in the fifteenth century a bar of silver weighing 
about \\h. and was worth approximately ten roubles of the present 
day, i.e., about £1 sterhng. One rouble coniQ.\ne6. 100 dengi, a small 
silver coin worth about ten kopeks of the present day, or 2|d. 
One denga (a Tartar word, meaning " money ") contained four 
pochki {pochka, lit. kidney, the smallest unit in old Russian weights). 

Kad is the same as the osminka, which latter contained four 
chetveriki, equal to about 11| pecks. 

A Verst or poprisftche is about two-thirds of a mile, or 1,067 metres. 



NOTE ON THE BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The best general critical accounts of the Republic of Novgorod, 
its organization and its life, are perhaps by (i) V. O. Klyuchevsky 
History of Russia, Vol. I, Chs. xix-xx (English trans., C. J. Hogarth, 
1911, pp. 319-368 of Vol. I); (2) K. Bestujev-Ryumin, History of 
Russia, Vol. I, Ch. vi (German trans., T. Schiemann, 1877, Vol. I, 
pp. 230-274). 

The reader may also refer to N. Karamzin, History of Russia, and 
S. Solovev, History of Russia. Karamzin, after his manner, does 
not devote any particular section to Novgorod, but refers to the 
history of the Republic in nearly every chapter of Vols. II, III, 
IV. V (e.g.. Vol. II, Chs. 2, 7, 9, 10, 12-16; Vol. Ill, Chs. i, 3-8; 
Vol. IV, Chs. i-ii; Vol. V, Chs. 1-4 [only 4 chs. in vol.] See also 
references in notes to the Introduction of this vol., e.g. pp. xxvii, xxviii.) 

The following works, additional to those cited in the text, and in 
the preceding paragraphs, in many cases studies on particular aspects 
of Novgorod life and history, mostly un-translated, are among the 
chief authorities : 

Andreevski, On the Trade of Novgorod with the German Towns 
frovi i2jo; 

Antiquitds Russes, esp. Vol. II; 

Barsov, Materials for the Historical Geography of the Slavs; 

Belaev, Narratives from Russiaji History, 1863 ; 

Documents of Russian Livonia, 1868; 

Eugenius the Metropolitan, Discourses on Old Novgorod; 

Kazan Academy Journal, 1863, Remarks on the Organization of the 
Old Novgorod Hierarchy; 

Kostomarov, North Russian Communities, 1S63, and Origins of 
Russia; 

Krazov, On the Position of Old Novgorod, 1851; 

Kunizin, History of the Old Law of Russia; 

Malkovski, Critical Researches on the Origin of Great Novgorod; 

Muravev, Historical Researches on Old Novgorod, 1828; 

Nikitski, Pictures of the Life of Great Novgorod; 

Passek, Independent Novgorod; 

Slavenski, Survey of the Trade Relations of Novgorod; 

Solovev, Relations of Novgorod with the Grand Princes of Russia; 

Zamyslovski, Russian Historical Atlas. 



224 THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 

All these are only to be had in Russian. To them add : 
Behrmann, De Skra von Nougarten; 

Ewers, Studien zur grundlichen Kenntniss der Vorzeit Russlands; 
Lindner (Theodor), Die deutsche Hanse, Leipzig, igti ; 
Miiller, Kurze Nachrichten uber die Anfiinge Nowgorods; 
Riesenkampf , Der deutsche Hof zu Nowgorod; 
Urkunden iiher die Beziehungen des N.-W. Russland . . . wid den 
Hanse-Stddten, 1857. 



225 



INDEX 



Afanasi (Danilovich, Knyaz of 
Novgorod), 119, 120, 121, 122. 

Alexander, Aleksander (Dmitrie- 
vich, Knyaz of Moscow), 1 1 1 . 

— (Mikhailovich, Knyaz of 
Vyazma), 176. 

— — Veliki Knyaz of Tver), 
122-125, 127-129, 131-133. 

— (Vasilievich, Knyaz of Suz- 
dal), 125. 

— (Vsevolodovich, Knyaz of 
Dubrovits), 66. 

— - — ifrtya^ of Pskov), 137. 

— (Yaroslavich, called " Nev- 
ski," Veliki Knyaz), 71, 72, 
75, 81, 84-87, 92, 94-98, 125, 
140. 

Alexei, Aleksei (Metropolitan of 
Russia), 146-148, 154, 156. 

Alexei, Aleksei [Vladyka of Nov- 
gorod). 147-151. 154-157. 159- 
163. 

Alexei, Aleksei (Alexis Manuilo- 
vich, Emperor), 32. 

— Ill (Emperor), 43-45. 

— IV (Isakovits, Emperor), 

43-45- 

— V ("Murzufl," "Murchufl," 
Emperor), 45-47. 

Anani {Posadnik of Novgorod), 

94. 95- 
Andrei (Aleksandrovich, Alex- 
androvich, Veliki Knyaz of 
Vladimir), 108-112, 114, 115. 

— (Dmitrievich, Knyaz of 
Mozhaisk), 173, 182. 

— (Georgievich, Veliki Knyaz 
of Vladimir), 23, 25-28. 



Andrei (Olgerdovich, Knyaz of 

Polotsk and of Pskov), 137, 

156, 167, 174. 
— • (Vasilievich, Knyaz), 212, 

216, 217. 
— ■ (Yaroslavich, Veliki Knyaz 

of Suzdal), 86, 93. 
Antoni {Vladyka of Novgorod), 

52, 53- 58, 61, 62, 68, 6g, 71, 

73,78- ■ 
Arkadi (Vladyka of Novgorod), 

21-24, 88. 
Arseni {Vladyka of Novgorod), 

63, 71. 

Baldwin (Count of Flanders), 

48. 
Baty, Batu (Tartar Tsar), 87-91. 
Belgorod (" White Town," town 

near Kiev), 23. 
Belo-Ozero (White Lake," lake 

and district in N. Russia), 134, 

171. 
Belozersk (town, on Belo-Ozero), 

171. 
Besermeny (sc. Mussulmans), 202. 
Bezhitsy {Bezhitski Verkh, " the 

Bezhits Upper " district and 

town, E. of Novgorod, N. of 

Moscow), 40, 92, 106, 118, 128, 

169, 170, 194, 195, 198, 200, 

201. 
Black River v. Chernaya. 
Bogdan (Obakunovich, Posadnik 

of Novgorod), 164-166, 169. 
Bohemians v. Chekhi. 
Bolgar, Bulgar (country and 

people), 32, 81. 

O 



226 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



Boniface (Marquess of I\Iont- 

ferrat), 47. 
Boris {Aleks-[ex]-androvich, A'wy- 

a2of Tver), 201, 204. 

— (Andre^^evich, Knyaz of 
Novgorod), 114. 

— (Danilovich, Knyaz of Mos- 
cow), 121. 

— (Romanovich, Knyaz), 38. 

— e (Vasilievich, Knyaz of Ros- 
tov), 90. 

— (Vasilievich, Knyaz), 212, 
216, 217. 

— (Vseslavits, Knyaz of Po- 
lotsk), II. 

Brest (town in Poland), 2. 
Bryacheslav [Knyaz of Polotsk), 

84. 
Bryansk (town, S.W. of Moscow, 

on the r. Desna, a tributary of 

the Dnieper), 127, 136, 175, 

201. 
Bryn (town), 72. 

Chekhi, Chekhs, Czechs (Bohe- 
mians), 61. 

Cherekha (river), 144. 

Chernaya (" Black," river), 117. 

Chernigov (town), 6, 8, 13, 14, 
21, 23, 38-40, 49, 53, 66-68, 
7--75. 77. 80. 127, 184. 

Chertoriski, Czartoryski (Princes 
Alexander and Ivan), 197. 

Chud (or Peipus, lake), 34, 52, 
87, 200. 

— people (a Finnish tribe), S, 
9, 12, 13, 17, 29, 30, 34, 35, 
52. 58, 63, 70, 81, 86, 87, 95, 
loi, 139. 

Constantinople, cf. Tsargrad. 
Cracow (King of, sc. Poland), 
143- 

Dalmat [Vladyka of Novgorod), 
93-95.97. 107- 



Danil (Aleksandrovich, Alexan- 
dre vich, Knyaz of Moscow), 
109. 

— ( — , Knyaz of Pskov), 178, 

179- 

— (Borisovich, Knyaz), 180. 

— (Romanovich, Knyaz of 
Galich), 80. 

David (Mstislavich, Knyaz of 
Toropets), 52, 68. 

— (Rostislavich, Knyaz of 
Vyshegorod and Smolensk), 
21, 22, 32, 33, 38. 

— (Svyatoslavich, Kfiyaz of 
Chernigov), 7-9. 

— (i^«y«2 of Lithuania), 122. 

— [Vladyka of Novgorod), 
116, 118, 121, 123. 

Dandolo (Doge), 48. 

Desna (river, tributary of the 
Dnieper), 8. 

Dmitri (Aleks-[ex]-androvich, Ve- 
liki Knyaz of Vladimir), 97-99, 
loi, 102, 104, 106-112. 

— (Ivanovich, loannovich, 
called " Donskoi," " of the 
Don," Veliki Knyaz of Mos- 
cow), 150, 154, 156-159, 161, 
163. 

— • (Konstantinovich, Veliki 
Knyaz of Suzdal), 148, 156. 

— (Mikhailovich, Veliki Knyaz 
of Tver), 119, 121, 122, 124. 

— (Romanovich, Knyaz of 
Bryansk), 117. 

— (Yuiievich, or Georgievich, 
" Shemyaka," Knyaz), 198, 
204, 205. 

Dmitrov (town, N. of Moscow), 
83, 92, 109, III, 159, 186. 

Dnieper, Dnyepr (river), i, 2, 8, 
53, 65, 66. 

Don (river), 157. 

Donia, Denmark, 12, 13, 115. 

Dorpat (town) v. Yurev. 

Dovmont [Knyaz of Lithuania 



THE CHRONICLE 

and of Pskov), loo, loi, io8, 
113, 114. 

Dryutsk (town), 31. 

Dunai (river), 8. 

Dvina (river, sc. Western, flow- 
ing into the Baltic), 100. 

— (river, sc. Northern, flowing 
into the White Sea), 123, 130, 
138, 169-172, 175, 181, 203, 
211, 218, 219. 

Elets vtown and district, S.E. of 

Moscow), 183. 
Eufemi I [Vladyka of Novgorod), 

191, 192. 

— II {Vladyka of Novgorod), 
192-204. 

Evnuti (loan Gediminovich, 
Knyaz of Lithuania), 140. 

Fedori (Aleks-[ex]-androvich, 
Knyaz of Tver), 133. 

— ( — Aleks-[ex]-androvich, 
/■^wya^ of Rostov), 170, 171. 

— (Georgievich, Knyaz of 
Smolensk), 182. 

— (Yaroslavich, Knyaz), 71, 

72, 75. 77. 78 

— (i^wya^: of Kiev), 127. 

— (F/adyAa of Novgorod), 5, 6. 
Feodosi, [Vladyka of Novgorod), 

191, 192. 
Feofil {Vladyka of Novgorod), 

207, 209, 217, 218. 
Feognast (Metropolitan), 129, 

136, 139, 140. 145- 
Feoktist {Vladyka of Novgorod), 

114, 116, 117. 
Foti (Metropolitan), 180, 181, 

184, 191, 193. 
Franks, The {Fryazi), 44-48. 

Galich (town in Ruthenia, Red 
Russia, or Galicia, and dis- 

1 Pronounced F;'drfor= TTieodore, similarly 
Feof il= Theophilus, etc. 



OF NOVGOROD 227 

trict W. of Kiev called Galich 
Chervenski), 18, 52, 59, 61, 
64, 80, 127. 

— (town N. of the Volga 
called Galich Merski or Volo- 
dinierski), 171. 

Gavrilo, Gabriel {Vladyka of 
Novgorod), 27, 30-36. 

Gedimin {Veliki Knyaz of Lithu- 
ania), 124, 127, 129, 136. 

Georgi (Gyurgi or Yuri Andreye- 
vich, Knyaz of Novgorod), 
27. 28. 

— ( — , Knyaz of Novgorod and 
Suzdal), 100-103. 

— ( — Danilowich, VelikiKnyaz), 
115, 119, 121-123, 132. 

— (— Dmitrievich, Knyaz), 
178, 184, 185, 193, 194. 

■ — ( — Igorevich, Knyaz of 
Ryazan), 81, 82. 

— ( — Mstislavich, Knyaz of 
Pskov), 77, 78. 

— ( — Narimontovich, Knyaz 
of Lithuania), 157. 

— ( — Patrikievich, Knyaz), 

195- 

— ( — Simeonovich or Lug- 
venich, Knyaz), 193, 196, 197, 
200, 201. 

— ( — Svyatoslavich, Veliki 
Knyaz of Smolensk), 167, 175- 
178, 182. 

— ( — Vasilievich, Knyaz), 
212, 216, 217. 

— ( — Vladimirovich, called 
Dolgoruki = " Long-arm," 
Veliki Knyaz), 16, 17, 19-22. 

— ( — Vsevolodovich, Veliki 
Knyaz), 56, 57, 61-64, ^7- 
Si-83. 

Gerden {Knyaz of Lithuania), 

100. 
Germans, v. Nemisy. 
Gleb (Georgievich, Knyaz of 

Pereyaslavl), 27. 

Q2 



228 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



Gleb (Rostislavich, Knyaz of 
Ryazan), 29. 

— ( — , Knyaz of Smolensk), 
104. 

— (Svyatoslavich, Knyaz of 
Novgorod), 5, 6. 

— ( — , Knyaz o Bryansk), 
136. 

— (Vladimirovich, Knyaz of 
Ryazan), 49, 59, 60. 

— (Vseslavich, Knyaz of Po- 
lotsk), 63. 

Gorodishche ("the fort," or "cit- 
adel," near Novgorod), 7, 24, 
35. 37. 42, 43. 60, 62, 74, 77, 
94, 97, 104, 105, 122, 137, 
139, 194, 200 (of. also Radilov). 

Goths, Goth Coast (so. Gothland), 
12,34,164. 

Great river, v. Velikaya. 

Greeks, 3, 46, 47, 141. 

Greek (land, the), 44, 48. 

Gyurgev, v. Yurev. 

Gyurgi = Georgi, q.v. 

Holm (see Kholm) 

Horde, the [Or da, " the Camp," 
the Tartar headquarters), 87, 
88, 92, 105, 119, 121-125, 
127, 129-135, 138-140, 148, 
157, 160, 161, 165, 182, 193, 
203. 

Horuzhk v. Khoruzhk. 

Hungary, Hungarians [Ugry), 
61,88, 182. 

Igor (Olegovich, Veliki Knyaz of 
Kiev), 19. 

— (Svyatoslavich, Knyaz of 
Novgorod-Seversk, near Kiev), 

39- 

Ilmen (lake at the N. end of 
which lies Novgorod), 18, 71, 
108, 177, 211, 213, 219. 

Ilya (sc. Elias, Vladyka of Nov- 
gorod), 24, 27, 28, 30-33. 



Ingvor (Igorevich, Knyaz of 

Ryazan), 59, 81. 
loan (sc. Ivan, John, Vladyka of 

Novgorod), 8, 12. 

— ( — Vladyka of Nov- 
gorod), 162-170, 172-175, 177, 
179, 181-185. 

— • ( — ■ of Novgorod). 207. 

— (VI, Cantacuzene, Emperor) 
146. 

— - (Ivan Andreyevich, Knyaz 
of Mozhaisk), 203, 204. 

— ( — Danilovich, called 
" Kalita," Veliki Knyaz of 
Moscow), 124, 125, 127-130, 

132-134- 

( — Dmitrievich, Knyaz of 

Nizhni Novgorod), 156. 
— • ( — Ivanovich, Veliki 

Knyaz of Moscow), 142, 145. 

— ( — — Knyaz), 212. 

— ( — Mikhailovich, Knyaz of 
Tver), 182, 192. 

— ( — Svyatoslavich, Knyaz 
of Vyazma), 176. 

— ( — Vasilievich, Knyaz), 
185. 

— ( — — , Veliki Knyaz of 
all Russia, sc. Ivan III "the 
Great "), 205-219. 

— ( — Vladimirovich, Knyaz 
of Lithuania), 200, 201. 

— ( — Yaroslavich, Knyaz of 
Ryazan), 121, 125. 

Isaac II (Emperor), 43, 44. 
Isidor (Metropolitan), 195-197, 

208. 
Isles [land of ,Ostrovskaya Zemlya) 

139- 
Izborsk (town near Pskov, at 

the S. end of lake Chud), 78, 

85. 137. 151. 152, 164. 
Izhera (river, country and 

people), 69, 84, 86, 105, in, 

120, 142, 200, 201. 
Izyaslav (Davidovich, Knyaz of 



THE CHRONICLE 

Chernigov, Veliki Knyaz of 
Kiev), 21-23. 
Izyaslav (Glebovich, Knyaz), 

32. 
• — (Ingvorovich, Knyaz), 66. 
• — ■ Mstislavich, Veliki Knyaz 

of Kiev), 13, 19-21. 

— (Vladimirovich, Knyaz of 
Ryazan), 49, 59. 

— ( — , Knyaz of Seversk), 
80. 

— (christened Dmitri, Yaros- 
lavich, Veliki Knyaz of Kiev), 
4-6. 

— -Mikhail (Yaroslavich, A'ny- 
rtz), 34,41. 

Jagiello (Yagailo Olgerdovich, 

King of Poland), 180, 182. 
Jews, 202. 

Kalaksha (river), 7, 29, 57. 

Kalka (river), 65, 66. 

Kama (river, tributary of the 

Volga), 123, 128. 
Kashin (town near Tver, E. of 

Novgorod), 125. 
Kasimir-Andrei (Yagailovich, 

King of Poland), Veliki 

Knyaz of Lithuania), 197, 

200, 201. 
Kasog (people), 64. 
Kavgala (river), 117. 
Kes (i.e., Wenden, town in 

Livonia), 63, 70. 
Kegola (river), 10 1. 
Keksholm (" Korel town," on 

W. shore of lake Ladoga), 112, 

119, 122, 129, 132, 149, 160. 
Kestuti (Gediminovich, Knyaz 

of Lithuania), 140, 159. 
Khan, the, 88, 92. 
Kholm, 127, 184 
Khoruzhk (town), 34. 
Kiev (town), 1-5, 7-16, 18-28, 



OF NOVGOROD 



229 



43, 53. 58, 61, 66, 73, 76, 

80, 81, 88, 107, 108, 127, 147, 

174, 184, 189. 
Kiprian (Cyprian, Metropolitan 

of Kiev), 155, 165-167, 169, 

170, 175, 177, 178. 
Kiril I (Cyril, Metropolitan of 

Kiev), 74, 78. 

— II (Cyiil, Metropolitan of 
Kiev), 93, 95, 98, 105, 108. 

Kliment (Clement, Vlaydka of 
Novgorod), 107, 108, 110-114, 
123. 

Klin (town), 12, 79, 179. 

Kolmogory, Kholmogori (town 
and district), 175, 185. 

Kolomno, Kolomna (town), 49, 
82, 159. 

Kolozhe (town), 177. 

Kolyvan (Revel, Reval, town), 
63, 70, loi, 103, 139, 164. 

Komen [Kanien Bely=" White 
Stone," town), 178. 

Konstantin (Dmitrievich, Kny- 
az), 179, 184, 189, 190. 

— (Ivanovich, Kyiyaz of 
Belozersk), 166, 167. 

— (Rostislavich, Knyaz), 97, 

lOI. 

— (Mikhailovich, Knyaz of 
Tver), 121, 125, 127, 134. 

(Vasilievich, Knyaz of Suz- 
dal), 134, 145. 

— (Vladimirovich, Knyaz of 
Ryazan), 59, 60. 

— (Vsevolodich, Knyaz of 
Rostov), 48, 49, 56, 57. 

Koporya (town on the S. shore 
of the Gulf of Finland), 86, 
95, 108, 129, 132, 138, 144, 
160, 166. 

Korel (district and people, Finns) 
18, 35, 69, 86. 93, 104, 105, 
107, 109, III, 112, 119, 120, 
129, 131-133. 167, 189, 191, 
201, 218. 



230 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



" Korel Town," v. Keksholm. 
Korichka (river), no. 
Kostroma (town, N.E. of Mos- 
cow, on the Volga), io6, 107, 

159- 

Kostyantin = Konstantin, q.v. 
Krichev (town), 197. 
Kuman (people), v. Polo vets. 
Kursk (town, S. of Moscow), 15. 
Kyuril (Metropolitan of All Rus- 
sia), 108. [See Kiril.] 

Ladoga (town and lake, N. of 

Novgorod), 8, 9, 12, 14, 17, 

21-24, 37. 41. 69, 84, 85, 96, 

,102, 105, 109, 118, 120, 121, 

125, 129, 131, 142, 160, 186. 

Letts (cf. Lotygola), 70. 

Lithuania, Lithuanians [Litva), 
32, 35, 41-43, 50, 52, 58, 63, 
64, 68, 73, 79-81, 86, 92, 93, 
96-100, no, 122-124, 127, 129, 
130, 137, 140, 152, 155-159. 
161, 166-168, 172-177, 179- 
184, 189, 192, 195-198, 200-202. 

Livonians [Lib), 61, 70. 

Lotygola (or Letgola, country and 
people, the Letts, part of 
Livonia), 42, 70, 87. 

Lovot (river flowing into lake 
Ilmen from the S.), 42, 79, 
123. 

Low Country (Niz, Nizovskaya 
zemlya, sc. the basin of the 
Volga, especially the Middle 
Volga, and the country round 
Suzdal, q.v.), 79, 86, 94-96, 
100, 103, 106, 107, 109, no, 
112, 114, 119-123, 128, 129, 
136, 140, 157. 

Lubeck {Luhek.tovfa in Germany) , 
164. 

Luga (river and district, N.W. 
of Novgorod), 86, 87, 141, 
160, 201. 

Luki (Velikiya, between Nov- 



gorod and Smolensk, town), 

24. 25, 32. 35.39. 41. 42. 51- 
Lutsk (town, W. of Kiev), 184. 
Lyakhi [i.e., the Poles, Poland), 

I, 5, 61, 180 (cf. also 143, 

198, 216). 
Lyubech (town), i. 
Lyuderev (town), 121. 
Lyudovl (town), 133. 

Magnus, Magnush (King of 
Sweden), 141-143. 

Manuel II (Palaeologus, Em- 
peror), 180. 

Marienburg (town in Prussia), 
180, 181. 

Martha (Boretskaya, Posadnitsa 
of Novgorod), 208, 209, 216. 

Marturi [Vladyka of Novgorod), 
36-41, 88. 

Medvezhya Golova (" Bear's 
Head," Chud town, the modern 
Odenpaa, near Yurev-Dorpat), 
9. 35. 52. 58. 78. 79, 85, 139. 

Minsk (town, W. of Smolensk and 
of Moscow), 124. 

Mikhail (Aleks-[ex]-androvich, 
Veliki Knyaz of Tver), 128, 
136, 153. 154, 160, 173. 

— - ( — Knyaz), 207. 

— (Andreyevich, Knyaz), 203, 
212. 

— (Davidovich, Knyaz of 
Yaroslavl), 135. 

— (Evnutievich, Knyaz of 
Lithuania), 174. 

— (Georgeievich, Veliki Knyaz 
of Vladimir), 27, 28. 

— (Sigismundovich, Knyaz of 
Lithuania), 197. 

— (Vsevolodovich, Knyaz of 
Pronsk), 49, 59. 

— (Vsevolodovich, Knyaz of 
Chernigov), 67, 72, 73, 75, 77, 
80, 88-92. 

— (Yaroslavich, Knyaz), 10 r. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



231 



Mikhail (Yaroslavich, Veliki Kny- 
az of Tver), 115, 116, 118-121. 

Mindovg, Mindvog {Veliki Knyaz 
of Lithuania), 98, 99. 

Mitrofan [Vladyka of Novgorod), 
41, 42, 50, 51, 59, 61-63, 78. 

— (Bishopof Volodimir),82, 83. 

— Moisei {Vladyka of Nov- 
gorod), 123-126, 129, 130, 144- 
149. 

Molvotitsy (town), 175. 

Moravia, 18. 

Moravians, 61. 

Mordva (people, Finns), 7. 

Morzh (island in the White Sea), 

185. 
Mosalsk (town, S.W. of Moscow), 

77- 

Moscow, 82, 83, 109, III, 116, 
119, 121, 123, 129, 131, 134, 
137, 140, 142, 155, 156, 158, 
159, 162, 163, 165-167, 169, 
176-185, 189, 191, 193-198, 
200, 201, 203, 207, 212, 219. 

INIouths, the {Usti, village on Lake 
Ladoga), 12, 120. 

Mozhaisk (town, W. of Moscow), 
182, 201. 

Msta (river flowing into lake 
Ilmen from the E.), 194, 204. 

Mstislav (Davidovich, Knyaz of 
Novgorod), 32, 33. 

— (Georgievich, Knyaz of Nov- 
gorod), 21, 22. 

— (Izyaslavich, Veliki Knyaz 
of Kiev), 23-27. 

— (Mstislavich, Knyaz of Nov- 
gorod), 43, 50-59, 61, 65, 66. 

— (Romanovich, Veliki Knyaz 
of Kiev), 53, 61, 64, 66. 

— (Rostislavich, Knyaz of 
Smolensk), 25, 30. 

— (Rostislavich, Knyaz), 23, 
28-30. 

— (Svyatoslavich, Knyaz of 
Chernigov), 66. 



Mstislav (Vladimirovich, Knyaz 

of Novgorod), 7-12. 
Mstislavl (town near Smolensk), 

197. 
Murman {i.e., Northmen, sc. 

also the coast W. of the 

White Sea facing the Arctic 

Ocean), 84, 133, 181, 189, 201, 

203. 
Murom (town on the r. Oka, E. 

of Moscow), 7, 26, 31, 81. 

Napryadva (river), 157. 

Narimont (Gleb Gediminovich, 
Veliki Knyaz of Lithuania), 
129, 132, 140. 

Narova, Narva (Ereva or Rugo- 
div, town, river, and district on 
the S. shore of the Gulf of 
Finland), 52, 93, 95, 100, 
loi, 104, 112, 139, 190, 200, 
201. 

Nemetski gorod v. Viborg. 

Nemsty (Germans, but sometimes 
also other foreigners of Ger- 
manic race, e.g. Swedes), 
34, 58, 61, 63, 70, 77-81. 
85-87. 93. loi. 103, 109, 113, 
117-119, 121, 122, 124, 131, 
132, 136, 137, 139, 142, 143, 
149-153, 158, 159, 163-165, 
167, 168, 178-182, 186, 189, 
190, 193, 200, 202. 

Nesvezh (town), 66. 

Neva (river flowing from Lake 
Ladoga into the Gulf of Fin- 
land), 69, 84, 109, 114, 122, 
131, 132, 165, 200. 

Nifont {Vladyka of Novgorod), 
12, 14, 18-21. 

Nikita {Vladyka of Novgorod), 8. 

Niz, Nizovskaya Zemlya, v. Low 
Country. 

Nizhni Novgorod (" Lower New 
Town," on the Volga), 156, 
165, 179, 180. 



232 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



Novgorod (" New Town," town 
and district, the subject of 
this Chronicle) passim. 

— First time called " Great 
Novgorod," 129 '> see also 
197. 

Novitorg (" Newmarket," town), 
V. Torzhok. 

Novogrodek (Novy Gorodok Ne- 
meiski, or " Neuhausen," town 
in W. Russia, on the r. Pivzha), 
137, 152, 153, 155, 178. 

Nukhia (river), 81, 82. 

Obez (people), 64. 

Okhta (river, tributary of the 

Neva), 114. 
Oka (river, tributary of the 

Volga), 49, 50. 
Oleg (Ingvorevich, Knyaz of 

Ryazan), 81. 

— (Ivanovich, Knyaz of 
Ryazan), 176. 

— (Svyatoslavich, Knyaz of 
Chernigov), 6, 9. 

Oleshe (town), 65. 

Olgerd, Olgierd (Alexander Gedi- 
minovich, Veliki Knyaz of 
Lithuania), 137, 140, 152, 

156- 
Olonets (town, N. of Novgorod), 

69. 
Onega (lake), 131 (cf. also 121). 
Omovyzh (Embach, river), 79. 
Opoka (" the Rock," town, near 

Novgorod), 125, 141. 
Orekhov(ets) (island and town, 

at the mouth of the Neva), 

122, 129, 131, 132, 141-144, 

160, 161, 165. 
Orlets (town), 138, 170, 171. 
Osechen (town), 130. 
Ostrechno (lake), 139. 
Ostrov (" Island," town, S. of 

Pskov, on the Velikaya river), 

202. 



Ovla (river), 155. 

Ovozha (Vozha, river), 156. 

Patriki (Narimontovich, Knyaz 
of Lithuania), 160, 169. 

Pecheneg (people), 2, 64. 

Pechera, Pechora (river and 
country), 33. 

Peremyshl (town, S.W. of Mos- 
cow, on the r. Oka), 62, 68, 
78, 127. 

Pereyaslavl (town near Kiev), 6, 
10, 12, 14, 19, 20. 

— [Zaleski, i.e., " beyond the 
forests," town N. of Moscow), 
28. 29. 31, 56, 57, 68, 70, 71, 
75. 77. 78, 83, 86, 101, 104, 108, 
109, 112, 121, 128, 159, 179. 

Perm (town in N.E. Russia), 184. 
Perna (river in Livonia), 117. 
Pertuyev (Pernov, town in 

Livonia), 61, 62. 
Peter (Dmitrevich, Knyaz), 177. 
Philip (German Emperor, Ne- 

metski Tsar), 44, 46. 

— (Metropolitan of all Ru.ssia), 
207, 209, 218. 

Pleskov (Pskov, town), 12, 14- 
16, 22, 25, 26, 29, 32, 34, 35, 
41- 52, 55. 58, 69-71, 77, 78, 
81, 85-87, 93, 94, 96, 100-103, 
111-113, 119-121, 125, 127- 
132, 136, 137, 139, 142, 144. 
145, 149-152, 156, 159, 160, 
163, 166-168, 174-179, 183, 
186, 188, 190, 191, 194, 196, 
197, 201, 207, 211. 

Poland, V. Lyakhi. 

Polotsk (town on the W. Dvina), 
5, 7, 15, 25, 26, 32, 35. 41, 63, 
78, 84, 96-98, 100, 124, 127, 
158, 178, 184, 197. 

Polovets (people, Polovtsy, Kitm- 
any). 4-8, 14, 23, 26, 38. 39, 
43, 59, 64-66, 80, 157. 

Porkh (Pirkel, town), 178. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



233 



Porkhov (town between Nov- 
gorod and Pskov), 141, 161, 
181, 186, 192, 194. 

Pripet, Pripyat (river, tributary 
of the Dnieper), 8. 

Pronsk (town), 49, 81. 

Prussia, 180. 

Prussians, Prussia Street (in 
Novgorod), 54, 60, 62, III, 
142, 143, 180. 

Pshaga (river), 141. 

Purdozna (river), 200. 

Pyana (river), 156. 

Radilov {Gorodets or Gorodishche, 
i.e., " small fortified town," 
on the Volga), 56, 57, 98, 109, 

115- 

Rakovor {i.e., Wesenberg, town 
near the S. shore of the Gulf 
of Finland), loi. 

Revel, cf. Kolyvan. 

Riga (town), 70, 81, lor, 164, 
178. 

Rodislav (Roslav Olegovich, 
Knyazoi'Rya.zs.n), 176. 

Roman (Glebovich, Knyaz of 
Smolensk), 112. 

■ — (Igorevich, Knyaz of Rya- 
zan), 59. 

■ — ■ (Ingvorevich, Knyaz of 
Ryazan), 81, 82. 

■ — (Mikhailovich, Knyaz of 
Bryansk), 175. 

— (Mstislavich, Knyaz of 
Galich), 26, 27, 43. 

— (Rostislavich, Knyaz of 
Smolensk, Veliki Knyaz of 
Kiev), 25, 27, 28, 30. 

■ — (Svyatoslavich, Knyaz of 

Tmutorokan), 6. 
Rome, Rim, 47, 197. 
Rostislav (Georgievich, Knyaz of 

Novgorod), 16, 17. 

— (Mikhailovich, Knyaz), 73- 
75- 



Rostislav (Mstislavich, Veliki 

Knyaz oi Kiev), 21-24. 
— ■ (Svyatoslavich, Knyaz of 

Ryazan), 59. 

— (Yaroslavich, Knyaz of 
Snovsk), 53. 

— ( — Knyaz), ^-j, 41. 
Rostov (town, N. of Moscow), 19, 

28, 29, 56, 67, 83, 114, 124, 
170, 171, 179, 184. 

Rugodiv, V. Narva. 

Rurik (Rostislavich, Knyaz of 
Novgorod, Veliki Knyaz of 
Kiev), 27, 43. 

Russa {Star ay a Rusa, " Old 
Rusa," town at S. end of Lake 
Ilmen), 25, 35-7, 40, 43-43, 
64, 68, 79, 105, 120, 152, 
160, 176, 180, 186, 194, 198- 
200, 202, 211, 219. 

Russia {Rus, in earlier time, 
usually, the basin of the 
Dnieper and the country of 
which Kiev was the centre, 
but later also used to include 
Moscow, and all Central Rus- 
sia, 5, 7, 12, 14, 17, 19, 20, 
22, 24, 25, 29-31, 42, 51-53. 
59, 62, 77, 78, 95, 98, 119, 
122, 129, 131, 138, 139, 145, 
146, 154, 163, 185, 197, 198, 
205-214, 216-219. 

Russian Land {Riisskaya Zemlya, 
usually used to denote all the 
Slavonic inhabitants of Great, 
Little and West Russia and 
the country occupied by 
them), 5, 7, 9, 13, 18, 21, 26, 
53, 64, 65, 84, 88, 105, 125. 
155-159, 162, 179, 191, 198, 
204, 205, 208. 

Ryasna (town), 130. 

Ryazan (town, S.E. of Moscow, 
on the r. Oka), 26, 29, 31, 49, 
50, 81, 82, 121, 124, 125, 128, 
163, 167, 168, 176, 179. 



234 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



Rzheva (town, river and dis- 
trict, S.E. of Novgorod), 55, 
119, 120, 194. 

Serpukhov (town, S. of Moscow), 

159, 179- 
Shelon (river which flows into 
Lake Ilraen from the W., and 
district), 58, 84, 108, 140, 

141, 144, 205, 214, 215. 
Sherensk (town), 77. 
Sidor, V. Isidor. 

Sigismund (Zhidimont Kestu- 
tievich, King of Poland, Veliki 
Knyaz of Lithuania), 195- 

197- 
Simeon (Dmitrievich, Knyaz of 
Suzdal), 165. 

— (Ivanovich, Veliki Knyaz 
of All Russia), 134-138, 140, 

142, 145. 

— (Olgerdovich, Knyaz of 
Lithuania, called Lugven), 
163, 165, 176, 178, 181, 182. 

— (F/arfyAa of Novgorod), 184- 
190. 

Sit (river), 83. 

Skirigailo (Olgerdovich, Knyaz 

of Lithuania), 158. 
Smolensk (town on the Dnieper), 

7, 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 25, 26, 

29, 30. 32, 33. 38. 53. 56, 59, 
62, 63, 72, 78, 96, 104, 135, 
140, 161, 163, 167, 175-177. 
183, 194, 197, 201. 

Snovsk (town), 5. 

Sozh (river), 6. 

Spiridon (Vladyka of Novgorod), 
73-75. 78, 87, 93- 

Sum (people), 84, 95, 121. 

Suzdal (Suzhdal, E. of Moscow, 
town), 13, 15-17, 19, 20, 26, 
27, 29-31, 83, 93, 98, 116, 
134, 148, 156, 159, 184, 203. 

Svei (Swedes, Sweden), 17, 24, 
84, 85, 93. 95. III. 112, 114, 



123, 131, 132, 141 143, 167, 
181, 203. 

Svidrigailo (Olgerdovich, Veliki 
i^wyaz of Lithuania), 192. 

Svyatopolk (Izyaslavich, Veliki 
Knyaz oi Kiev), 4, 7, 8. 

— (Mstislavich, Knyaz), 15, 17- 
19- 

— (Yaropolkovich, Veliki Kny- 
az oi Kiev), I, 2, 59. 

Svyatoslav (Ivanovich, Knyaz 
of Smolensk), 161. 

— (Mstislavich, Knyaz), 28, 
29. 

— ( — Knyaz), 59, 60, 78. 

— (Olegovich, Knyaz of Nov- 
gorod), 14-17, 20. 

— (Rostislavich, Knyaz of 
Novgorod), 22-25, 59- 

— (Vladimirovich, Knyaz of 
Pereyaslavl), 9. 

— (Vsevolodovich, Knyaz), 30, 
31.36. 

— (Gavril Vsevolodovich, /?«j'fl^ 
of Yurev), 41, 42, 48, 50, 51, 
56, 63. 

— (Yaroslavich, Veliki Knyaz 
of Kiev), 4, 5. 

— (Yaroslavich, Knyaz of 
Tver), 99, loi, 103, 106, 109, 
112. 

Swedes, see Svei. 

Tartars, Tatars [Tatary), 64-66, 
81-83, 87, 88, 92, 95-98,104-106, 
108, no. III, 119, 121, 123- 
125, 132, 133, 156-159, 173, 
174, 179, 180, 183, 201, 203. 

Taurmen (people), 64. 

Tesov (town), 78, 86. 

Tmutorokan (town on the coast 
of the Black Sea), 6. 

Toldoga (town), 132. 

Toropets (town, S. of Novgorod), 
25, 26, 51, 63, 68, 80, 84, 92, 
93. 131- 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



235 



Torzhok (" Little Market," often 
called otherwise Novi-Torg, 
" New Market," town, S.E. of 
Novgorod), i6, 19, 22, 25, 

29-31. 34. 38-41. 50. 51. 54-56. 
58, 61, 62, 67, 68, 72, 75, 
80, 81, 83, 92, 96, 106, 109, 112, 
116, 118-121, 125, 127, 128, 
130, 135, 136, 142, 150, 153, 

159, 166, 169, 170, 175, 186, 
200, 201, 204. 

Tovtivil {Knyaz of Polotsk), 97, 
98. 

Trepol (town), 7. 

Tsargrad (or Tsargorod, " Em- 
peror's town," Constanti- 
nople), 20, 21, 43-48, 51, 129, 
141, 145, 146, 159, 167, 178, 
180, 195, 196, 198, 210, 212. 

Turov (town, near Kiev), 184. 

Tver (town on the Volga, be- 
tween Novgorod and Moscow), 
30, 54, 56, 83, 92, 106, 109, 
112, 114, 115, 119-125, 132, 
134, 136, 147. 153, 154, 159, 

160, 173, 179, 182, 184, 186, 
192, 198, 200, 201, 204. 

Tvertsa (river, tributary of the 
Volga, into which it flows at 
Tver), 30, 55, 67, 153. 

Upper Country, v. Bezhitsy. 

Usti, " the Mouths," q.v. 

Ustyug (town on the N. Dvina, 
N.E. of Novgorod), 123, 125, 
166, 171, 185, 192, 211. 

Ustyuzhna (town and district, 
E. of Novgorod, on the 
river Mologa, a tributary of 
the Volga), 134, 166. 

Uza (Yuza, river, tributary of 
the Shelon), 145. 

Vanai (town), 117. 

Varangians (Scandinavians), 



Varangian Street, Church in 
Novgorod), I, 21, 31, 34, 43, 
58,113,118. 
Vasili (Aleks-[ex]-androvich, 

Knyaz of Novgorod), 93-96. 

— (Davidovich, Knyaz of 
Yaroslav), 132-134. 

— (Dmitrievich, Veliki Knyaz 
of Moscow), 160, 161, 163, 
165, 166, 169-173, 175-179, 
182, 184, 189-191. 

— (Georgievich, Knyaz), 194, 
195, 200. 

— (Ivanovich, Knyaz of 
Smolensk), 168. 

— (Konstantinovich, Knyaz of 
Rostov), 67. 

— (Mikhailovich, Knyaz of 
Tver), 125. 

— (Mstislavich, Knyaz), 58. 

— (Vasilievich, Veliki Knyaz of 
Moscow), 189, 193-195, 197, 
198, 201, 203, 205. 

— (Yaroslavich, Knyaz of Kos- 
troma, Veliki Knyaz), 104, 
106, 107. 

— ( — , Knyaz), 203. 

— (Grigori Kaleka, Vladyka 
of Novgorod), 126-133, 136- 
142, 144, 145. 

Velikaya {reka, the " Great 
River," which flows into Lake 
Chud from the S., and on 
which Pskov is situated), 103, 
151. 

Velyad (Velnev or Fellin, town in 
Livonia), 85, loi, 139, 149-151, 
190. 

Viborg (called Nenietski gorodok, 
sc. " Swedish town," on N. 
shore of Gulf of Finland), 122, 
131, 132, 143, 181, 182. 

Vilna (town and river in Lithu- 
ania), 140, 197. 

Vitebsk (town, S.W. of Nov- 
gorod), 92, 129, 197. 



236 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



Vitovt (Kestutievich, Veliki 
/^ttyaz of Lithuania), 159, 166- 
168, 172-177, 180-184, 192. 

Vladimir = Volodimir, q.v. 

Vod (people, Finns), 5, 20, 54, 
86, 87, 105, 120, 132, 175, 
200, 201. 

Voishelg {Knyaz of Lithuania), 
99. 

Volga (river), 20, 25, 30, 55, 56, 
119, 150, 151, 154, 161. 

Volkhov (river flowing out of 
Lake Ilmen through Nov- 
gorod into Lake Ladoga), 11, 
12, 18, 29. 33, 67, 71, 74, 77, 
93, 100, 104, III, 120, 130, 
131, 134, 135, 140, 154. 155. 
162, 173, 176, 188, 190, 
219. 

Volodimir (Vladimir, town in 
Volynia in S.W. Russia), 19, 
20, 73, 127, 184. 

— ( — , Zaleski, i.e., " beyond 
the forests," town on the r. 
Klyazma, E. of Moscow), 27- 

29. 33. 40. 49, 57, 59, 63, 
81, 82, 98, 105, 109, III, 116, 
129, 148, 159, 180. 

— ( — Andreyevich, Knyaz), 
152, 154, 155, 157-159. 161, 
180. 

— (— Glebovich, Knyaz of 
Minsk), 25. 

— ( — Mstislavich, Knyaz), 

27- 
■ — ■ (— — Knyaz of Pskov), 
50, 52, 55-58, 68. 

— ( — - Rurikovich, Knyaz), 
56, 57. 61, 80. 

— ( — - Svyatoslavich, Knyaz 
of Novgorod and of Chernigov) 

30.31- 

— ( — Vsevolodich, " Mono- 
tnakh," Veliki Knyaz), 7-10. 

— ( — — Knyaz of Nov- 
gorod). 14. 



Volodimir (Vladimir Yaroslavl ch, 
Knyaz of Novgorod), 3, 4. 

Vologda (town and district, N. 
of Moscow), 106, 129, 151, 
166, 169-171. 

Volok (sc. Dvinsk, the portage 
or watershed between the 
basin of the Volga and of the 
Northern Dvina, otherwise 
called Zavoloche, the country 
beyond the Volok or Dvinskaya 
Zemlya, the Dvina-Land), 6, 
26, 33, 40, 123, 130, 138, 161, 
169-171, 175, 181, 185, i8g, 
192, 194, 202, 203, 211, 218. 

Volok (sc. Lamsk, town and dis- 
trict, S.E. of Novgorod, N.W. 
of Moscow), 29, 56, 73, 83, 
106, III, 112, 159, 166, 169, 

194. 195- 

Volynia (in S.W. Russia, dis- 
trict), 126, 127, 143. 

Voronach (town), 177, 192. 

Voronazh, Voronezh (river and 
district, S. of Moscow), 81, 
82. 

Vorskla (river), 173. 

Vosvyat (lake), 63, 68, 92. 

Vseslav {Knyaz of Polotsk), 4, 5, 

7- 
Vsevolod (Borisovich, Knyaz of 
Pskov), 52. 

— (Georgievich, Veliki Knyaz 
of Vladimir), 28-33, 38-42, 
48-51. 

— ( — Knyaz), 62, 63, 67, 82. 

— (Mstislavich, Knyaz of Nov- 
gorod and Pskov), 9-15. 

— ( — , Knyaz of Pskov, Nov- 
gorod, and Smolensk), 61, 62. 

— (Olegovich, Veliki Knyaz of 
Kiev), 14-17, 19. 

■ — (Svyatoslavich, Knyaz), 52, 

53- 
- — (Yaroslavich, Veliki Knyaz 
of Kiev), 4, 5, 7. 



THE CHRONICLE OF NOVGOROD 



237 



Vyacheslav (Borisovich, Knyaz), 
64. 

— (Svyatoslavich, Knyaz of 
Polotsk), 25. 

— (Vladimirovich, Knyaz of 
Turov), 16, 20, 21. 

Vyatka (town in N.E. Russia), 

185, 211. 
Vyazma (town, W. of Moscow), 

176, 201. 
Vyshegorod (town near Kiev), 

5.9,28,53. 

Wenden, cf. Kes. 

Yagailo (Jagiello, Veliki Knyaz 
of Lithuania), 158, 159. 

Yama, Yaniski gorodok (Yam- 
burg, town near Narva, N.W. 
of Novgorod), 167, 169, 200. 

Yaropolk (Rostislavich, Knyaz 
of Novgorod), 28-31. 

— (Vladimirovich, Veliki Kny- 
az oi Kiev), 12, 13, 16. 

— (Yaroslavich, Knyaz), 40, 

53- 
Yaroslav (Georgievich, Knyaz), 
16. 

— (Izyaslavich, Knyaz of 
Novgorod, Veliki Knyaz of 
Kiev), 19, 21, 28. 

— (Svyatopolkovich, Knyaz of 
Vladimir or Volodimir in 
Volynia), 8. 

— (Vladimirovich, Veliki Knyaz 
of Kiev), 1-4. 

— ( — , Knyaz of Novgorod), 
31-42. 



Yaroslav (Vladimirovich, A'wya^), 
78. 

— (Vsevolodovich, Knyaz of 
Novgorod, Veliki Knyaz of 
Kiev and Vladimir), 29, 50, 
53-57, 61, 63, 67-73, 75, 77-80, 
86-88, 92, 116. 

— ( — , Knyaz of Chernigov), 

38. 39- 

— (Yaroslavich, Knyaz of Nov- 
gorod), 94, 97, 99-101, 103-106. 

— [Knyaz oi'^lurom), •]. 
Yaroslavl (town on the Volga), 

20, 82, 134. 
Yas (people), 64. 
Yatvyag (people), 8. 
Yem (people, Finns), 3, 10, 17, 

20, 32, 35, 68, 84, 95, III, 

117, 138. 
Yugra (country and people in 

N.E. Russia and Siberia), 33, 

36, 37, 123, 125, 202. 
Yuri = Georgi, q.v. 
Yurev (Gyurgev, i.e. Ytirev Ne- 

metski, sc. Dorpat, town, W. of 

Novgorod), 13, 35, 64, 79, 97, 

loi, 125, 129, 139, 143, 149- 

151, 164. 

— [Polski, so called because 
situated in open treeless coun- 
try {pole), town, N.E. of 
Moscow), 83, 159. 

Zarub (town), 65. 

Zavoloche, the country beyond 

the portage [Volok), v. Volok 

(sc. Dvinsk). 
Zubchev (town), 56. 



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